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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The preventive role of an intraoperative recruitment maneuver plus open lung approach (RM + OLA) ventilation on postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC) remains unclear. We aimed at investigating whether an intraoperative open lung condition reduces the risk of developing a composite of PPCs. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of two randomized controlled trials including patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Patients were classified according to the intraoperative lung condition as "open" (OL) or "non-open" (NOL) if PaO2 /FIO2 ratio was ≥ or <400 mmHg, respectively. We used a multivariable logistic regression model that included potential confounders selected with directed acyclic graphs (DAG) using Dagitty software built with variables that were considered clinically relevant based on biological mechanism or evidence from previously published data. PPCs included severe acute respiratory failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and pneumonia. RESULTS: A total of 1480 patients were included in the final analysis, with 718 (49%) classified as OL. The rate of severe PPCs during the first seven postoperative days was 6.0% (7.9% in the NOL and 4.4% in the OL group, p = .007). OL was independently associated with a lower risk for severe PPCs during the first 7 and 30 postoperative days [odds ratio of 0.58 (95% CI 0.34-0.99, p = .04) and 0.56 (95% CI 0.34-0.94, p = .03), respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: An intraoperative open lung condition was associated with a reduced risk of developing severe PPCs in intermediate-to-high risk patients undergoing abdominal surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02158923 (iPROVE), NCT02776046 (iPROVE-O2).

2.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 38(1): 41-48, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) prevents peri-operative atelectasis in adults, but its effect in children has not been quantified. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of CPAP in preventing postinduction and postoperative atelectasis in children under general anaesthesia. DESIGN: A randomised controlled study. SETTING: Single-institution study, community hospital, Mar del Plata. Argentina. PATIENTS: We studied 42 children, aged 6 months to 7 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class I, under standardised general anaesthesia. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomised into two groups: Control group (n = 21): induction and emergence of anaesthesia without CPAP; and CPAP group (n = 21): 5 cmH2O of CPAP during induction and emergence of anaesthesia. Lung ultrasound (LUS) imaging was performed before and 5 min after anaesthesia induction. Children without atelectasis were ventilated in the same manner as the Control group with standard ventilatory settings including 5 cmH2O of PEEP. Children with atelectasis received a recruitment manoeuvre followed by standard ventilation with 8 cmH2O of PEEP. Then, at the end of surgery, LUS images were repeated before tracheal extubation and 60 min after awakening. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Lung aeration score and atelectasis assessed by LUS. RESULTS: Before anaesthesia, all children were free of atelectasis. After induction, 95% in the Control group developed atelectasis compared with 52% of patients in the CPAP group (P < 0.0001). LUS aeration scores were higher (impaired aeration) in the Control group than the CPAP group (8.8 ±â€Š3.8 vs. 3.5 ±â€Š3.3 points; P < 0.0001). At the end of surgery, before tracheal extubation, atelectasis was observed in 100% of children in the Control and 29% of the CPAP group (P < 0.0001) with a corresponding aeration score of 9.6 ±â€Š3.2 and 1.8 ±â€Š2.3, respectively (P < 0.0001). After surgery, 30% of children in the Control group and 10% in the CPAP group presented with residual atelectasis (P < 0.0001) also corresponding to a higher aeration score in the Control group (2.5 ±â€Š3.1) when compared with the CPAP group (0.5 ±â€Š1.5; P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The use of 5 cmH2O of CPAP in healthy children of the studied age span during induction and emergence of anaesthesia effectively prevents atelectasis, with benefits maintained during the first postoperative hour. TRIAL REGISTRY: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03461770.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Atelectasia Pulmonar , Adulto , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Criança , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Atelectasia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Atelectasia Pulmonar/etiologia , Atelectasia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Ultrassonografia
3.
Ultrasound J ; 12(1): 34, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary atelectasis in anesthetized children is easily reverted by lung recruitment maneuvers. However, the high airways pressure reached during the maneuver could negatively affect hemodynamics. The aim of this study is to assess the effect and feasibility of a postural lung recruitment maneuver (P-RM); i.e., a new maneuver that opens up the atelectatic lung areas based on changing the child's body position under constant ventilation with moderated driving pressure (12 cmH2O) and of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP, 10 cmH2O). Forty ASA I-II children, aged 6 months to 7 years, subjected to general anesthesia were studied. Patients were ventilated with volume control mode using standard settings with 5 cmH2O of PEEP. They were randomized into two groups: (1) control group (C group, n = 20)-ventilation was turned to pressure control ventilation using a fixed driving pressure of 12 cmH2O. PEEP was increased from 5 to 10 cmH2O during 3 min maintaining the supine position. (2) P-RM group (n = 20)-patients received the same increase in driving pressure and PEEP, but they were placed, respectively, in the left lateral position, in the right lateral position (90 s each), and back again into the supine position after 3 min. Then, ventilation returned to baseline settings in volume control mode. Lung ultrasound-derived aeration score and respiratory compliance were assessed before (T1) and after (T2) 10 cmH2O of PEEP was applied. RESULTS: At baseline ventilation (T1), both groups showed similar aeration score (P-RM group 9.9 ± 1.9 vs C group 10.4 ± 1.9; p = 0.463) and respiratory compliance (P-RM group 15 ± 6 vs C group 14 ± 6 mL/cmH2O; p = 0.517). At T2, the aeration score decreased in the P-RM group (1.5 ± 1.6 vs 9.9 ± 2.1; p < 0.001), but remained without changes in the C group (9.9 ± 2.1; p = 0.221). Compliance was higher in the P-RM group (18 ± 6 mL/cmH2O) when compared with the C group (14 ± 5 mL/cmH2O; p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Lung aeration and compliance improved only in the group in which a posture change strategy was applied.

4.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 34(5): 1015-1024, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654282

RESUMO

To evaluate the use of non-invasive variables for monitoring an open-lung approach (OLA) strategy in bariatric surgery. Twelve morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery received a baseline protective ventilation with 8 cmH2O of positive-end expiratory pressure (PEEP). Then, the OLA strategy was applied consisting in lung recruitment followed by a decremental PEEP trial, from 20 to 8 cmH2O, in steps of 2 cmH2O to find the lung's closing pressure. Baseline ventilation was then resumed setting open lung PEEP (OL-PEEP) at 2 cmH2O above this pressure. The multimodal non-invasive variables used for monitoring OLA consisted in pulse oximetry (SpO2), respiratory compliance (Crs), end-expiratory lung volume measured by a capnodynamic method (EELVCO2), and esophageal manometry. OL-PEEP was detected at 15.9 ± 1.7 cmH2O corresponding to a positive end-expiratory transpulmonary pressure (PL,ee) of 0.9 ± 1.1 cmH2O. ROC analysis showed that SpO2 was more accurate (AUC 0.92, IC95% 0.87-0.97) than Crs (AUC 0.76, IC95% 0.87-0.97) and EELVCO2 (AUC 0.73, IC95% 0.64-0.82) to detect the lung's closing pressure according to the change of PL,ee from positive to negative values. Compared to baseline ventilation with 8 cmH2O of PEEP, OLA increased EELVCO2 (1309 ± 517 vs. 2177 ± 679 mL) and decreased driving pressure (18.3 ± 2.2 vs. 10.1 ± 1.7 cmH2O), estimated shunt (17.7 ± 3.4 vs. 4.2 ± 1.4%), lung strain (0.39 ± 0.07 vs. 0.22 ± 0.06) and lung elastance (28.4 ± 5.8 vs. 15.3 ± 4.3 cmH2O/L), respectively; all p < 0.0001. The OLA strategy can be monitored using noninvasive variables during bariatric surgery. This strategy decreased lung strain, elastance and driving pressure compared with standard protective ventilatory settings.Clinical trial number NTC03694665.

5.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(1): 110-120, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to examine whether using a high fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) in the context of an individualised intra- and postoperative open-lung ventilation approach could decrease surgical site infection (SSI) in patients scheduled for abdominal surgery. METHODS: We performed a multicentre, randomised controlled clinical trial in a network of 21 university hospitals from June 6, 2017 to July 19, 2018. Patients undergoing abdominal surgery were randomly assigned to receive a high (0.80) or conventional (0.3) FIO2 during the intraoperative period and during the first 3 postoperative hours. All patients were mechanically ventilated with an open-lung strategy, which included recruitment manoeuvres and individualised positive end-expiratory pressure for the best respiratory-system compliance, and individualised continuous postoperative airway pressure for adequate peripheral oxyhaemoglobin saturation. The primary outcome was the prevalence of SSI within the first 7 postoperative days. The secondary outcomes were composites of systemic complications, length of intensive care and hospital stay, and 6-month mortality. RESULTS: We enrolled 740 subjects: 371 in the high FIO2 group and 369 in the low FIO2 group. Data from 717 subjects were available for final analysis. The rate of SSI during the first postoperative week did not differ between high (8.9%) and low (9.4%) FIO2 groups (relative risk [RR]: 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59-1.50; P=0.90]). Secondary outcomes, such as atelectasis (7.7% vs 9.8%; RR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.48-1.25; P=0.38) and myocardial ischaemia (0.6% [n=2] vs 0% [n=0]; P=0.47) did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: An oxygenation strategy using high FIO2 compared with conventional FIO2 did not reduce postoperative SSIs in abdominal surgery. No differences in secondary outcomes or adverse events were found. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02776046.


Assuntos
Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Abdome/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/sangue , Oxiemoglobinas/análise , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo , Assistência Perioperatória , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Medicina de Precisão , Atelectasia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Atelectasia Pulmonar/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 34(1): 7-16, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152285

RESUMO

Capnography is a first line monitoring system in mechanically ventilated patients. Volumetric capnography supports noninvasive and breath-by-breath information at the bedside using mainstream CO2 and flow sensors placed at the airways opening. This volume-based capnography provides information of important body functions related to the kinetics of carbon dioxide. Volumetric capnography goes one step forward standard respiratory mechanics and provides a new dimension for monitoring of mechanical ventilation. The article discusses the role of volumetric capnography for the clinical monitoring of mechanical ventilation.


Assuntos
Capnografia/métodos , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Animais , Gasometria , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Cinética , Pulmão , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar , Espaço Morto Respiratório , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Relação Ventilação-Perfusão
7.
Respir Care ; 65(1): 11-20, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The difference between Bohr and Enghoff dead space are not well described in ARDS patients. We aimed to analyze the effect of PEEP on the Bohr and Enghoff dead spaces in a model of ARDS. METHODS: 10 pigs submitted to randomized PEEP steps of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 cm H2O were evaluated with the use of lung ultrasound images, alveolar-arterial oxygen difference (P(A-a)O2 ), transpulmonary mechanics, and volumetric capnography at each PEEP step. RESULTS: At PEEP ≥ 15 cm H2O, atelectasis and P(A-a)O2 progressively decreased while end-inspiratory transpulmonary pressure (PL), end-expiratory PL, and driving PL increased (all P < .001). Bohr dead space (VDBohr /VT), airway dead space (VDaw /VT), and alveolar dead space (VDalv /VTalv ) reached their highest values at PEEP 30 cm H2O (0.69 ± 0.10, 0.53 ± 0.13 and 0.35 ± 0.06, respectively). At PEEP <15 cm H2O, the increases in atelectasis and P(A-a)O2 were associated with negative end-expiratory PL and highest driving PL. VDBohr /VT and VDaw /VT showed the lowest values at PEEP 0 cm H2O (0.51 ± 0.08 and 0.32 ± 0.08, respectively), whereas VDalv /VTalv increased to 0.27 ± 0.05. Enghoff dead space and its derived VDalv /VTalv showed high values at low PEEPs (0.86 ± 0.02 and 0.79 ± 0.04, respectively) and at high PEEPs (0.84 ± 0.04 and 0.65 ± 0.12), with the lowest values at 15 cm H2O (0.77 ± 0.05 and 0.61 ± 0.11, respectively; all P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Bohr dead space was associated with lung stress, whereas Enghoff dead space was partially affected by the shunt effect.


Assuntos
Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Espaço Morto Respiratório , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Animais , Capnografia , Pulmão , Modelos Teóricos , Atelectasia Pulmonar , Suínos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
8.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 86(4): 404-415, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) negatively affect morbidity, healthcare costs and postsurgical survival. Preoperative and intraoperative peripheral oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) levels are independent risk factors for postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs). The air-test assesses the value of SpO2 while breathing room-air. We aimed at building a clinical score that includes the air-test for predicting the risk for PPCs. METHODS: This is a development and validation study in patients -randomly divided into two cohorts- from a large randomized clinical trial (iPROVE) that enrolled 964 intermediate-to-high risk patients scheduled for abdominal surgery. Arterial oxygenation was assessed on room-air in the preoperative period (preoperative air-test) and 3h after admission to the postoperative care unit (postoperative air-test). The air-test was defined as positive or negative if SpO2 was ≤96% or >96%, respectively. Positive air-tests were stratified into weak (93-96%) or strong (<93%). The primary outcome was a composite of moderate-to-severe PPCs during the first seven postoperative days. RESULTS: A total of 902 patients were included in the final analysis (542 in the development cohort and 360 in the validation cohort). Regression analysis identified five independent risk factors for PPC: age, type of surgery, pre- and postoperative air-test, and atelectasis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.75-0.82) when including these five independent predictors. We built a simplified score termed "air-test score" by using only the pre- and postoperative SpO2, resulting in an AUC of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.67-0.76) for the derivation and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.66-0.78) for the validation cohort, respectively. The air-test score stratified patients into four levels of risk, with PPCs ranging from <15% to >75%. CONCLUSIONS: The simple, non-invasive and inexpensive bedside air-test score, evaluating pre- and postoperatively SpO2 measured on room-air, helps to predict the risk for PPCs.


Assuntos
Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Atelectasia Pulmonar , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Pulmão , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Atelectasia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
10.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(9): 2492-2502, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928294

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this clinical trial is to examine whether it is possible to reduce postoperative complications using an individualized perioperative ventilatory strategy versus using a standard lung-protective ventilation strategy in patients scheduled for thoracic surgery requiring one-lung ventilation. DESIGN: International, multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial. SETTING: A network of university hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprises 1,380 patients scheduled for thoracic surgery. INTERVENTIONS: The individualized group will receive intraoperative recruitment maneuvers followed by individualized positive end-expiratory pressure (open lung approach) during the intraoperative period plus postoperative ventilatory support with high-flow nasal cannula, whereas the control group will be managed with conventional lung-protective ventilation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Individual and total number of postoperative complications, including atelectasis, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, pneumonia, acute lung injury; unplanned readmission and reintubation; length of stay and death in the critical care unit and in the hospital will be analyzed for both groups. The authors hypothesize that the intraoperative application of an open lung approach followed by an individual indication of high-flow nasal cannula in the postoperative period will reduce pulmonary complications and length of hospital stay in high-risk surgical patients.


Assuntos
Internacionalidade , Ventilação Monopulmonar/métodos , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida/métodos , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida/efeitos adversos
11.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 33(5): 815-824, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554338

RESUMO

To determine whether a classification based on the contour of the photoplethysmography signal (PPGc) can detect changes in systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) and vascular tone. Episodes of normotension (SAP 90-140 mmHg), hypertension (SAP > 140 mmHg) and hypotension (SAP < 90 mmHg) were analyzed in 15 cardiac surgery patients. SAP and two surrogates of the vascular tone, systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and vascular compliance (Cvasc = stroke volume/pulse pressure) were compared with PPGc. Changes in PPG amplitude (foot-to-peak distance) and dicrotic notch position were used to define 6 classes taking class III as a normal vascular tone with a notch placed between 20 and 50% of the PPG amplitude. Class I-to-II represented vasoconstriction with notch placed > 50% in a small PPG, while class IV-to-VI described vasodilation with a notch placed < 20% in a tall PPG wave. 190 datasets were analyzed including 61 episodes of hypertension [SAP = 159 (151-170) mmHg (median 1st-3rd quartiles)], 84 of normotension, SAP = 124 (113-131) mmHg and 45 of hypotension SAP = 85(80-87) mmHg. SAP were well correlated with SVR (r = 0.78, p < 0.0001) and Cvasc (r = 0.84, p < 0.0001). The PPG-based classification correlated well with SAP (r = - 0.90, p < 0.0001), SVR (r = - 0.72, p < 0.0001) and Cvasc (r = 0.82, p < 0.0001). The PPGc misclassified 7 out of the 190 episodes, presenting good accuracy (98.4% and 97.8%), sensitivity (100% and 94.9%) and specificity (97.9% and 99.2%) for detecting episodes of hypotension and hypertension, respectively. Changes in arterial pressure and vascular tone were closely related to the proposed classification based on PPG waveform.Clinical Trial Registration NTC02854852.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial , Fotopletismografia/métodos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipotensão/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Volume Sistólico , Vasoconstrição , Vasodilatação
12.
J Crit Care ; 45: 231-238, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29754942

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on Bohr's dead space (VDBohr/VT) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fourteen ARDS patients under lung protective ventilation settings were submitted to 4 different levels of PEEP (0, 6, 10, 16 cmH2O). Respiratory mechanics, hemodynamics and volumetric capnography were recorded at each protocol step. RESULTS: Two groups of patients responded differently to PEEP when comparing baseline with 16-PEEP: those in which driving pressure increased > 15% (∆P˃15%, n = 7, p = .016) and those in which the change was ≤15% (∆P≤15%, n = 7, p = .700). VDBohr/VT was higher in ∆P≤15% than in ∆P≤15% patients at baseline ventilation [0.58 (0.49-0.60) vs 0.46 (0.43-0.46) p = .018], at 0-PEEP [0.50 (0.47-0.54) vs 0.41 (0.40-0.43) p = .012], at 6-PEEP [0.55 (0.49-0.57) vs 0.44 (0.42-0.45) p = .008], at 10-PEEP [0.59 (0.51-0.59) vs 0.45 (0.44-0.46) p = .006] and at 16-PEEP [0.61 (0.56-0.65) vs 0.47 (0.45-0.48) p = .001]. We found a good correlation between ∆P and VDBohr/VT only in the ∆P˃15% group (r = 0.74, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Increases in PEEP result in higher VDBohr/VT only when associated with an increase in driving pressure.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Capnografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Espaço Morto Respiratório , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia
14.
Front Vet Sci ; 5: 58, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29644221

RESUMO

The arterial to end-tidal CO2 difference (P(a-ET)CO2) and alveolar dead space fraction (VDalvfrac = P(a-ET)CO2/PaCO2), are used to estimate Enghoff's "pulmonary dead space" (V/QEng), a factor which is also influenced by venous admixture and other pulmonary perfusion abnormalities and thus is not just a measure of dead space as the name suggests. The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate which factors influence these CO2 indices in anesthetized spontaneously breathing horses. Six healthy adult horses were anesthetized in dorsal recumbency breathing spontaneously for 3 h. Data to calculate the CO2 indices (response variables) and dead space variables were measured every 30 min. Bohr's physiological and alveolar dead space variables, cardiac output (CO), mean pulmonary pressure (MPP), venous admixture [Formula: see text], airway dead space, tidal volume, oxygen consumption, and slope III of the volumetric capnogram were evaluated (explanatory variables). Univariate Pearson correlation was first explored for both CO2 indices before V/QEng and the explanatory variables with rho were reported. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed on P(a-ET)CO2 and VDalvfrac assessing which explanatory variables best explained the variance in each response. The simplest, best-fit model was selected based on the maximum adjusted R2 and smallest Mallow's p (Cp). The R2 of the selected model, representing how much of the variance in the response could be explained by the selected variables, was reported. The highest correlation was found with the alveolar part of V/QEng to alveolar tidal volume ratio for both, P(a-ET)CO2 (r = 0.899) and VDalvfrac (r = 0.938). Venous admixture and CO best explained P(a-ET)CO2 (R2 = 0.752; Cp = 4.372) and VDalvfrac (R2 = 0.711; Cp = 9.915). Adding MPP (P(a-ET)CO2) and airway dead space (VDalvfrac) to the models improved them only marginally. No "real" dead space variables from Bohr's equation contributed to the explanation of the variance of the two CO2 indices. P(a-ET)CO2 and VDalvfrac were closely associated with the alveolar part of V/QEng and as such, were also influenced by variables representing a dysfunctional pulmonary perfusion. Neither P(a-ET)CO2 nor VDalvfrac should be considered pulmonary dead space, but used as global indices of V/Q mismatching under the described conditions.

15.
Ann Transl Med ; 6(2): 27, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29430444

RESUMO

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the most severe form of acute respiratory failure characterized by diffuse alveolar and endothelial damage. The severe pathophysiological changes in lung parenchyma and pulmonary circulation together with the effects of positive pressure ventilation profoundly affect heart lung interactions in ARDS. The term pulmonary vascular dysfunction (PVD) refers to the specific involvement of the vascular compartment in ARDS and is expressed clinically by an increase in pulmonary arterial (PA) pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance both affecting right ventricular (RV) afterload. When severe, PVD can lead to RV failure which is associated to an increased mortality. The effect of PVD on RV function is not only a consequence of increased pulmonary vascular resistance as afterload is a much more complex phenomenon that includes all factors that oppose efficient ventricular ejection. Impaired pulmonary vascular mechanics including increased arterial elastance and augmented wave-reflection phenomena are commonly seen in ARDS and can additionally affect RV afterload. The use of selective pulmonary vasodilators and lung protective mechanical ventilation strategies are therapeutic interventions that can ameliorate PVD. Prone positioning and the open lung approach (OLA) are especially attractive strategies to improve PVD due to their effects on increasing functional lung volume. In this review we will describe some pathophysiological aspects of heart-lung interactions during the ventilatory support of ARDS, its clinical assessment and discuss therapeutic interventions to prevent the occurrence and progression of PVD and RV failure.

16.
Lancet Respir Med ; 6(3): 193-203, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29371130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of individualised perioperative lung-protective ventilation (based on the open-lung approach [OLA]) on postoperative complications is unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of intraoperative and postoperative ventilatory management in patients scheduled for abdominal surgery, compared with standard protective ventilation. METHODS: We did this prospective, multicentre, randomised controlled trial in 21 teaching hospitals in Spain. We enrolled patients who were aged 18 years or older, were scheduled to have abdominal surgery with an expected time of longer than 2 h, had intermediate-to-high-risk of developing postoperative pulmonary complications, and who had a body-mass index less than 35 kg/m2. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) online to receive one of four lung-protective ventilation strategies using low tidal volume plus positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP): open-lung approach (OLA)-iCPAP (individualised intraoperative ventilation [individualised PEEP after a lung recruitment manoeuvre] plus individualised postoperative continuous positive airway pressure [CPAP]), OLA-CPAP (intraoperative individualised ventilation plus postoperative CPAP), STD-CPAP (standard intraoperative ventilation plus postoperative CPAP), or STD-O2 (standard intraoperative ventilation plus standard postoperative oxygen therapy). Patients were masked to treatment allocation. Investigators were not masked in the operating and postoperative rooms; after 24 h, data were given to a second investigator who was masked to allocations. The primary outcome was a composite of pulmonary and systemic complications during the first 7 postoperative days. We did the primary analysis using the modified intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02158923. FINDINGS: Between Jan 2, 2015, and May 18, 2016, we enrolled 1012 eligible patients. Data were available for 967 patients, whom we included in the final analysis. Risk of pulmonary and systemic complications did not differ for patients in OLA-iCPAP (110 [46%] of 241, relative risk 0·89 [95% CI 0·74-1·07; p=0·25]), OLA-CPAP (111 [47%] of 238, 0·91 [0·76-1·09; p=0·35]), or STD-CPAP groups (118 [48%] of 244, 0·95 [0·80-1·14; p=0·65]) when compared with patients in the STD-O2 group (125 [51%] of 244). Intraoperatively, PEEP was increased in 69 (14%) of patients in the standard perioperative ventilation groups because of hypoxaemia, and no patients from either of the OLA groups required rescue manoeuvres. INTERPRETATION: In patients who have major abdominal surgery, the different perioperative open lung approaches tested in this study did not reduce the risk of postoperative complications when compared with standard lung-protective mechanical ventilation. FUNDING: Instituto de Salud Carlos III of the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, and Grants Programme of the European Society of Anaesthesiology.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Espanha , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 35(8): 573-580, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29278555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Capnoperitoneum and anaesthesia impair lung aeration during laparoscopy in children. These changes can be detected and monitored at the bedside by lung ultrasound (LUS). OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to assess the impact of general anaesthesia and capnoperitoneum on lung collapse and the potential preventive effect of lung recruitment manoeuvres, using LUS in children undergoing laparoscopy. DESIGN: Randomised controlled study. SETTING: Single-institution study, community hospital, Mar del Plata, Argentina. PATIENTS: Forty-two children American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II aged 6 months to 7 years undergoing laparoscopy. INTERVENTIONS: All patients were studied using LUS before, during and after capnoperitoneum. Children were allocated to a control group (C-group, n=21) receiving standard protective ventilation, or to a lung recruitment manoeuvre group (RM-group) (n=21), in which lung recruitment manoeuvres were performed after recording baseline LUS images before capnoperitoneum. Loss of aeration was scored by summing a progressive grading from 0 to 3 assigned to each of 12 lung areas, based on the detection of four main ultrasound patterns: normal aeration = 0, partial loss-mild = 1, partial loss-severe = 2, total loss-consolidation = 3. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Lung aeration score and atelectasis assessed by ultrasound. RESULTS: Before capnoperitoneum and recruitment manoeuvres in the treated group the two groups presented similar ultrasound scores (5.95 ±â€Š4.13 vs. 5.19 ±â€Š3.33, P = 0.5). In the RM-group, lung aeration significantly improved both during (2.71 ±â€Š2.47) and after capnoperitoneum (2.52 ±â€Š2.86), compared with the C-group (6.71 ±â€Š3.54, P < 0.001, and 8.48 ±â€Š3.22, P < 0.001, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in the percentage of atelectasis before capnoperitoneum and recruitment manoeuvres in the RM-group (62%) and in the C-group (47%, P = 0.750). However, during capnoperitoneum, only 19% of the RM-group had atelectasis compared with 80% in the C-group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The majority of children undergoing laparoscopy have anaesthesia-induced atelectasis. In most cases, lung collapse due to capnoperitoneum could have been prevented by recruitment manoeuvres followed by positive-end expiratory pressure. TRIAL REGISTRY NUMBER: NCT02824146.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia/métodos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Atelectasia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Atelectasia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
18.
Crit Ultrasound J ; 9(1): 22, 2017 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29030754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atelectasis is a common finding in mechanically ventilated children with healthy lungs. This lung collapse cannot be overcome using standard levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and thus for only individualized lung recruitment maneuvers lead to satisfactory therapeutic results. In this short communication, we demonstrate by lung ultrasound images (LUS) the effect of a postural recruitment maneuver (P-RM, i.e., a ventilatory strategy aimed at reaerating atelectasis by changing body position under constant ventilation). RESULTS: Data was collected in the operating room of the Hospital Privado de Comunidad, Mar del Plata, Argentina. Three anesthetized children undergoing mechanical ventilation at constant settings were sequentially subjected to the following two maneuvers: (1) PEEP trial in the supine position PEEP was increased to 10 cmH2O for 3 min and then decreased to back to baseline. (2) P-RM patient position was changed from supine to the left and then to the right lateral position for 90 s each before returning to supine. The total P-RM procedure took approximately 3 min. LUS in the supine position showed similar atelectasis before and after the PEEP trial. Contrarily, atelectasis disappeared in the non-dependent lung when patients were placed in the lateral positions. Both lungs remained atelectasis free even after returning to the supine position. CONCLUSIONS: We provide LUS images that illustrate the concept and effects of postural recruitment in children. This maneuver has the advantage of achieving recruitment effects without the need to elevate airways pressures.

19.
Crit Care Med ; 45(11): e1157-e1164, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28872540

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of two lung-protective ventilation strategies on pulmonary vascular mechanics in early acute respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: University animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Twelve pigs (30.8 ± 2.5 kg). INTERVENTIONS: Acute respiratory distress syndrome was induced by repeated lung lavages and injurious mechanical ventilation. Thereafter, animals were randomized to 4 hours ventilation according to the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network protocol or to an open lung approach strategy. Pressure and flow sensors placed at the pulmonary artery trunk allowed continuous assessment of pulmonary artery resistance, effective elastance, compliance, and reflected pressure waves. Respiratory mechanics and gas exchange data were collected. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Acute respiratory distress syndrome led to pulmonary vascular mechanics deterioration. Four hours after randomization, pulmonary vascular mechanics was similar in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network and open lung approach: resistance (578 ± 252 vs 626 ± 153 dyn.s/cm; p = 0.714), effective elastance, (0.63 ± 0.22 vs 0.58 ± 0.17 mm Hg/mL; p = 0.710), compliance (1.19 ± 0.8 vs 1.50 ± 0.27 mL/mm Hg; p = 0.437), and reflection index (0.36 ± 0.04 vs 0.34 ± 0.09; p = 0.680). Open lung approach as compared to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network was associated with improved dynamic respiratory compliance (17.3 ± 2.6 vs 10.5 ± 1.3 mL/cm H2O; p < 0.001), driving pressure (9.6 ± 1.3 vs 19.3 ± 2.7 cm H2O; p < 0.001), and venous admixture (0.05 ± 0.01 vs 0.22 ± 0.03, p < 0.001) and lower mean pulmonary artery pressure (26 ± 3 vs 34 ± 7 mm Hg; p = 0.045) despite of using a higher positive end-expiratory pressure (17.4 ± 0.7 vs 9.5 ± 2.4 cm H2O; p < 0.001). Cardiac index, however, was lower in open lung approach (1.42 ± 0.16 vs 2.27 ± 0.48 L/min; p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: In this experimental model, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network and open lung approach affected pulmonary vascular mechanics similarly. The use of higher positive end-expiratory pressures in the open lung approach strategy did not worsen pulmonary vascular mechanics, improved lung mechanics, and gas exchange but at the expense of a lower cardiac index.


Assuntos
Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Distribuição Aleatória , Mecânica Respiratória , Suínos
20.
BMJ Open ; 7(7): e016765, 2017 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28760799

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Surgical site infection (SSI) is a serious postoperative complication that increases morbidity and healthcare costs. SSIs tend to increase as the partial pressure of tissue oxygen decreases: previous trials have focused on trying to reduce them by comparing high versus conventional inspiratory oxygen fractions (FIO2) in the perioperative period but did not use a protocolised ventilatory strategy. The open-lung ventilatory approach restores functional lung volume and improves gas exchange, and therefore it may increase the partial pressure of tissue oxygen for a given FIO2. The trial presented here aims to compare the efficacy of high versus conventional FIO2 in reducing the overall incidence of SSIs in patients by implementing a protocolised and individualised global approach to perioperative open-lung ventilation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a comparative, prospective, multicentre, randomised and controlled two-arm trial that will include 756 patients scheduled for abdominal surgery. The patients will be randomised into two groups: (1) a high FIO2 group (80% oxygen; FIO2 of 0.80) and (2) a conventional FIO2 group (30% oxygen; FIO2 of 0.30). Each group will be assessed intra- and postoperatively. The primary outcome is the appearance of postoperative SSI complications. Secondary outcomes are the appearance of systemic and pulmonary complications. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The iPROVE-O2 trial has been approved by the Ethics Review Board at the reference centre (the Hospital Clínico Universitario in Valencia). Informed consent will be obtained from all patients before their participation. If the approach using high FIO2 during individualised open-lung ventilation decreases SSIs, use of this method will become standard practice for patients scheduled for future abdominal surgery. Publication of the results is anticipated in early 2019. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02776046; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Perioperatória , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos
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