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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429192

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Determine the outcomes of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) covered stents for coronary artery perforation (CAP) and coronary artery aneurysm (CAA). BACKGROUND: PTFE covered stents have been used for treatment of potentially life-threatening CAP and CAA. The short and long-term outcomes of the PTFE covered stent for CAP and CAA have not been well studied. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of PTFE covered stents that were placed in the patients from 2003 to 2017. Short term outcomes included in-hospital mortality, pericardial effusion, cardiac tamponade, and length of stay. Long-term outcomes included target lesion revascularization (TLR), in-stent restenosis (ISR), and long-term mortality. RESULTS: Fifty-three PTFE covered stents were placed in 32 patients of which there were 24 patients with a CAP with a mean age of 75 ± 8 years. Two patients died in-hospital, with no additional deaths at 30 days. The rate of ISR was 25%, with estimated rates of TLR of 2.6% (3 years) and 17.8% (5 years). The median survival was 55.6 months, with survival at 10 years estimated to be 30.9%. Eight patients received a PTFE covered stent for CAA with a mean age of 59 ± 15 years with no in-hospital or 30-day mortality. Median follow-up of 49 months showed no evidence of TLR. The all-cause mortality was 12% at 1 year and 38% at 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: PTFE covered stents is an effective option in patients with CAP and CAA. The long-term outcomes may be related to the pathology of the disease rather than the stent itself.

2.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(13): 1280-1282, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272672
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Multisite procedure-based randomized trials may be confounded by performance variability and variability among sites. Therefore, we studied variability in mortality and stroke after patients were randomized to surgical (SAVR) or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in the Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves-2A (PARTNER-2A) randomized trial. METHODS: Patients at intermediate risk for SAVR were randomized to SAVR (n = 1017) or TAVR (n = 1011) with a SAPIEN XT device (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, Calif) at 54 sites. Patients were followed to 2 years. A mixed-effect model quantified variability at intersite and intrasite levels. RESULTS: There were 336 deaths (SAVR 170, TAVR 166) and 176 strokes (SAVR 85, TAVR 91). Intersite variability for mortality was similar across sites for SAVR (hazard ratios ranging from 0.52-1.93 among sites) and TAVR (hazard ratios ranging from 0.49-2.03), but intersite variability for stroke was greater for SAVR (hazard ratios ranging from 0.44-2.26) than for TAVR (no detectable variability). Case mix and lower site trial volume accounted for 37% of mortality intersite variability for SAVR and 73% for TAVR, but only 14% for stroke for SAVR. Intrasite mortality hazard ratios demonstrated all but 1 site's 95% confidence interval overlapped 1.0, indicating generally similar SAVR and TAVR mortalities within sites. CONCLUSIONS: Intersite variability was similar for mortality in SAVR and TAVR, but variability for stroke was greater for SAVR than for TAVR. Intrasite events were similar for both SAVR and TAVR. These findings suggest that in performance-based trials, site variability and its sources should be taken into account in analyzing and interpreting trial results.

4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(22): 2806-2815, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), surgical aortic valve replacement is associated with higher early and late mortality, and adverse outcomes compared with patients without renal disease. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) offers another alternative, but there are limited reported outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the outcomes of TAVR in patients with ESRD. METHODS: Among the first 72,631 patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) treated with TAVR enrolled in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS)/American College of Cardiology (ACC) TVT (Transcatheter Valve Therapies) registry, 3,053 (4.2%) patients had ESRD and were compared with patients who were not on dialysis for demographics, risk factors, and outcomes. RESULTS: Compared with the nondialysis patients, ESRD patients were younger (76 years vs. 83 years; p < 0.01) and had higher rates of comorbidities leading to a higher STS predicted risk of mortality (median 13.5% vs. 6.2%; p < 0.01). ESRD patients had a higher in-hospital mortality (5.1% vs. 3.4%; p < 0.01), although the observed to expected ratio was lower (0.32 vs. 0.44; p < 0.01). ESRD patients also had a similar rate of major vascular complications (4.5% vs. 4.6%; p = 0.86), but a higher rate of major bleeding (1.4% vs. 1.0%; p = 0.03). The 1-year mortality was significantly higher in dialysis patients (36.8% vs. 18.7%; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Patients undergoing TAVR with ESRD are at higher risk and had higher in-hospital mortality and bleeding, but similar vascular complications, when compared with those who are not dialysis dependent. The 1-year survival raises concerns regarding diminished benefit in this population. TAVR should be used judiciously after full discussion of the risk-benefit ratio in patients on dialysis.

5.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 12(6): e009062, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In contemporary patients with suspected significant mitral stenosis (MS) undergoing rest and treadmill stress echocardiography, we assessed characteristics and factors associated with longer-term survival. METHODS: We studied 515 consecutive patients (asymptomatic/atypical symptoms, mean left ventricular ejection fraction 58±2%; 43% male) with suspected at least moderate MS ([1] native mitral valve [MV]: resting mean MV gradient ≥5 mm Hg or area ≤1.5 cm2 and [2] prosthetic valve: resting mean MV gradient ≥5 mm Hg or effective orifice area ≤2 cm) who underwent rest and treadmill stress echocardiography between 1/2003 and 12/2013. MS was categorized as rheumatic (n=170, 33%), postsurgical (prior mitral repair/replacement, n=245, 48%), and primary nonrheumatic (n=100, 19%). Primary outcome was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Mean resting MV gradient and right ventricular systolic pressure were 8.5±3 and 39±13 mm Hg. Patients achieved 95±29% age-sex predicted metabolic equivalents; peak-stress MV gradient and right ventricular systolic pressure were 17±7 and 61±14 mm Hg, respectively. At 54 days (median), 224 (44%) underwent invasive mitral procedure. At 6±4 years, 76 (15%) died. On survival analysis, primary nonrheumatic MS (hazard ratio [HR], 4.92), higher Society of Thoracic Surgeons score (HR, 1.92), lower % age-sex predicted metabolic equivalents (HR, 1.22), and higher peak-stress right ventricular systolic pressure (HR, 1.35), was associated with higher mortality, while invasive mitral procedures were associated with improved survival (HR, 0.67; all P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In asymptomatic patients (or with atypical symptoms) with significant MS undergoing treadmill stress echocardiography, higher mortality was associated with primary nonrheumatic MS, lower % age-sex predicted metabolic equivalents, and higher peak-stress right ventricular systolic pressure, while invasive MV procedures were associated with survival.

6.
JAMA ; 321(23): 2306-2315, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211345

RESUMO

Importance: Reducing postprocedural stroke is important to improve the safety of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Objective: This study evaluated the trends of stroke occurring within 30 days after the procedure during the first 5 years TAVR was used in the United States, the association of stroke with 30-day mortality, and the association of medical therapy with 30-day stroke risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study including 101 430 patients who were treated with femoral and nonfemoral TAVR at 521 US hospitals in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapies Registry from November 9, 2011, through May 31, 2017. Thirty-day follow-up ended June 30, 2017. Exposures: TAVR. Main Outcomes and Measures: The rates of 30-day transient ischemic attack and stroke were assessed. Association of stroke with 30-day mortality and association of antithrombotic medical therapies with postdischarge 30-day stroke were assessed with a Cox proportional hazards model and propensity-score matching, respectively. Results: Among 101 430 patients included in the study (median age, 83 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 76-87 years]; 47 797 women [47.1%]; and 85 147 patients [83.9%] treated via femoral access), 30-day postprocedure follow-up data was assessed in all patients. At day 30, there were 2290 patients (2.3%) with a stroke of any kind (95% CI, 2.2%-2.4%), and 373 patients (0.4%) with transient ischemic attacks (95% CI, 0.3%-0.4%) . During the study period, 30-day stroke rates were stable without an increasing or decreasing trend in all patients (P for trend = .22) and in the large femoral access subgroup (P trend = .47). Among cases of stroke within 30 days, 1119 strokes (48.9%) occurred within the first day and 1567 (68.4%) within 3 days following TAVR. The occurrence of stroke was associated with a significant increase in 30-day mortality: 383 patients (16.7%) of 2290 who had a stroke vs 3662 patients (3.7%) of 99 140 who did not have a stroke died (P < .001; risk-adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 6.1 [95% CI, 5.4-6.8]; P < .001). After propensity-score matching, 30-day stroke risk was not associated with whether patients in the femoral cohort were (0.55%) or were not (0.52%) treated with dual antiplatelet therapy at hospital discharge (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.74-1.46) nor was it associated with whether patients in the nonfemoral cohort were (0.71%) or were not (0.69%) treated with dual antiplatelet therapy (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.54-1.95). Similarly, 30-day stroke risk was not associated with whether patients in the femoral cohort were (0.57%) or were not (0.55) treated with oral anticoagulant therapy at hospital discharge (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.73-1.46) nor was it associated with whether patients in the nonfemoral cohort were (0.75%) or were not (0.82%) treated with an oral anticoagulant (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.47-1.83). Conclusions and Relevance: Between 2011 and 2017, the rate of 30-day stroke following transcatheter aortic valve replacement in a US registry population remained stable.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Feminino , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(6): 549-555, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042265

RESUMO

Importance: Diagnosis of low-gradient severe aortic stenosis (AS) is challenging. We hypothesized that the time between left ventricular (LV) and aortic systolic pressure peaks (TLV-Ao) is associated with aortic stenosis (AS) severity and may have additive value in diagnosing severe AS, especially in patients with low-gradient AS. Objective: To investigate the diagnostic utility of measuring catheter-based TLV-Ao in patients with severe AS. Design, Setting, and Participants: We studied 123 patients with severe AS at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, a tertiary referral center, who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) via femoral access and had pre-TAVR cardiac computed tomography assessment and hemodynamic measurements recorded during a TAVR procedure. All patients received hemodynamic evaluation, echocardiographic assessment, and quantification of aortic valve calcification (AVC) by multidetector computed tomography. Hemodynamic data were collected via left heart catheterization done just before TAVR, and TLV-Ao was calculated offline. Data were analyzed between October 5, 2015, and July 20, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures: The association between TLV-Ao and AVC or other conventional imaging parameters was analyzed. Results: Of the included patients, the mean (SD) age was 81 (9) years, and 65 (54%) were men (54%). Among 123 patients, 48 patients (39%) had low-gradient AS (<40 mm Hg) and mean (SD) TLV-Ao was 69 (39) milliseconds. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, higher TLV-Ao (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; P = .002) and higher peak aortic valve (AV) velocity (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.02; P = .008) were independently associated with severe AVC (AVC >1000 AU). Adding TLV-Ao to the peak AV velocity and AV area showed significant incremental value to be associated with AVC, with a net reclassification improvement of 0.61 (95% CI, 0.23-0.99; P = .002) and integrated discriminatory improvement of 0.09 (95% CI, 0.03-0.16; P = .003). In a subgroup of patients with low-grade AS, higher TLV-Ao was the only parameter associated with severe AVC (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.001-1.04; P = .03). Conclusions and Relevance: Prolonged TLV-Ao was associated with severe AVC. This catheter-based hemodynamic index may be an additional surrogate to differentiate low-gradient true severe AS. Larger, prospective studies investigating the role of TLV-Ao as a marker of clinical outcomes in patients undergoing TAVR are required.

10.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30516815

RESUMO

Importance: Although several studies have reported data on surgical aortic valve durability, variability in study methodologies and definitions as well as inadequate follow-up make the interpretation of data from these studies difficult to interpret. Objective: To review available data on structural valve deterioration (SVD) of surgical bioprosthetic aortic valves by examining the published literature as well as data reported to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Evidence Review: A systematic review using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis reporting guidelines to obtain all available data from preexisting literature on the actuarial freedom from SVD and outcomes of SVD. Data were collected from database inception to November 2016. Additionally, data reported to the FDA were obtained. Findings: In total, 167 studies and 12 FDA reports including 101 650 patients and 17 different valve types were analyzed. There were 11 different definitions of SVD used in the studies. Core laboratory data were available for 11 studies. Mean follow-up ranged from less than 1 year to 14 years. Kaplan-Meier estimates were reported for up to 30 years of follow-up, with 0% to 37% of patients remaining at risk at maximum follow-up. Food and Drug Administration-reported data are similarly variable in duration (mean follow-up range, 1.2 to 7 years) and completeness of follow-up, with final follow-up of 0.1% to 95%. Conclusions and Relevance: There is considerable variability in reporting SVD of surgical aortic valves, with different definitions and inadequate long-term systematically collected core laboratory data. Rigorously collected long-term data with standardized definitions for surgical valves are needed to provide a benchmark for the durability of rapidly evolving transcatheter valves.

11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 72(20): 2415-2426, 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transfemoral-transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TF-TAVR) is increasingly used to treat aortic stenosis, but risk of post-procedure stroke is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess stroke risk and its association with quality of life after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) versus TF-TAVR. METHODS: The authors performed a propensity-matched study of 1,204 pairs of patients with severe aortic stenosis treated with SAVR versus TF-TAVR in the PARTNER (Placement of AoRTic TraNscathetER Valves) trials from April 2007 to October 2014. Outcomes were: 1) 30-day neurological events; 2) time-varying risk of neurological events early (≤7 days) and late (7 days to 48 months) post-procedure; and 3) association between stroke and quality of life 1 year post-procedure by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) overall summary score. RESULTS: Thirty-day stroke (5.1% vs. 3.7%; p = 0.09) was similar, but 30-day major stroke (3.9% vs. 2.2%; p = 0.018) was lower after TF-TAVR than SAVR. In both groups, risk of stroke peaked in the first post-procedure day, followed by a near-constant low-level risk to 48 months. Major stroke was associated with a decline in quality of life at 1 year in both SAVR (KCCQ score median [15th, 85th percentile]: 79 [53, 94] without major stroke vs. 64 [30, 94] with major stroke; p = 0.03) and TF-TAVR (78 [49, 96] without major stroke vs. 60 [8, 99] with major stroke; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Despite similar early-peaking (<1 day post-procedure) neurological risk profiles, SAVR is associated with a higher risk of early major stroke than TF-TAVR. Periprocedural strategies are needed to reduce stroke risk after aortic valve procedures. (Placement of AoRTic TraNscathetER Valve Trial [PARTNER]; NCT00530894).

12.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(9): e006664, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) scores are used to screen patients for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). The STS scores were also used to risk stratify patients in major TAVR trials. This study evaluates the reclassification of predicted risk of mortality by the currently available online STS score calculator compared with the 2008 STS risk model in patients undergoing TAVR. METHODS AND RESULTS: All patients who underwent TAVR from 2006 to 2016 were included in the study. The STS scores for all included patients were calculated by applying the 2008 STS risk model and again using the current STS online calculator. Among 1209 patients who underwent TAVR, 30-day mortality was 27 (2.2%). The overall predicted risk of mortality estimated by using the current online STS risk calculator was significantly lower than the 2008 STS risk model (6.3±4.4 vs 7.3±4.9; P<0.001). A total of 235 (19%) patients were reclassified into a lower risk category per the current STS risk model. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (odds ratio, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.9; P=0.03), chronic heart failure (odds ratio, 6.0; 95% CI, 3.8-10.1; P<0.001), and New York Heart Association class IV heart failure (odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.4; P=0.007) were more likely to be reclassified into a lower risk category per the current STS risk model. CONCLUSIONS: The current STS calculation method produces significantly lower predicted risk of mortality than the 2008 calculator, more pronounced in patients with certain comorbid conditions. These results should be considered while evaluating data from prior studies of TAVR.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312995

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the hemodynamic durability of the transcatheter aortic valves (TAVs) using the updated Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 (VARC-2) criteria. BACKGROUND: The updated VARC-2 consensus criteria combine flow-dependent and flow-independent echocardiographic parameters for hemodynamic assessment of TAVR. Data on the hemodynamic durability of TAV and clinical risk factors associated with valve hemodynamic deterioration (VHD) are lacking. METHODS: All patients (n = 276) who received TAV between 2006 and 2012 and had ≥2 follow-up echocardiograms were studied. RESULTS: During a median follow up period of 3.3 (1.8-4.4) years, 8 patients (3%) developed moderate to severe valve stenosis per the VARC-2 criteria, while 20 had mild stenosis. In a Cox proportional hazards model analysis, moderate to severe stenosis by VARC-2 criteria was associated with younger age (P = 0.03, HR 0.94), absence of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) (P = 0.026, HR 0.18), and lower baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (P = 0.006, HR 0.94). Longitudinal analysis using a mixed effect model showed that presence of stenosis by VARC-2 criteria was associated with an increase in aortic valve mean gradient (P < 0.001, +2.34 mmHg per year). In a subset of 93 patients with analyzable fluoroscopic images, deeper valve implantation was associated with increase in mean gradient (P = 0.004, +0.2 mmHg per year per 1 mm increase in implantation depth). CONCLUSION: Despite good hemodynamic durability of TAV, patients with younger age, lower LVEF and those not on DAPT after undergoing a TAV replacement, are at a higher risk for development of VHD.

15.
Cardiovasc Diagn Ther ; 8(4): 405-413, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30214855

RESUMO

Background: Information regarding the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in women is limited. Sex-specific responses to atherosclerosis and coronary arterial remodelling in women versus men have been hypothesized, but limited study exists. Methods: Case-matched study of 174 women with suspected ischemia referred for coronary angiography: 87 with non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) (no luminal diameter stenosis >20% in any coronary artery) and 87 age and ethnicity matched women with obstructive CAD. Groups were compared with regard to atheroma burden and coronary arterial remodelling assessed by coronary artery intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Results: IVUS revealed more extensive atheroma with obstructive CAD vs. those without obstructive CAD, with greater percent atheroma volume (PAV) (36.1%±9.8% vs. 25.4%±9.1%, P<0.0001), total atheroma volume (TAV) (140.8±58.7 vs. 98.8±46.9 mm3, P<0.0001) and percentage of images containing plaque (70.0%±30.5% vs. 35.7%±32.6%, P<0.0001). Adjusting for risk factors, PAV (35%±1% vs. 28%±1%, P=0.0008), TAV (131±7 vs. 115±7 mm3, P=0.110) and percentage of images containing plaque (66%±4% vs. 45%±5%, P=0.0008) remained greater with obstructive CAD. Obstructive CAD was associated with smaller lumen volumes (251.9±92.8 vs. 289.7±91.8 mm3, P=0.005), but surprisingly, the external elastic membrane (EEM) volume was very similar comparing the groups (392.7±128.1 vs. 388.6±113.7 mm3, P=0.910). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that women referred to angiography for suspected ischemia, have differing patterns of coronary arterial response to injury with regard to accumulation of atherosclerosis and compensatory remodelling related to the presence and absence of obstructive CAD. Preservation and cultivation of compensatory arterial remodelling may be a novel CAD therapeutic target.

16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 72(4): 370-382, 2018 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Valve-in-valve (ViV) transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been shown to be feasible, yet the safety and efficacy in relation to native valve (NV) TAVR are not known. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of ViV TAVR for failed surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) by comparing it with the benchmark of NV TAVR. METHODS: Patients who underwent ViV-TAVR (n = 1,150) were matched 1:2 (on sex, high or extreme risk, hostile chest or porcelain aorta, 5-m-walk time, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality for reoperation) to patients undergoing NV-TAVR (n = 2,259). Baseline characteristics, procedural data, and in-hospital outcomes were obtained from the Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry. The 30-day and 1-year outcomes were obtained from linked Medicare administrative claims data. RESULTS: Unadjusted analysis revealed lower 30-day mortality (2.9% vs. 4.8%; p < 0.001), stroke (1.7% vs. 3.0%; p = 0.003), and heart failure hospitalizations (2.4% vs. 4.6%; p < 0.001) in the ViV-TAVR compared with NV-TAVR group. Adjusted analysis revealed lower 30-day mortality (hazard ratio: 0.503; 95% confidence interval: 0.302 to 0.839; p = 0.008), lower 1-year mortality (hazard ratio: 0.653; 95% confidence interval: 0.505 to 0.844; p = 0.001), and hospitalization for heart failure (hazard ratio: 0.685; 95% confidence interval: 0.500 to 0.939; p = 0.019) in the ViV-TAVR group. Patients in the ViV-TAVR group had higher post-TAVR mean gradient (16 vs. 9 mm Hg; p < 0.001), but less moderate or severe aortic regurgitation (3.5% vs. 6.6%; p < 0.001). Post-TAVR gradients were highest in small SAVRs and stenotic SAVRs. CONCLUSIONS: Comparison with the benchmark NV-TAVR shows ViV-TAVR to be a safe and effective procedure in patients with failed SAVR who are at high risk for repeat surgery.

17.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 11(8): 1072-1080, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29909108

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to study differences in progression of aortic stenosis (AS) in patients with mediastinal radiotherapy (XRT)-associated moderate AS versus a matched cohort during the same time frame, and to ascertain need for aortic valve replacement (AVR) and longer-term survival. BACKGROUND: Rate of progression of XRT-associated moderate AS and its impact on outcomes is not well-described. METHODS: We included 81 patients (age 61 ± 13 years; 57% female) with at least XRT-associated moderate AS (aortic valve area [AVA] 1.05 ± 0.3 cm2; mean gradient 24 ± 10 mm Hg) who had ≥2 transthoracic echocardiograms (TTEs) 1 year apart and matched them in a 1:2 fashion on the basis of age, sex, and AVA with those without prior XRT. Serial aortic valve gradients and AVA were recorded. AVR and longer-term all-cause mortality during follow-up were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 100% of patients had 1, a total of 71% had 2, and 39% had 3 follow-up TTEs. Before AVR, mean AVG and AVA were not significantly different between XRT and comparison groups. At 3.6 ± 2.0 years from baseline TTE, 146 (60%) underwent AVR (16% transcatheter), with significantly more patients in the XRT group undergoing AVR (80% vs. 50%; p < 0.01), at a much shorter time (2.9 ± 1.6 years vs. 4.1 ± 2.4 years; p < 0.01). At 6.6 ± 4.0 years from the initial TTE, 49 (20%) patients died, with a significantly higher mortality in the XRT group (40% vs. 11%; p < 0.01), with prior XRT associated with increased longer-term mortality, whereas AVR was associated with improved longer-term survival. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with moderate AS, those with prior XRT have a similar rate of progression of AS versus a comparison group. A higher proportion of patients in the XRT group were referred for AVR at a shorter time from baseline TTE. Despite that, the XRT patients had significantly higher longer-term mortality, and prior exposure to XRT was associated with significantly increased longer-term mortality.

18.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(12): 1188-1198, 2018 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29860075

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with the SAPIEN 3 valve (S3-TAVR) results in improved quality of life (QoL) compared with previous-generation TAVR devices or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). BACKGROUND: In patients with severe aortic stenosis at intermediate surgical risk, TAVR using the SAPIEN XT valve (XT-TAVR) results in similar QoL compared with SAVR. Compared with SAPIEN XT, the SAPIEN 3 valve offers a lower delivery profile and modifications to reduce paravalvular regurgitation. METHODS: Between February and December 2014, 1,078 patients at intermediate surgical risk with severe aortic stenosis were treated with S3-TAVR in the PARTNER S3i (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve) trial. QoL was assessed at baseline, 1 month, and 1 year using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire, Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36, and EQ-5D. QoL outcomes of S3-TAVR patients were compared with those in the SAVR and XT-TAVR arms of the PARTNER 2A trial using propensity score stratification to adjust for differences between the treatment groups. RESULTS: Over 1 year, S3-TAVR was associated with substantial improvements in QoL compared with baseline. At 1 month, S3-TAVR was associated with better QoL than either SAVR or XT-TAVR (adjusted differences in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score 15.6 and 3.7 points, respectively; p < 0.001). At 1 year, the differences in QoL between S3-TAVR and both SAVR and XT-TAVR were reduced but remained statistically significant (adjusted differences 2.0 and 2.2 points, respectively; p < 0.05). Similar results were seen for generic QoL outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients at intermediate surgical risk with severe aortic stenosis, S3-TAVR resulted in improved QoL at both 1 month and 1 year compared with both XT-TAVR and SAVR.

19.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0196031, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29718948

RESUMO

In year 2016, the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) updated Recommendations for the assessment and grading of diastolic dysfunction (DD). We aimed to assess the applicability of this DD grading method and its association with prognosis in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). We retrospectively identified 237 consecutive patients with severe AS who underwent trans-femoral TAVI. Baseline transthoracic echocardiography was evaluated to assess pre- and post-TAVI diastolic function according to the current ASE/EACVI Recommendations. Prior to TAVI, 41 (17%) patients were diagnosed as having grade I DD, 111 (47%) patients had grade II DD, 80 (34%) had grade III DD. DD grade after TAVI decreased (p < 0.001) with 75 patients (32%) reclassified to a lower DD grade. During the median follow-up of 1,320 days, 136 (57%) patients died. In univariable Cox proportional hazards model analysis, neither pre- nor post-TAVI DD grade were associated with prognosis. However, patients with grade III DD detected before TAVI and AR≥ 2 after TAVI had poorer survival (p<0.008). Patients with grade III DD detected after TAVI and AR≥ 2 after TAVI had poorer prognosis (p = 0.002). TAVI improves DD grade. While poor DD grade was not associated with mortality after treatment of AS by TAVI, concomitant presence of DD and post-procedural AR carried a poor prognosis.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/terapia , Diástole/fisiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
Eur Heart J ; 39(27): 2551-2558, 2018 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29688308

RESUMO

Aims: Utilizing serial intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS), we aimed to exam the association of intra-individual lipid variability, coronary atheroma progression, and clinical outcomes. Methods and results: We performed a post hoc patient-level analysis of nine clinical trials involving 4976 patients with coronary artery disease who underwent serial coronary IVUS in the setting of a range of medical therapies. We assessed the associations between progression in percent atheroma volume (ΔPAV), clinical outcomes, and visit-to-visit lipid variability including low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C, and apolipoprotein B (ApoB). Variability of lipid parameters was measured using intra-individual standard deviation over 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Atherogenic lipoprotein variability significantly associated with ΔPAV [odds ratio (95% confidence interval; P-value), LDL-C: 1.09 (1.02, 1.17, P = 0.01); non-HDL-C: 1.10 (1.02, 1.18, P = 0.01); TC/HDL-C: 1.14 (1.06, 1.24, P = 0.001); ApoB: 1.13 (1.03, 1.24, P = 0.01)]. Survival curves revealed significant stepwise relationships between cumulative major adverse cardiovascular events and increasing quartiles of atherogenic lipoprotein variability at 24-months follow-up (log-rank P < 0.01 for all lipoproteins except HDL-C). Stronger associations were noted between achieved lipoprotein levels and ΔPAV [LDL-C: 1.27 (1.17, 1.39; P < 0.001); non-HDL-C: 1.32 (1.21, 1.45; P < 0.001); TC/HDL-C: 1.31 (1.19, 1.45; P < 0.001); ApoB: 1.20 (1.07, 1.35; P = 0.003)]. Conclusion: Greater visit-to-visit variability in atherogenic lipoprotein levels significantly associates with coronary atheroma progression and clinical outcomes, although the association between achieved atherogenic lipoproteins and atheroma progression appears stronger. These data highlight the importance of achieving low and consistent atherogenic lipoprotein levels to promote plaque regression and improve clinical outcomes.

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