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1.
Open Heart ; 7(1): e001183, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399250

RESUMO

Objective: Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) severity has known adverse implications, its impact on patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery (NCS) remains unclear. We sought to determine the impact of TR on patient outcomes after NCS. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study in patients undergoing NCS. Outcomes in patients with moderate or severe TR were compared with no/trivial TR after adjusting for baseline characteristics and revised cardiac risk index (RCRI). The primary outcome was defined as 30-day mortality and heart failure (HF), while the secondary outcome was long-term mortality. Results: Of the 7064 patients included, 312 and 80 patients had moderate and severe TR, respectively. Thirty-day mortality was higher in moderate TR (adjusted OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.25 to 4.76) and severe TR (OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.04 to 7.79) compared with no/trivial TR. There was no difference in 30-day HF in patients with moderate TR (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.90 to 2.44) or severe TR (OR 1.42, 95% CI 0.60 to 3.39). The adjusted HR for long-term mortality in moderate TR was 1.55 (95% CI 1.31 to 1.82) and 1.87 (95% CI 1.40 to 2.50) for severe TR compared with no/trivial TR. Conclusion: Increasing TR severity has higher postoperative 30-day mortality in patients undergoing NCS, independent of RCRI risk factors, ejection fraction or mitral regurgitation. Severity of TR should be considered in risk stratification for patients undergoing NCS.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32426935

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We sought to compare in-hospital outcomes between patients with and without end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing coronary drug-eluting stent (DES) placement and to model risk of in-hospital adverse postpercutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) events in ESRD patients. BACKGROUND: The effect of ESRD on the risk of in-hospital complications after DES PCI is relatively unclear, as is the ability to prospectively stratify risk in this population. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing first-time DES between April 1, 2003 and June 30, 2018 at a single tertiary care hospital were included in a prospective registry. Outcomes in those with ESRD were compared to those without ESRD. The primary endpoint was in-hospital all-cause mortality; secondary endpoints included in-hospital major adverse cardiac events (MACE)-defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or unplanned revascularization-and major bleeding. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to identify factors associated with each outcome and to generate risk scores. RESULTS: Among 18,134 patients in the study population, 382 (2.1%) had ESRD. ESRD was associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality (7.1 vs. 2.9%, p < .001), in-hospital MACE (6.3 vs. 2.1%, p < .001), and major bleeding (12.0 vs. 2.6%, p < .001). After multivariable risk adjustment, ESRD was independently associated with in-hospital mortality (odds ratio: 1.83, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-3.23, p = .04) but not MACE or major bleeding. Among patients with ESRD, risks of MACE and major bleeding were successfully modeled (c-statistics = .72 and .85, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: ESRD is independently associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality after coronary DES. Future studies are necessary to validate risk models derived to identify high-risk ESRD patients.

4.
Circulation ; 141(13): 1071-1079, 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with bicuspid aortic valve (AV) stenosis were excluded from the pivotal evaluations of transcatheter AV replacement (TAVR) devices. We sought to evaluate the outcomes of TAVR in patients with bicuspid AV stenosis in comparison with those with tricuspid AV stenosis. METHODS: We used data from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry (November 2011 through November 2018) to determine device success, procedural outcomes, post-TAVR valve performance, and in-hospital clinical outcomes (mortality, stroke, and major bleeding) according to valve morphology (bicuspid versus tricuspid). Results were stratified by older and current (Sapien 3 and Evolut R) generation valve prostheses. Medicare administrative claims were used to evaluate mortality and stroke to 1 year among eligible individuals (≥65 years). RESULTS: After exclusions, there were 170 959 eligible procedures at 593 sites during the specified interval. Of these, 5412 TAVR procedures (3.2%) were performed in patients with bicuspid AV, including 3705 with current-generation devices. In comparison with patients with tricuspid valves, patients with bicuspid AV were younger and had a lower Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Operative Mortality score. When current-generation devices were used to treat patients with bicuspid AV, device success increased (93.5 versus 96.3; P=0.001) and the incidence of 2+ aortic insufficiency declined (14.0% versus 2.7%; P<0.001) in comparison with older-generation devices. With current-generation devices, device success was slightly lower in the bicuspid (versus tricuspid) AV group (96.3% in bicuspid versus 97.4% in tricuspid, P=0.07), with a slightly higher incidence of residual moderate or severe aortic insufficiency among patients with bicuspid AV (2.7% versus 2.1%; P<0.001). A lower 1-year adjusted risk of mortality (hazard ratio, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.78-0.99]) was observed for patients with bicuspid AV versus patients with tricuspid AV in the Medicare-linked cohort, whereas no difference was observed in the 1-year adjusted risk of stroke (hazard ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, 0.94-1.39]). CONCLUSIONS: Using current-generation devices, procedural, postprocedural, and 1-year outcomes were comparable following TAVR for bicuspid AV versus tricuspid AV disease. With newer-generation devices, TAVR is a viable treatment option for patients with bicuspid AV disease.

5.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(8): 938-950, 2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061612

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to address a knowledge gap by examining the incidence, timing, and predictors of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in Medicare beneficiaries. BACKGROUND: Evidence about incidence and outcomes of ACS after TAVR is scarce. METHODS: We identified Medicare patients who underwent TAVR from 2012 to 2017 and were admitted with ACS during follow-up. We compared outcomes based on the type of ACS: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI (NSTEMI), and unstable angina. In patients with non-ST-segment elevation ACS, we compared outcomes based on the treatment strategy (invasive vs. conservative) using inverse probability weighting analysis. RESULTS: Out of 142,845 patients with TAVR, 6,741 patients (4.7%) were admitted with ACS after a median time of 297 days (interquartile range: 85 to 662 days), with 48% of admissions occurring within 6 months. The most common presentation was NSTEMI. Predictors of ACS were history of coronary artery disease, prior revascularization, diabetes, valve-in-TAVR, and acute kidney injury. STEMI was associated with higher 30-day and 1-year mortality compared with NSTEMI (31.4% vs. 15.5% and 51.2% vs. 41.3%, respectively; p < 0.01). Overall, 30.3% of patients with non-ST-segment elevation ACS were treated with invasive approach. On inverse probability weighting analysis, invasive approach was associated with lower adjusted long-term mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.69; 95% confidence interval: 0.66 to 0.73; p < 0.01) and higher risk of repeat revascularization (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.29; 95% confidence interval: 1.16 to 1.43; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: After TAVR, ACS is infrequent (<5%), and the most common presentation is NSTEMI. Occurrence of STEMI after TAVR is associated with a high mortality with nearly one-third of patients dying within 30 days. Optimization of care is needed for post-TAVR ACS patients and if feasible, invasive approach should be considered in these high-risk patients.

6.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(21): 2210-2220, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the rate and trend of vascular complications when placing a second arterial sheath in the contralateral femoral artery during transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) unilaterally versus bilaterally. BACKGROUND: Vascular complications occur in approximately 5% to 8% of TAVR procedures. Many operators place a second arterial sheath in the contralateral femoral artery to perform aortic root angiography. The authors surmised that placing the second sheath ipsilateral and distal to the delivery sheath would be an easier option with similar safety. METHODS: The Cleveland Clinic Aortic Valve Center TAVR database was accessed, and data for patients undergoing transfemoral TAVR (TF-TAVR) from January 2014 to December 2017 were analyzed retrospectively. The primary outcome was the rate of peripheral vascular complications. RESULTS: A total of 1,208 patients who underwent TF-TAVR were included in this study. One thousand seven patients (83.36%) underwent bilateral femoral access, and 201 patients (16.64%) underwent TF-TAVR using a unilateral femoral approach. Over the study duration, use of the unilateral access approach trended upward significantly, reaching 43.7% of total cases in 2017. A gradual decline in access site-related vascular complications was observed, from 13.7% in 2014 to 7.4% in 2017. After propensity-score matching, peripheral vascular complications were similar between bilateral access and unilateral access (10.8% vs. 8.6%) (p = 0.543). CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant decline in vascular complications from 2014 to 2017. Unilateral-access TF-TAVR provided similar safety compared with bilateral-access TF-TAVR and is a more accessible approach for managing access site-related complications and possibly achieving better patient satisfaction.

7.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(12): 1841-1850, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685215

RESUMO

Management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock (STEMI-CS) has evolved in the last decade. There is paucity of data on readmissions in this study population. We aimed to assess the burden, major etiologies, and resource utilization for 30-day readmissions among patients with STEMI and CS. The Nationwide Readmission Database was queried from 2010 to 2014. All adult patients with an index admission for STEMI-CS were identified using International Classification of Diseases, ninth edition codes. Patient with mortality on index admission and transfers to other hospitals were excluded. A total of 18,659 admissions were identified with primary diagnosis of STEMI-CS for the study duration. Percutaneous coronary interventions was performed in 78.1% and mechanical circulatory devices were utilized in 53.9% with a mean length of stay of 10.6 (±0.2) days and mean cost of hospitalization of $47,744 (±327). Among these, 2,404 (12.9%) patients were readmitted within 30 days. Major etiologies for readmission include congestive heart failure (25.7%), acute myocardial infarction (9.4%), arrhythmias (4.5%), and sepsis (4.2%). The mean length of stay and cost of hospitalization for 30-day readmission were 5.9 (±0.3) days and $17,043 (±590), respectively. Older age, female gender, lower socioeconomic status, and discharge to home health care were significant predictors for readmission. In conclusion, there is a significant burden of 30-day readmission among patients with STEMI-CS. Percutaneous coronary interventions and mechanical circulatory devices were utilized in a majority of index admissions. Congestive heart failure was the single most common reason for 30-day readmission. Patients discharged to skilled nursing facility, patients with private insurance and higher socioeconomic status were less likely to be readmitted. Moreover, readmissions among STEMI-CS patients contribute to significant resource utilization.

8.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(22): 2299-2306, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in patients with pure aortic stenosis (AS) (i.e., no or trivial associated aortic regurgitation [AR]) with those in patients with AS and mild or more severe AR (i.e., mixed aortic valve disease [MAVD]). BACKGROUND: TAVR is indicated in treating patients with severe AS. Limited data exist regarding the outcomes of TAVR in patients with MAVD. METHODS: A total of 1,133 patients who underwent TAVR between January 2014 and December 2017 were included. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. The comparison was adjusted to account for post-TAVR AR development in both groups. The secondary outcomes included composite endpoints of early safety and clinical efficacy as specified in the Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria. Variables were compared using Mann-Whitney, chi-square, and Fisher exact tests, while Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to compare survival. RESULTS: A total of 688 patients (61%) had MAVD (median age 83 years , 43% women). Among these, 17% developed mild, 2% moderate, and <1% severe post-TAVR AR. Overall, patients with MAVD had better survival compared with patients with pure AS (p = 0.03). Among patients who developed post-TAVR AR, those in the MAVD group had better survival (p = 0.04). In contrast, in patients who did not develop post-TAVR AR, pre-TAVR AR did not improve survival (p = 0.11). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with MAVD who underwent TAVR had better survival compared with patients with pure AS. This is explained by the better survival of patients with MAVD who developed post-TAVR AR, likely due to left ventricular adaptation to AR.

9.
Circulation ; 140(24): 1984-1994, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is a rare but critical mechanism of valve failure and death after transcatheter and surgical aortic valve replacement (TAVR, SAVR) warranting further analysis in modern aortic valve replacement experience. We characterize the incidence, risk factors, microbiological profile and outcomes of PVE from the PARTNER trials and registries (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve). METHODS: We analyzed a pooled cohort of all patients in PARTNER 1 and PARTNER 2 trials and registries. Patients had severe aortic stenosis, were treated with TAVR or SAVR, and were analyzed with respect to development of PVE. PVE adjudication by a clinical events committee was based on modified Duke Criteria. The incidence, infection timing, organism, and association between PVE and all-cause mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: 8530 patients were included. PVE occurred in 107 cases (5.06 PVE events per 1000 person-years over a mean follow-up of 2.69±1.55 years [95% CI, 4.19-6.12]). The incidence of TAVR-PVE (5.21 PVE per 1000 person-years [95% CI, 4.26-6.38]) was not significantly different from SAVR-PVE (4.10 per 1000 person-years [95% CI, 2.33-7.22]; incident rate ratio, 1.27 [95% CI, 0.70-2.32]; P=0.44). Temporal risk of PVE was similar for TAVR and SAVR, even after adjusting for competing risk of death (hazard ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 0.58-2.28]; P=0.69). Through multivariable analysis, PVE was associated with baseline cirrhosis (incident rate ratio, 2.86 [95% CI, 1.33-6.16]; P=0.007), pulmonary disease (incident rate ratio, 1.70 [95% CI, 1.16-2.48]; P=0.006), and renal insufficiency (incident rate ratio, 1.71 [95% CI, 1.03-2.83]; P=0.04). Timing of PVE was similar between TAVR and SAVR (<30 days: 4.2% vs 8.3%; 31 days to 1 year: 52.6% vs 66.7%; >1 year: 43.2% vs 25.0%; P=0.28). Staphylococcus occurred more commonly after SAVR (58.3% vs 28.4% in TAVR; P=0.04). PVE was strongly associated with all-cause mortality after endocarditis diagnosis (hazard ratio, 4.4 [95% CI, 3.42-5.72]; P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The widespread adoption of TAVR and application to lower-risk patients makes understanding mechanisms of valve failure increasingly important. PVE is an established mechanism of prosthetic valve failure post-SAVR and TAVR with unclear differences between approaches. We herein demonstrate in the largest trials and registries of TAVR that PVE remains rare, but often fatal, in modern AVR experience and that there is no difference in incidence, predictors, or risk of PVE between TAVR and SAVR. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT00530894 (PARTNER 1), NCT01314313 (PARTNER 1IA), NCT02184442 (PARTNER 1IB), NCT03222141 (PII S3HR), NCT03222128 (PII S3i).

11.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 94(4): 555-561, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429192

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Determine the outcomes of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) covered stents for coronary artery perforation (CAP) and coronary artery aneurysm (CAA). BACKGROUND: PTFE covered stents have been used for treatment of potentially life-threatening CAP and CAA. The short and long-term outcomes of the PTFE covered stent for CAP and CAA have not been well studied. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of PTFE covered stents that were placed in the patients from 2003 to 2017. Short term outcomes included in-hospital mortality, pericardial effusion, cardiac tamponade, and length of stay. Long-term outcomes included target lesion revascularization (TLR), in-stent restenosis (ISR), and long-term mortality. RESULTS: Fifty-three PTFE covered stents were placed in 32 patients of which there were 24 patients with a CAP with a mean age of 75 ± 8 years. Two patients died in-hospital, with no additional deaths at 30 days. The rate of ISR was 25%, with estimated rates of TLR of 2.6% (3 years) and 17.8% (5 years). The median survival was 55.6 months, with survival at 10 years estimated to be 30.9%. Eight patients received a PTFE covered stent for CAA with a mean age of 59 ± 15 years with no in-hospital or 30-day mortality. Median follow-up of 49 months showed no evidence of TLR. The all-cause mortality was 12% at 1 year and 38% at 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: PTFE covered stents is an effective option in patients with CAP and CAA. The long-term outcomes may be related to the pathology of the disease rather than the stent itself.

12.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(13): 1280-1282, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272672
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Multisite procedure-based randomized trials may be confounded by performance variability and variability among sites. Therefore, we studied variability in mortality and stroke after patients were randomized to surgical (SAVR) or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in the Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves-2A (PARTNER-2A) randomized trial. METHODS: Patients at intermediate risk for SAVR were randomized to SAVR (n = 1017) or TAVR (n = 1011) with a SAPIEN XT device (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, Calif) at 54 sites. Patients were followed to 2 years. A mixed-effect model quantified variability at intersite and intrasite levels. RESULTS: There were 336 deaths (SAVR 170, TAVR 166) and 176 strokes (SAVR 85, TAVR 91). Intersite variability for mortality was similar across sites for SAVR (hazard ratios ranging from 0.52-1.93 among sites) and TAVR (hazard ratios ranging from 0.49-2.03), but intersite variability for stroke was greater for SAVR (hazard ratios ranging from 0.44-2.26) than for TAVR (no detectable variability). Case mix and lower site trial volume accounted for 37% of mortality intersite variability for SAVR and 73% for TAVR, but only 14% for stroke for SAVR. Intrasite mortality hazard ratios demonstrated all but 1 site's 95% confidence interval overlapped 1.0, indicating generally similar SAVR and TAVR mortalities within sites. CONCLUSIONS: Intersite variability was similar for mortality in SAVR and TAVR, but variability for stroke was greater for SAVR than for TAVR. Intrasite events were similar for both SAVR and TAVR. These findings suggest that in performance-based trials, site variability and its sources should be taken into account in analyzing and interpreting trial results.

14.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 12(6): e009062, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In contemporary patients with suspected significant mitral stenosis (MS) undergoing rest and treadmill stress echocardiography, we assessed characteristics and factors associated with longer-term survival. METHODS: We studied 515 consecutive patients (asymptomatic/atypical symptoms, mean left ventricular ejection fraction 58±2%; 43% male) with suspected at least moderate MS ([1] native mitral valve [MV]: resting mean MV gradient ≥5 mm Hg or area ≤1.5 cm2 and [2] prosthetic valve: resting mean MV gradient ≥5 mm Hg or effective orifice area ≤2 cm) who underwent rest and treadmill stress echocardiography between 1/2003 and 12/2013. MS was categorized as rheumatic (n=170, 33%), postsurgical (prior mitral repair/replacement, n=245, 48%), and primary nonrheumatic (n=100, 19%). Primary outcome was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Mean resting MV gradient and right ventricular systolic pressure were 8.5±3 and 39±13 mm Hg. Patients achieved 95±29% age-sex predicted metabolic equivalents; peak-stress MV gradient and right ventricular systolic pressure were 17±7 and 61±14 mm Hg, respectively. At 54 days (median), 224 (44%) underwent invasive mitral procedure. At 6±4 years, 76 (15%) died. On survival analysis, primary nonrheumatic MS (hazard ratio [HR], 4.92), higher Society of Thoracic Surgeons score (HR, 1.92), lower % age-sex predicted metabolic equivalents (HR, 1.22), and higher peak-stress right ventricular systolic pressure (HR, 1.35), was associated with higher mortality, while invasive mitral procedures were associated with improved survival (HR, 0.67; all P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In asymptomatic patients (or with atypical symptoms) with significant MS undergoing treadmill stress echocardiography, higher mortality was associated with primary nonrheumatic MS, lower % age-sex predicted metabolic equivalents, and higher peak-stress right ventricular systolic pressure, while invasive MV procedures were associated with survival.

15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(22): 2806-2815, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), surgical aortic valve replacement is associated with higher early and late mortality, and adverse outcomes compared with patients without renal disease. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) offers another alternative, but there are limited reported outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the outcomes of TAVR in patients with ESRD. METHODS: Among the first 72,631 patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) treated with TAVR enrolled in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS)/American College of Cardiology (ACC) TVT (Transcatheter Valve Therapies) registry, 3,053 (4.2%) patients had ESRD and were compared with patients who were not on dialysis for demographics, risk factors, and outcomes. RESULTS: Compared with the nondialysis patients, ESRD patients were younger (76 years vs. 83 years; p < 0.01) and had higher rates of comorbidities leading to a higher STS predicted risk of mortality (median 13.5% vs. 6.2%; p < 0.01). ESRD patients had a higher in-hospital mortality (5.1% vs. 3.4%; p < 0.01), although the observed to expected ratio was lower (0.32 vs. 0.44; p < 0.01). ESRD patients also had a similar rate of major vascular complications (4.5% vs. 4.6%; p = 0.86), but a higher rate of major bleeding (1.4% vs. 1.0%; p = 0.03). The 1-year mortality was significantly higher in dialysis patients (36.8% vs. 18.7%; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Patients undergoing TAVR with ESRD are at higher risk and had higher in-hospital mortality and bleeding, but similar vascular complications, when compared with those who are not dialysis dependent. The 1-year survival raises concerns regarding diminished benefit in this population. TAVR should be used judiciously after full discussion of the risk-benefit ratio in patients on dialysis.

16.
JAMA ; 321(23): 2306-2315, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211345

RESUMO

Importance: Reducing postprocedural stroke is important to improve the safety of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Objective: This study evaluated the trends of stroke occurring within 30 days after the procedure during the first 5 years TAVR was used in the United States, the association of stroke with 30-day mortality, and the association of medical therapy with 30-day stroke risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study including 101 430 patients who were treated with femoral and nonfemoral TAVR at 521 US hospitals in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapies Registry from November 9, 2011, through May 31, 2017. Thirty-day follow-up ended June 30, 2017. Exposures: TAVR. Main Outcomes and Measures: The rates of 30-day transient ischemic attack and stroke were assessed. Association of stroke with 30-day mortality and association of antithrombotic medical therapies with postdischarge 30-day stroke were assessed with a Cox proportional hazards model and propensity-score matching, respectively. Results: Among 101 430 patients included in the study (median age, 83 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 76-87 years]; 47 797 women [47.1%]; and 85 147 patients [83.9%] treated via femoral access), 30-day postprocedure follow-up data was assessed in all patients. At day 30, there were 2290 patients (2.3%) with a stroke of any kind (95% CI, 2.2%-2.4%), and 373 patients (0.4%) with transient ischemic attacks (95% CI, 0.3%-0.4%) . During the study period, 30-day stroke rates were stable without an increasing or decreasing trend in all patients (P for trend = .22) and in the large femoral access subgroup (P trend = .47). Among cases of stroke within 30 days, 1119 strokes (48.9%) occurred within the first day and 1567 (68.4%) within 3 days following TAVR. The occurrence of stroke was associated with a significant increase in 30-day mortality: 383 patients (16.7%) of 2290 who had a stroke vs 3662 patients (3.7%) of 99 140 who did not have a stroke died (P < .001; risk-adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 6.1 [95% CI, 5.4-6.8]; P < .001). After propensity-score matching, 30-day stroke risk was not associated with whether patients in the femoral cohort were (0.55%) or were not (0.52%) treated with dual antiplatelet therapy at hospital discharge (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.74-1.46) nor was it associated with whether patients in the nonfemoral cohort were (0.71%) or were not (0.69%) treated with dual antiplatelet therapy (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.54-1.95). Similarly, 30-day stroke risk was not associated with whether patients in the femoral cohort were (0.57%) or were not (0.55) treated with oral anticoagulant therapy at hospital discharge (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.73-1.46) nor was it associated with whether patients in the nonfemoral cohort were (0.75%) or were not (0.82%) treated with an oral anticoagulant (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.47-1.83). Conclusions and Relevance: Between 2011 and 2017, the rate of 30-day stroke following transcatheter aortic valve replacement in a US registry population remained stable.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Feminino , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(6): 549-555, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042265

RESUMO

Importance: Diagnosis of low-gradient severe aortic stenosis (AS) is challenging. We hypothesized that the time between left ventricular (LV) and aortic systolic pressure peaks (TLV-Ao) is associated with aortic stenosis (AS) severity and may have additive value in diagnosing severe AS, especially in patients with low-gradient AS. Objective: To investigate the diagnostic utility of measuring catheter-based TLV-Ao in patients with severe AS. Design, Setting, and Participants: We studied 123 patients with severe AS at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, a tertiary referral center, who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) via femoral access and had pre-TAVR cardiac computed tomography assessment and hemodynamic measurements recorded during a TAVR procedure. All patients received hemodynamic evaluation, echocardiographic assessment, and quantification of aortic valve calcification (AVC) by multidetector computed tomography. Hemodynamic data were collected via left heart catheterization done just before TAVR, and TLV-Ao was calculated offline. Data were analyzed between October 5, 2015, and July 20, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures: The association between TLV-Ao and AVC or other conventional imaging parameters was analyzed. Results: Of the included patients, the mean (SD) age was 81 (9) years, and 65 (54%) were men (54%). Among 123 patients, 48 patients (39%) had low-gradient AS (<40 mm Hg) and mean (SD) TLV-Ao was 69 (39) milliseconds. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, higher TLV-Ao (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; P = .002) and higher peak aortic valve (AV) velocity (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.02; P = .008) were independently associated with severe AVC (AVC >1000 AU). Adding TLV-Ao to the peak AV velocity and AV area showed significant incremental value to be associated with AVC, with a net reclassification improvement of 0.61 (95% CI, 0.23-0.99; P = .002) and integrated discriminatory improvement of 0.09 (95% CI, 0.03-0.16; P = .003). In a subgroup of patients with low-grade AS, higher TLV-Ao was the only parameter associated with severe AVC (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.001-1.04; P = .03). Conclusions and Relevance: Prolonged TLV-Ao was associated with severe AVC. This catheter-based hemodynamic index may be an additional surrogate to differentiate low-gradient true severe AS. Larger, prospective studies investigating the role of TLV-Ao as a marker of clinical outcomes in patients undergoing TAVR are required.

20.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(1): 71-80, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30516815

RESUMO

Importance: Although several studies have reported data on surgical aortic valve durability, variability in study methodologies and definitions as well as inadequate follow-up make the interpretation of data from these studies difficult to interpret. Objective: To review available data on structural valve deterioration (SVD) of surgical bioprosthetic aortic valves by examining the published literature as well as data reported to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Evidence Review: A systematic review using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis reporting guidelines to obtain all available data from preexisting literature on the actuarial freedom from SVD and outcomes of SVD. Data were collected from database inception to November 2016. Additionally, data reported to the FDA were obtained. Findings: In total, 167 studies and 12 FDA reports including 101 650 patients and 17 different valve types were analyzed. There were 11 different definitions of SVD used in the studies. Core laboratory data were available for 11 studies. Mean follow-up ranged from less than 1 year to 14 years. Kaplan-Meier estimates were reported for up to 30 years of follow-up, with 0% to 37% of patients remaining at risk at maximum follow-up. Food and Drug Administration-reported data are similarly variable in duration (mean follow-up range, 1.2 to 7 years) and completeness of follow-up, with final follow-up of 0.1% to 95%. Conclusions and Relevance: There is considerable variability in reporting SVD of surgical aortic valves, with different definitions and inadequate long-term systematically collected core laboratory data. Rigorously collected long-term data with standardized definitions for surgical valves are needed to provide a benchmark for the durability of rapidly evolving transcatheter valves.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Falha de Prótese/tendências , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bioprótese/tendências , Seguimentos , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Food and Drug Administration
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