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1.
Afr J Emerg Med ; 11(4): 422-428, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513579

RESUMO

Introduction: Injuries cause significant burdens in sub-Saharan Africa. In Rwanda, national regulations to reduce COVID-19 altered population mobility and resource allocations. This study evaluated epidemiological trends and care among injured patients preceding and during the COVID-19 pandemic at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali (CHUK) in Kigali, Rwanda. Methods: This prospective interrupted cross-sectional study enrolled injured adult patients (≥15 years) presenting to the CHUK emergency department (ED) from January 27th-March 21st (pre-COVID-19 period) and June 1st-28th (intra-COVID-19 period). Trained study personnel continuously collected standardized data on enrolled participants through the first six-hours of ED care. The Kampala Trauma Score (KTS) was calculated as a metric of injury severity. Case characteristics prior to and during the pandemic were compared, statistical differences were assessed using χ2 or Fisher's exact tests. Results: Data were collected from 409 pre-COVID-19 and 194 intra-COVID-19 cases. Median age was 32, with a male predominance (74.3%). Road traffic injuries (RTI) were the most common injury mechanism pre-COVID-19 (47.8%) and intra-COVID-19 (53.6%) (p = 0.27). There was a significant increase in the number of transfer cases during the intra-COVID-19 period (52.1%) versus pre-COVID-19 (41.3%) (p = 0.01). KTS was significantly lower among intra-COVID-19 patients (p = 0.04), indicating higher severity of presentation. In the intra-COVID-19 period, there was a significant increase in the number of surgery consultations (40.7%) versus pre-COVID-19 (26.7%) (p < 0.001). The number of hospital admissions increased from 35.5% pre-COVID-19 to 46.4% intra-COVID-19 (p = 0.01). There was no significant mortality difference pre-COVID-19 as compared to the intra-COVID-19 period among injured patients (p = 0.76). Conclusion: Emergency injury care showed increased injury burden, inpatient admission and resource requirements during the pandemic period. This suggests the spectrum of disease may be more severe and that greater resources for injury management may continue to be needed during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic in Rwanda and other similar settings.

2.
Injury ; 51(7): 1468-1476, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, injuries account for approximately five million mortalities annually, with 90% occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although guidelines characterizing data for blood product transfusion in injury resuscitation have been established for high-income countries (HICs), no such information on use of blood products in LMICs exists. This systematic review evaluated the available literature on the use and associated outcomes of blood product transfusion therapies in LMICs for acute care of patients with injuries. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, Global Health, CINAHL and Cochrane databases through November 2018 was performed by a health sciences medical librarian. Prospective and cross-sectional reports of injured patients from LMICs involving data on blood product transfusion therapies were included. Two reviewers identified eligible records (κ=0.92); quality was assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Report elements, patient characteristics, injury information, blood transfusion therapies provided and mortality outcomes were extracted and analyzed. RESULTS: Of 3411 records, 150 full-text reports were reviewed and 17 met inclusion criteria. Identified reports came from the World Health Organization regions of Africa, the Eastern Mediterranean, and South-East Asia. A total of 6535 patients were studied, with the majority from exclusively inpatient hospital settings (52.9%). Data on transfusion therapies demonstrated that packed red blood cells were given to 27.0% of patients, fresh frozen plasma to 13.8%, and unspecified product types to 50.1%. Among patients with blunt and penetrating injuries, 5.8% and 15.7% were treated with blood product transfusions, respectively. Four reports provided data on comparative mortality outcomes, of which two found higher mortality in blood transfusion-treated patients than in untreated patients at 17.4% and 30.4%. The overall quality of evidence was either low (52.9%) or very low (41.2%), with one report of moderate quality by GRADE criteria. CONCLUSION: There is a paucity of high-quality data to inform appropriate use of blood transfusion therapies in LMIC injury care. Studies were geographically limited and did not include sufficient data on types of therapies and specific injury patterns treated. Future research in more diverse LMIC settings with improved data collection methods is needed to inform injury care globally.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Hemorragia/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Doença Aguda , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia
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