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1.
Psychiatry Res ; 288: 112964, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361338

RESUMO

In recent years, a growing number of studies have attempted to treat social-cognitive impairment within neurocognitive remediation as means of improving outcome in psychotic disorders with promising results. However, the durability of the effects is still under debate and little is known about the long-term efficacy of integrated neuro- and social-cognitive remediation in early psychosis. The purpose of this study was to examine long-term effects of a 12-week integrative cognitive remediation (ICR) for early psychosis. Thirty-seven patients diagnosed with primary psychotic disorder and previously treated with ICR as part of their standard treatment were assessed on cognitive performance, psychopathology, and functional outcome at baseline, 3 months (posttest) and 12 months (follow-up). After participating in ICT, individuals showed significant improvements on most neurocognitive and social cognitive domains. A significant increase in number of participants employed was found at 12-month. The study suggests ICR may have favorable effect on long-term cognitive improvements and functional gains in early psychosis.

2.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; : 1-12, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375913

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) affects 33-46% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and may be a risk factor for neuropsychological and functional deficits. However, the role of RBD on neuropsychological functioning in PD has yet to be fully determined. We, therefore, examined differences in neurocognitive performance, functional capacity, and psychiatric symptoms among nondemented PD patients with probable RBD (PD/pRBD+) and without (PD/pRBD-), and healthy comparison participants (HC). METHODS: Totally, 172 participants (58 PD/pRBD+; 65 PD/pRBD-; 49 HC) completed an RBD sleep questionnaire, psychiatric/clinical questionnaires, performance-based and self-reported functional capacity measures, and underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological battery assessing attention/working memory, language, visuospatial function, verbal and visual learning and memory, and executive function. RESULTS: Controlling for psychiatric symptom severity, the PD/pRBD+ group had poorer executive functioning and learning performance than the PD/pRBD- group and poorer neuropsychological functioning across all individual cognitive domains than the HCs. In contrast, PD/pRBD- patients had significantly lower scores than HCs only in the language domain. Moreover, PD/pRBD+ patients demonstrated significantly poorer medication management skills compared to HCs. Both PD groups reported greater depressive and anxiety severity compared to HCs; PD/pRBD+ group also endorsed greater severity of apathy compared to HCs. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of pRBD is associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning in PD such that PD patients with pRBD have poorer cognitive, functional, and emotional outcomes compared to HC participants and/or PD patients without pRBD. Our findings underscore the importance of RBD assessment for improved detection and treatment of neuropsychological deficits (e.g., targeted cognitive interventions).

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416150

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine demographic, psychiatric symptom, and neuropsychological performance factors associated with duration of unemployment in Iraq/Afghanistan Veterans with a history of mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). DESIGN: Cross-sectional, secondary data analysis of baseline measures in a supported employment study. SETTING: VA medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Participants (N=50) were veterans with a history of mild-to-moderate TBI who were unemployed, stating a goal of returning to work, and had documented impairment in at least 1 neuropsychological domain. Participants were referred from VA vocational and assessment-based clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Duration of unemployment, neuropsychological, and psychiatric symptom assessments. RESULTS: Bivariate correlations revealed that longer duration of unemployment was associated with greater posttraumatic stress disorder (P<.10) and depressive (P<.05) symptom severity, worse executive functioning (P<.05), and racial/ethnic minority status (P<.05). A multiple linear regression analysis including these independent variables explained 26.5% of the variance in duration of unemployment. Worse executive functioning, specifically reasoning and set-shifting, and minority status were each associated with longer duration of unemployment in the context of multiple independent variables. CONCLUSIONS: Our results underscore the importance of objective assessment of cognitive functioning in job-seeking Veterans with TBI histories. It may be useful to target aspects of executive functioning in vocational rehabilitation interventions and to provide additional assistance to Veterans from racial/ethnic minority groups.

4.
Am J Orthopsychiatry ; 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406707

RESUMO

Adults who are homeless experience high rates of health conditions and psychological distress, including low IQ and functional status. Resources are available to help these individuals, but provision of support is often contingent upon the identification of a known disability. In this context, we examined case managers' (CMs') subjective estimates of IQ and functional status in 77 adult residents of an urban homeless shelter. Participants completed objective measures of IQ and functional capacity. CMs overestimated IQs of lower IQ (IQ < 90) participants, correctly estimated IQs of average IQ (IQ = 90-110) participants, and underestimated IQs of higher IQ (IQ > 110) participants. CMs correctly identified 2 out of 8 participants meeting criteria for intellectual disability and 4 out of 16 participants with impaired functional status. These findings suggest that subjective evaluations of IQ and functional status are prone to a central tendency bias, leading CMs to overlook clients who are in need of assistance. Consequently, the objective measurement of IQ and functional status in homeless shelters is highly recommended. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

5.
Int Psychogeriatr ; : 1-10, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131916

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this paper was to examine the implementation and effectiveness of a community-based intervention for hoarding disorder (HD) using Cognitive Rehabilitation and Exposure/Sorting Therapy (CREST). DESIGN: This was a mixed-method, pre-post quasi-experimental study informed by the Practical, Robust Implementation and Sustainability Model for implementation science. SETTING: Program activities took place in San Diego County, mainly within clients' homes or community, with some activities in-office. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were aged 60 years or older, met eligibility for Medi-Cal or were uninsured, and met criteria for HD. INTERVENTION: A manualized, mobile protocol that incorporated CREST was utilized. MEASUREMENTS: The Clutter Image Rating and Hoarding Rating Scale were used as effectiveness outcomes. An investigator-created staff questionnaire was used to evaluate implementation. RESULTS: Thirty-seven clients were reached and enrolled in treatment and 15 completed treatment during the initial 2 years of the program. There were significant changes in hoarding severity and clutter volume. Based on the initial 2 years of the program, funding was provided for expansion to cover additional San Diego County regions and hire more staff clinicians in year three. CONCLUSION: Preliminary data suggest that the CREST intervention can be successfully implemented in a community setting with positive results for older adults with HD.

6.
Psychiatry Res ; 284: 112732, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978628

RESUMO

Preserving cognition and mental capacity is critical to aging with autonomy. Early detection of pathological cognitive decline facilitates the greatest impact of restorative or preventative treatments. Artificial Intelligence (AI) in healthcare is the use of computational algorithms that mimic human cognitive functions to analyze complex medical data. AI technologies like machine learning (ML) support the integration of biological, psychological, and social factors when approaching diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of disease. This paper serves to acquaint clinicians and other stakeholders with the use, benefits, and limitations of AI for predicting, diagnosing, and classifying mild and major neurocognitive impairments, by providing a conceptual overview of this topic with emphasis on the features explored and AI techniques employed. We present studies that fell into six categories of features used for these purposes: (1) sociodemographics; (2) clinical and psychometric assessments; (3) neuroimaging and neurophysiology; (4) electronic health records and claims; (5) novel assessments (e.g., sensors for digital data); and (6) genomics/other omics. For each category we provide examples of AI approaches, including supervised and unsupervised ML, deep learning, and natural language processing. AI technology, still nascent in healthcare, has great potential to transform the way we diagnose and treat patients with neurocognitive disorders.

7.
Rehabil Psychol ; 65(1): 72-79, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Performance-based tests of functional capacity are rarely used in research on mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI), but they may function as a link between cognitive impairment and real-world functioning. We sought to examine the relationship between cognitive functioning and performance-based functional capacity, as measured by the University of California San Diego Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief (UPSA-B), in Veterans with TBI histories. RESEARCH METHOD: A total of 50 unemployed Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans with mild to moderate TBI histories completed assessments of neuropsychological performance and functional capacity (UPSA-B total, financial subscale, and communication subscale scores). All participants were impaired in at least 1 neuropsychological domain on a prior clinical neuropsychological evaluation. A global deficit score was calculated based on neuropsychological performance on assessments of attention/working memory, processing speed, learning, delayed recall, prospective memory, and executive functioning. Deficit scores were also calculated for the executive-functioning domain and the processing-speed domain. Neuropsychological deficit scores were then correlated with UPSA-B performances. RESULTS: Correlation coefficients indicated that worse global neuropsychological performance was related to worse overall functional capacity (rs = -.28, p = .046) and communication capacity (rs = -.34, p = .016). Worse executive functioning was related to worse functional capacity, r = -.37, p = .008, particularly in the domain of communication, r = -.44, p ≤ .001. Processing-speed performance was not related to functional capacity. CONCLUSIONS: Executive functioning was moderately associated with both communication and overall everyday functioning capacity. Improvement in executive-functioning deficits may improve functional capacity, specifically in communication tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

8.
Schizophr Res ; 215: 49-53, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699627

RESUMO

Cognitive remediation is now widely recognized as an effective treatment for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Its effects are meaningful, durable, and related to improvements in everyday functional outcomes. As with many therapies, the evolution of cognitive remediation has resulted in treatment programs that use a variety of specific techniques, yet share common core principles. This paper is the product of a cognitive remediation expert working group consensus meeting to identify core features of the treatment and produce recommendations for its design, conduct, reporting, and implementation. Four techniques were identified as core features of cognitive remediation: facilitation by a therapist, cognitive exercise, procedures to develop problem-solving strategies, and procedures to facilitate transfer to real world functioning. Treatment techniques within each of these core features are presented to facilitate decisions for clinical trials and implementation in clinical settings.

9.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; 26(1): 108-118, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) history have high rates of performance validity test (PVT) failure. The study aimed to determine whether those with scores in the invalid versus valid range on PVTs show similar benefit from psychotherapy and if psychotherapy improves PVT performance. METHOD: Veterans (N = 100) with PTSD, mild-to-moderate TBI history, and cognitive complaints underwent neuropsychological testing at baseline, post-treatment, and 3-month post-treatment. Veterans were randomly assigned to cognitive processing therapy (CPT) or a novel hybrid intervention integrating CPT with TBI psychoeducation and cognitive rehabilitation strategies from Cognitive Symptom Management and Rehabilitation Therapy (CogSMART). Performance below standard cutoffs on any PVT trial across three different PVT measures was considered invalid (PVT-Fail), whereas performance above cutoffs on all measures was considered valid (PVT-Pass). RESULTS: Although both PVT groups exhibited clinically significant improvement in PTSD symptoms, the PVT-Pass group demonstrated greater symptom reduction than the PVT-Fail group. Measures of post-concussive and depressive symptoms improved to a similar degree across groups. Treatment condition did not moderate these results. Rate of valid test performance increased from baseline to follow-up across conditions, with a stronger effect in the SMART-CPT compared to CPT condition. CONCLUSION: Both PVT groups experienced improved psychological symptoms following treatment. Veterans who failed PVTs at baseline demonstrated better test engagement following treatment, resulting in higher rates of valid PVTs at follow-up. Veterans with invalid PVTs should be enrolled in trauma-focused treatment and may benefit from neuropsychological assessment after, rather than before, treatment.

10.
Appl Neuropsychol Adult ; 27(1): 62-72, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30183368

RESUMO

Self-reported traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common in combat veterans, and identification of psychiatric and neuropsychological consequences following TBI has become a priority for veteran healthcare. Given the importance of accurately capturing symptoms potentially related to TBI in VA settings, validity metrics are frequently used to evaluate both neuropsychological testing validity and the validity of symptom self-reports. The Validity-10 of the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory is one such metric that was designed to evaluate symptom over-reporting and thus identify individuals who may produce inconclusive testing profiles. However, the Validity-10's ability to predict objective effort during neuropsychological testing has not been sufficiently explored in veterans. Clinical evaluation data were collected from 295 veterans seeking treatment in a VA TBI clinic. We examined whether the Validity-10 can predict invalid performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests. Validity-10 was a poor predictor of performance validity metrics. Results provide a conceptual replication of earlier work demonstrating that performance and symptom validity are divergent. As such, separate evaluation of these domains is warranted during evaluations conducted in veteran TBI populations.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hoarding disorder (HD) is characterized by urges to save items, difficulty discarding possessions, and excessive clutter and has been associated with executive functioning deficits. A randomized controlled trial comparing Cognitive Rehabilitation and Exposure/Sorting Therapy (CREST) with a care management control condition demonstrated the efficacy of CREST in reducing hoarding symptoms in older adults. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether CREST may also lead to improved executive functioning. METHOD: All participants were administered a neurocognitive battery at baseline and posttreatment. Linear mixed models with random intercepts were used to evaluate change in global neuropsychological functioning as well as change in individual executive functioning variables. RESULTS: There was no significant group by time interaction for the Global Deficit score; however, there were significant group by time interactions on two of the executive functioning variables examined, such that participants in the CREST condition demonstrated significant improvement in cognitive flexibility and inhibition over time compared with the participants in the care management condition. DISCUSSION: Our initial findings support the notion that CREST may be able to improve task switching, an important component of executive functioning, in older adults with HD.

12.
Psychiatry Res ; 273: 690-698, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207854

RESUMO

Early application of cognitive remediation may help prevent the development of long-term functional impairments that characterize psychotic disorders. Interventions that encompass both neurocognitive and social-cognitive training may work synergistically to bridge the gap between cognitive gains and functional outcomes in early psychosis. We integrated three cognitive remediation approaches: Neuropsychological Educational Approach to Remediation (NEAR), Compensatory Cognitive Training (CCT), and Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), and evaluated the effects on cognition, clinical symptoms, self-assessed and informant-assessed social functioning in early psychosis. A total of 49 patients diagnosed with primary psychotic disorder seeking service at an early-intervention service in Iceland were randomized to either a waiting-list control group (n = 24) or a 12-week group-based integrative cognitive remediation (n = 25). Neurocognition, social cognition, community functioning and clinical symptoms were assessed at baseline and post-treatment. The intervention group showed significant improvements in verbal memory, cognitive flexibility, working memory, ToM and a significant reduction in hostile attributions, compared to those receiving standard treatment alone, but there were no differences between groups on measures of social functioning or clinical symptoms. The intervention was well tolerated and received high treatment satisfaction ratings. Findings indicate that integrated cognitive remediation has potential to improve neurocognition and social cognition in early psychosis.


Assuntos
Cognição , Remediação Cognitiva/métodos , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Teoria da Mente , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Psychiatr Serv ; 70(9): 782-792, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185856

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Among people with severe mental illnesses, neuropsychological abilities may contribute to vocational outcomes, such as job attainment, job tenure, and wages earned. The current study aimed to determine the strongest neuropsychological and other modifiable predictors of work outcomes in 153 people with severe mental illness (schizophrenia, 38%; bipolar disorder, 24%; and major depression, 38%) who participated in a 2-year supported employment study. METHODS: Assessments of neuropsychological performance, functional capacity, social skills, and psychiatric symptom severity were administered at baseline; work outcomes (job attainment, weeks worked, and wages earned) were collected weekly for 2 years. RESULTS: Independent of education, diagnosis, and estimated intellectual functioning, more recent work history and less severe negative symptoms significantly predicted job attainment during the 2-year study. Among the 47% who obtained jobs, better global neuropsychological performance (i.e., lower global deficit score) was a significant predictor of greater weeks worked. Both global neuropsychological performance and more recent work history predicted higher wages earned. CONCLUSIONS: Modifiable predictors of supported employment outcomes included cognitive functioning and negative symptom severity; thus, interventions to improve these factors may improve work outcomes and decrease the loss of productivity associated with severe mental illness.

14.
J Psychiatr Res ; 116: 7-13, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174014

RESUMO

Some providers have expressed hesitation about the appropriateness of PTSD treatment for veterans with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), given concerns that TBI-related sequelae may negatively affect PTSD treatment and/or should be the focus of treatment instead. However, research suggests that those with a history of mTBI can benefit from evidence-based PTSD treatment. To extend these findings, we examined whether specific mTBI injury markers were associated with PTSD treatment attendance and response. Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans with PTSD and history of mTBI (N = 88) all received Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT; either standard CPT without the trauma account or SMART-CPT, a modified version of CPT that included cognitive rehabilitation strategies). Analyses examined whether time since injury, presence of loss of consciousness (LOC) or posttraumatic amnesia (PTA), and number and mechanism of mTBIs were associated with treatment attendance or response. None of the five injury variables examined were associated with number of treatment sessions attended. Multilevel modeling indicated that injury variables did not moderate treatment response (across treatment conditions) in terms of change in PTSD and depression symptoms. There was a three-way interaction showing that individuals who denied ever experiencing LOC exhibited a greater decrease in PTSD and depression symptoms in standard CPT relative to those in the SMART-CPT. Thus, a history of mTBI should not preclude individuals from receiving standard CPT, regardless of injury characteristics. In fact, PTSD treatment should often be a first line of treatment for these veterans, given evidence of a mental health etiology to persistent post-concussive symptoms.

15.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 44(3): 333-339, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on return to work have been the focus of many clinical studies in recent years. Veterans with a history of TBI may be at increased risk of unemployment. OBJECTIVE: We sought to understand predictors of work outcomes for Veterans with a history of TBI who received evidence-based supported employment. METHODS: Fifty unemployed Veterans with a history of mild-to-moderate TBI and current neuropsychological impairment participated in a 12-month supported employment intervention. Demographic data and baseline assessments of neuropsychological impairment, functional capacity, and psychiatric and post-concussive symptom severity were investigated as predictors of work outcomes (job attainment, weeks worked, and wages earned). RESULTS: Bivariate analyses showed that lower disability ratings, more recent work history, more months worked in the past 5 years, lower PTSD symptom severity, worse verbal memory, and better cognitive flexibility were all associated with better work outcomes. In multivariate regression analyses, better cognitive flexibility and worse verbal memory performance predicted better work outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Further research is needed to determine how treatment of cognitive impairments and psychiatric symptoms is related to return to work in Veterans with a history of TBI.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/reabilitação , Readaptação ao Emprego/psicologia , Readaptação ao Emprego/tendências , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/reabilitação , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/diagnóstico , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/psicologia , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/reabilitação , Distribuição Aleatória , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/reabilitação
16.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 27(9): 895-907, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078382

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of sociodemographic and clinical factors with cognitive, physical, and mental health among independent living older adults in a continuing care senior housing community (CCSHC). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study at the independent living sector of a CCSHC in San Diego County, California. Participants included English-speaking adults aged 65-95 years, of which two-thirds were women. Of the 112 subjects recruited, 104 completed basic study assessments. The authors computed composite measures of cognitive, physical, and mental health. The authors also assessed relevant clinical correlates including psychosocial factors such as resilience, loneliness, wisdom, and social support. RESULTS: The CCSHC residents were similar to a randomly selected community-based sample of older adults on most standardized clinical measures. In the CCSHC, physical health correlated with both cognitive function and mental health, but there was no significant correlation between cognitive and mental health. Cognitive function was significantly associated with physical mobility, satisfaction with life, and wisdom, whereas physical health was associated with age, self-rated physical functioning, mental well-being, and resilience. Mental health was significantly associated with income, optimism, self-compassion, loneliness, and sleep disturbances. CONCLUSION: Different psychosocial factors are significantly associated with cognitive, physical, and mental health. Longitudinal studies of diverse samples of older adults are necessary to determine risk factors and protective factors for specific domains of health. With rapidly growing numbers of older adults who require healthcare as well as supportive housing, CCSHCs will become increasingly important sites for studying and promoting the health of older adults.

17.
Scand J Psychol ; 60(4): 295-303, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111499

RESUMO

The main aim of this study was to investigate the individual contributions of neurocognitive and social-cognitive domains to self-reported and informant-reported functional outcome in early psychosis. We also sought to further characterize the nature of cognitive impairments in this sample and explore the interrelationships between the social-cognitive measures and how they correlate with measures of neurocognition and clinical symptoms. In this study, 70 patients (mean age: 24.1; 87.1% males) with primary psychotic disorder diagnosed in the previous 5 years were assessed on multiple neurocognitive (processing speed, attention, working memory, immediate verbal memory, delayed recall, visual reasoning, inhibition, planning, cognitive flexibility), and social-cognitive domains (theory of mind (ToM), emotion recognition, attributional style, metacognitive overconfidence) as well as measures of clinical symptoms. Functional outcome was assessed with three self-reports and two informant-reports. On average, patients performed one or more SD below healthy controls on measures of delayed recall, ToM and metacognitive overconfidence. Emotion recognition and ToM were intercorrelated and correlated with multiple neurocognitive domains and negative symptoms. Attributional style correlated with positive symptoms. In the context of multiple variables, self-reported functional outcomes were predicted by attributional style, whereas emotion recognition and immediate verbal memory predicted variance in informant-reported community functioning. These results support the suggestion of a likely distinction between the predictive factors for self-reported and informant-reported functional outcome in early psychosis and suggest that consideration of self-assessment of functional outcome is critical when attempting to evaluate the effects attributional style has on functional disability.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Autorrelato , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Comportamento Social , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 90(3): 333-341, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To better concurrently address emotional and neuropsychological symptoms common in veterans with comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and history of traumatic brain injury (TBI), we integrated components of compensatory cognitive training from the Cognitive Symptom Management and Rehabilitation Therapy (CogSMART) programme into cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for PTSD to create a hybrid treatment, SMART-CPT (CogSMART+CPT). This study compared the efficacy of standard CPT with SMART-CPT for treatment of veterans with comorbid PTSD and history of TBI reporting cognitive symptoms. METHODS: One hundred veterans with PTSD, a history of mild to moderate TBI and current cognitive complaints were randomised and received individually delivered CPT or SMART-CPT for 12 weeks. Participants underwent psychological, neurobehavioural and neuropsychological assessments at baseline, on completion of treatment and 3 months after treatment. RESULTS: Both CPT and SMART-CPT resulted in clinically significant reductions in PTSD and postconcussive symptomatology and improvements in quality of life. SMART-CPT resulted in additional improvements in the neuropsychological domains of attention/working memory, verbal learning/memory and novel problem solving. CONCLUSION: SMART-CPT, a mental health intervention for PTSD, combined with compensatory cognitive training strategies, reduces PTSD and neurobehavioural symptoms and also provides added value by improving cognitive functioning.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Qualidade de Vida , Avaliação de Sintomas , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Psychiatry Res ; 271: 167-170, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481694

RESUMO

We retrospectively investigated archival clinical data, including correlates of lifetime homelessness, in 503 Veterans with a history of traumatic brain injuries (86.5% mild) who completed neuropsychological evaluations and passed performance validity tests. The 471 never-homeless and 32 ever-homeless Veterans were compared on demographic factors, TBI severity, psychiatric diagnosis, subjective symptoms, and neuropsychological functioning. Homelessness history was significantly associated with unemployment, lower disability income, more severe depressive, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and postconcussive symptoms, and lower performances on two of fifteen neurocognitive tests. In a multiple logistic regression model, current unemployment and substance use disorder remained significantly associated with lifetime homelessness.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Feminino , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Humanos , Guerra do Iraque 2003-2011 , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/epidemiologia , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Desemprego/psicologia , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
20.
Schizophr Res ; 204: 397-400, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30293693

RESUMO

Research identifying the effects of cognitive training on negative symptoms of psychosis is limited. We examined the effects of Compensatory Cognitive Training (CCT) on expressive deficits and social amotivation in a randomized controlled trial comparing CCT to standard pharmacotherapy alone in 43 individuals with psychosis. ANCOVA analyses demonstrated significant CCT-associated effects on both expressive deficits and social amotivation. Moreover, improvements in both sub-domains were associated with improvements in global life satisfaction, with improvements in social amotivation also related to increased social contact. CCT appears to be a beneficial treatment approach for improving multiple aspects of negative symptoms.


Assuntos
Apatia/fisiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Remediação Cognitiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
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