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JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(234): 212-216, 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506456


During the COVID-19 pandemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization strongly recommend that people wear face masks to cover their mouths and noses while they are out and about in any other public area. There are a lot of masks available on the market, and people get a lot of mixed messages about what is safe. This article explores what kind of facemasks are readily available in Nepali General stores and what are the things to keep in mind before buying a mask. We will also discuss how many times a face mask can be used, proper ways to store them, correct ways to use facemasks, and the rationale behind its use.

COVID-19 , Máscaras , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(239): 692-696, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508499


INTRODUCTION: An acid-base disorder is a change in the normal value of extracellular pH that may result when renal or respiratory function is abnormal or when an acid or base load overwhelms their excretory capacity. Clinical acid-base disorders are conventionally defined from the vantage point of their impact on carbonic-acid-bicarbonate buffer system. The aim of the study is to find out the prevalence of acid-base disorder among patients visiting the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 370 patients who underwent arterial gas analysis at the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital. The study was carried out from 15th July 2016 to 15th July 2017 after receiving ethical approval from Institutional Review Committee. Convenient sampling was done. Point estimate at 95% Confidence Interval was calculated along with frequency and proportion for binary data. Data were entered in Microsoft-Excel. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17 was used for analysis. RESULTS: Out of 370 patients analyzed, 329 (88.91%) (84.68-91.311 at 95% Confidence Interval) had acid-base disorder. The mixed disorder was the most common finding 80 (21.6%), followed by compensated Respiratory Acidosis 56 (17.8%). The mean age group of male patients studied was 50.72±20.586 and among females, it was 49.95±20.908 Among those most common symptoms were shortness of breath 151 (40.81%) followed by vomiting 91 (24.59%). CONCLUSIONS: Most common acid-base disorder was mixed disorder presenting with prominent symptoms of shortness of breathe in non-geriatric patients wherein the geriatric patient, the most common disorder was compensated respiratory acidosis with the prominent symptom of shortness of breath.

Acidose , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Centros de Atenção Terciária
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(239): 709-711, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508503


Myiasis is a skin infection caused by developing larvae (maggots) of various Diptera fly species. The two most frequent flies that cause human infestations around the world are Dermatobia hominis (human botfly) and Cordylobia anthropophaga (tumbu fly). Maggots have been found to infest the nose, ear, orbit, tracheostomy wound, face, gums, and serous cavities, among other places. Maggots at the colostomy site are an uncommon occurrence. We report a case of maggots infestation surrounding the colostomy site. We came across a rather rare finding in a patient with advanced inoperable rectum cancer who initially complained of persistent nonspecific pain, discomfort, and foul-smelling discharge from the colostomy site. The issue at hand was identified to be maggots, and their removal alleviated the patient's symptoms. We underline the importance of regularly monitoring stoma sites to avoid maggot infestation, especially in tropical regions.

Dípteros , Miíase , Animais , Calliphoridae , Colostomia , Humanos , Larva , Miíase/diagnóstico , Miíase/etiologia , Miíase/terapia
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 57(220): 408-411, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335650


INTRODUCTION: Kawasaki disease is an acute vasculitis of unknown etiology. The epidemiological data available for Nepal remains insufficient. In Nepal, Kawasaki disease has only been reported in cases of brief reports, leaving the true disease burden unknown. Many cases go undiagnosed and untreated due to a lack of knowledge regarding this entity. The objective of this study was to find the prevalence of Kawasaki disease in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital of Nepal from 2013 to 2018 after taking ethical approval from the Institutional Review Committee. The sample size was calculated and the consecutive sampling method was done. Data collection and entry was done in Microsoft Excel, point estimate at 99% Confidence Interval was calculated along with frequency and proportion for binary data. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of Kawasaki disease was found to be 0.10% at 95% Confidence Interval (0.07-0.13%) among 11,416 patients under the age of 5 years admitted in pediatrics ward. There were 4 (33.33%) cases of complete Kawasaki and 8 (66.67%) cases of incomplete Kawasaki. There were 9 (75%) males and 3 (25%) females and the male to female ratio was 3:1. There was a male preponderance. The age at diagnosis ranged between 4 and 60 months. The median age at diagnosis was 10.5 months. The most common presentation was fever, conjunctivitis, rash, and oral changes. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of Kawasaki disease was found to be lesser compared to other studies done in other countries. Knowledge of Kawasaki disease among Nepalese pediatricians should be enhanced to guarantee the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Pré-Escolar , Conjuntivite , Estudos Transversais , Eritema , Exantema , Feminino , Febre , Humanos , Lactente , Leucocitose , Linfadenopatia , Masculino , Mucosa Bucal , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/fisiopatologia , Nepal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Centros de Atenção Terciária