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1.
J Adolesc ; 79: 91-102, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926450

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adolescents spend an increasing amount of time using digital media, but gender differences in their use and in associations with psychological well-being are unclear. METHOD: We drew from three large, representative surveys of 13- to 18-year-old adolescents in the U.S. and UK (total N = 221,096) examining digital media use in hours per day and several measures of psychological well-being separately in each of the three datasets. RESULTS: Adolescent girls spent more time on smartphones, social media, texting, general computer use, and online, and boys spent more time gaming and on electronic devices in general. Associations between moderate or heavy digital media use and low psychological well-being/mental health issues were generally larger for girls than for boys. Light users of digital media were slightly higher in well-being than non-users, with larger differences among boys. Among both genders, heavy users of digital media were often twice as likely as low users to be low in well-being or have mental health issues, including risk factors for suicide. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between heavy digital media use and low psychological well-being are larger for adolescent girls than boys.

2.
J Homosex ; : 1-11, 2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902305

RESUMO

Previous research established a substantial increase in support for same-sex marriage in the US, but it is unclear if this increase is due to cohort (a change that affects only the younger generation) or time period (a change that affects those of all ages). In a nationally representative sample of American adults (n = 13,483) in 1988 and 2004-2018, increased support for same-sex marriage was primarily due to time period (from 11.1% in 1988 to 66.7% in 2018). There was a smaller cohort effect, with a fairly linear increase between cohorts born in the 1960s and those born in the 1990s. Time period increases in support for same-sex marriage appeared among across gender, race, education levels, regions, and levels of religious service attendance, though differences in support still remain. The results suggest Americans of all ages modified their beliefs about same-sex marriage over time.

3.
Sleep Med ; 66: 92-102, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838456

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Different types of electronic screen media have repeatedly been linked to impaired sleep; yet, how different uses of electronic media are linked to sleep has received much less attention. Currently, the role of chronotype in these associations is understudied. To address these gaps, this study examined how different uses of screen media are linked to sleep, and whether these associations were accounted for or differed across chronotype. METHODS: Data were from 11,361 children aged 13 to 15 from the United Kingdom who participated in the 2015 wave of the Millennium Cohort Study. RESULTS: Heavy use of screen media was associated with shorter sleep duration, longer sleep latency, and more mid-sleep awakenings. The strongest associations emerged for using screen media to engage in social media or to use the internet. Overall, these associations were weakened, but remained after controlling for chronotype and tended to be the strongest amongst robins (children with an intermediate chronotype). CONCLUSIONS: Spending too much time on electronic devices is associated with multiple dimensions of impaired sleep, especially if this time on devices is used for social media or surfing the internet. Chronotype does not account for the associations between screen media and sleep and can be used to identify children who may be particularly susceptible to the effects of screen media on sleep.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221441, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415674

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121454.].

5.
Curr Opin Psychol ; 32: 89-94, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415993

RESUMO

Between 2011 and 2018, rates of depression, self-harm, and suicide attempts increased substantially among U.S. adolescents. The most probable cause(s) of these trends likely 1) began or accelerated during these years, 2) affected a large number of people, 3) impacted everyday life, and 4) were associated with depression. In several large studies, heavy users of technology are twice as likely as light users to be depressed or have low well-being. Cohort declines in face-to-face social interaction may also impact even non-users of digital media. Thus, although technology use is not the cause of most depression, increased time spent on technology and the technological environment may be causes of the sudden increase in depression since 2011.

6.
J Adolesc Health ; 65(5): 590-598, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279724

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Past work has evidenced increased utilization of mental health services on college campuses, as well as rising rates of mood and suicide-related pathology in adolescents and young adults in recent years. We examined whether such findings are reflective of large-scale, nationwide trends in college student mental health in the past decade. METHODS: We examined trends in mood, anxiety, and suicide-related outcomes among U.S. college students from 2007 to 2018 across two large national datasets: (1) the National College Health Assessment (n = 610,543; mean age = 21.25 years; 67.7% female; and 72.0% white) and (2) the Healthy Minds Study (n = 177,692; 86% students aged 18-22 years; 57% female; and 74% white). Participants, randomly selected by their educational institution, completed self-report measures of past-year mood, anxiety, nonsuicidal self-injury, and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. RESULTS: In both samples, rates of depression, anxiety, nonsuicidal self-injury, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts markedly increased over the assessed years, with rates doubling over the period in many cases. Anger, low flourishing, and suicide plans, each assessed in only one dataset, also exhibited upward trends. CONCLUSIONS: Findings demonstrate a broad worsening of mental health among U.S. college students over the past decade, a concerning result meriting further attention and intervention.

7.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0215637, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091260

RESUMO

Both academic and popular literatures have repeatedly contended that emerging adults are the most narcissistic and entitled age-group in modern times. Although this contention is fiercely debated, the message that emerging adults are narcissistic and entitled has saturated popular culture. Despite this saturation, relatively little empirical work has examined how emerging adults might react to such labels. Across three studies in five samples in the U.S., the present work sought to address this deficit in research. Results from cross-sectional samples of university students at two universities, as well as an online convenience sample of web-using adults (Study 1), indicated that emerging adults believe their age-group and the one following them (e.g., adolescents) to be the most narcissistic and entitled age-groups, that they have generally negative opinions of narcissism and entitlement, and that they respond negatively to being labeled as narcissistic and entitled. Additionally, results from adult web-users revealed that, while all age groups tend to view adolescents and emerging adults as more narcissistic and entitled than older age-groups, these opinions are more exaggerated among members of older age-groups. Finally, across two experimental studies (Studies 2 & 3), results indicated that emerging adults react negatively to labeling of their age-group as narcissistic and entitled, but no more negatively than they do to potentially related undesirable labels (e.g., oversensitive). Collectively, these results indicate that emerging adults are aware of and somewhat distressed by messaging that casts their age-group as the most narcissistic and entitled age-group ever.


Assuntos
Narcisismo , Opinião Pública , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 128(3): 185-199, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869927

RESUMO

Drawing from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH; N = 611,880), a nationally representative survey of U.S. adolescents and adults, we assess age, period, and cohort trends in mood disorders and suicide-related outcomes since the mid-2000s. Rates of major depressive episode in the last year increased 52% 2005-2017 (from 8.7% to 13.2%) among adolescents aged 12 to 17 and 63% 2009-2017 (from 8.1% to 13.2%) among young adults 18-25. Serious psychological distress in the last month and suicide-related outcomes (suicidal ideation, plans, attempts, and deaths by suicide) in the last year also increased among young adults 18-25 from 2008-2017 (with a 71% increase in serious psychological distress), with less consistent and weaker increases among adults ages 26 and over. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses separating the effects of age, period, and birth cohort suggest the trends among adults are primarily due to cohort, with a steady rise in mood disorder and suicide-related outcomes between cohorts born from the early 1980s (Millennials) to the late 1990s (iGen). Cultural trends contributing to an increase in mood disorders and suicidal thoughts and behaviors since the mid-2000s, including the rise of electronic communication and digital media and declines in sleep duration, may have had a larger impact on younger people, creating a cohort effect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Psychiatr Q ; 90(2): 311-331, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859387

RESUMO

Adolescents spend a substantial and increasing amount of time using digital media (smartphones, computers, social media, gaming, Internet), but existing studies do not agree on whether time spent on digital media is associated with lower psychological well-being (including happiness, general well-being, and indicators of low well-being such as depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts). Across three large surveys of adolescents in two countries (n = 221,096), light users (<1 h a day) of digital media reported substantially higher psychological well-being than heavy users (5+ hours a day). Datasets initially presented as supporting opposite conclusions produced similar effect sizes when analyzed using the same strategy. Heavy users (vs. light) of digital media were 48% to 171% more likely to be unhappy, to be in low in well-being, or to have suicide risk factors such as depression, suicidal ideation, or past suicide attempts. Heavy users (vs. light) were twice as likely to report having attempted suicide. Light users (rather than non- or moderate users) were highest in well-being, and for most digital media use the largest drop in well-being occurred between moderate use and heavy use. The limitations of using percent variance explained as a gauge of practical impact are discussed.

10.
Sleep Med ; 56: 211-218, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639033

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Excessive screen time in child and adolescent populations is associated with short sleep duration, but the unique effects of portable vs. non-portable electronic devices has received little attention. Moreover, it is unknown whether the effects of these devices change across childhood. To address these gaps, the current study compared the association of portable vs. non-portable electronic devices with sleep duration throughout childhood. METHODS: Data were from a 2016 national survey of the caregivers of 43,755 children and adolescents ages 0-17 administered by the U.S. Census Bureau. RESULTS: Children and adolescents who spent more time on screens slept fewer hours and were more likely to get insufficient sleep. In multivariate regressions including time spent on TV and video game consoles and portable electronic devices, associations with sleep duration were primarily due to portable electronic devices. These results remained when demographic variables, diagnoses of anxiety or depression, physical activity, and BMI were included in the model. Moreover, time spent using both portable and non-portable devices was important for sleep duration in children under age 10, but the importance of non-portable devices diminished in children over 10. CONCLUSIONS: Spending multiple hours a day on electronic devices is associated with shorter sleep duration across all ages. However, portable electronic devices have a stronger association with sleep duration than non-portable electronic screens, with non-portable devices less relevant for sleep duration in children over age 10. The findings suggest that future interventions should uniquely target portable electronic devices while also accounting for the age group of children targeted.

11.
Child Dev ; 90(2): 638-654, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28925063

RESUMO

The social and historical contexts may influence the speed of development. In seven large, nationally representative surveys of U.S. adolescents 1976-2016 (N = 8.44 million, ages 13-19), fewer adolescents in recent years engaged in adult activities such as having sex, dating, drinking alcohol, working for pay, going out without their parents, and driving, suggesting a slow life strategy. Adult activities were less common when median income, life expectancy, college enrollment, and age at first birth were higher and family size and pathogen prevalence were lower, consistent with life history theory. The trends are unlikely to be due to homework and extracurricular time, which stayed steady or declined, and may or may not be linked to increased Internet use.

12.
Prev Med Rep ; 12: 271-283, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30406005

RESUMO

Previous research on associations between screen time and psychological well-being among children and adolescents has been conflicting, leading some researchers to question the limits on screen time suggested by physician organizations. We examined a large (n = 40,337) national random sample of 2- to 17-year-old children and adolescents in the U.S. in 2016 that included comprehensive measures of screen time (including cell phones, computers, electronic devices, electronic games, and TV) and an array of psychological well-being measures. After 1 h/day of use, more hours of daily screen time were associated with lower psychological well-being, including less curiosity, lower self-control, more distractibility, more difficulty making friends, less emotional stability, being more difficult to care for, and inability to finish tasks. Among 14- to 17-year-olds, high users of screens (7+ h/day vs. low users of 1 h/day) were more than twice as likely to ever have been diagnosed with depression (RR 2.39, 95% CI 1.54, 3.70), ever diagnosed with anxiety (RR 2.26, CI 1.59, 3.22), treated by a mental health professional (RR 2.22, CI 1.62, 3.03) or have taken medication for a psychological or behavioral issue (RR 2.99, CI 1.94, 4.62) in the last 12 months. Moderate use of screens (4 h/day) was also associated with lower psychological well-being. Non-users and low users of screens generally did not differ in well-being. Associations between screen time and lower psychological well-being were larger among adolescents than younger children.

13.
Emotion ; 18(6): 765-780, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29355336

RESUMO

In nationally representative yearly surveys of United States 8th, 10th, and 12th graders 1991-2016 (N = 1.1 million), psychological well-being (measured by self-esteem, life satisfaction, and happiness) suddenly decreased after 2012. Adolescents who spent more time on electronic communication and screens (e.g., social media, the Internet, texting, gaming) and less time on nonscreen activities (e.g., in-person social interaction, sports/exercise, homework, attending religious services) had lower psychological well-being. Adolescents spending a small amount of time on electronic communication were the happiest. Psychological well-being was lower in years when adolescents spent more time on screens and higher in years when they spent more time on nonscreen activities, with changes in activities generally preceding declines in well-being. Cyclical economic indicators such as unemployment were not significantly correlated with well-being, suggesting that the Great Recession was not the cause of the decrease in psychological well-being, which may instead be at least partially due to the rapid adoption of smartphones and the subsequent shift in adolescents' time use. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicologia do Adolescente/tendências , Smartphone/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Felicidade , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Internet/história , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal , Psicologia do Adolescente/história , Autoimagem , Smartphone/história , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Mensagem de Texto/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
14.
Sleep Med ; 39: 47-53, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29157587

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Insufficient sleep among adolescents carries significant health risks, making it important to determine social factors that change sleep duration. We sought to determine whether the self-reported sleep duration of U.S. adolescents changed between 2009 and 2015 and examine whether new media screen time (relative to other factors) might be responsible for changes in sleep. METHODS: We drew from yearly, nationally representative surveys of sleep duration and time use among adolescents conducted since 1991 (Monitoring the Future) and 2007 (Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System of the Centers for Disease Control; total N = 369,595). RESULTS: Compared to 2009, adolescents in 2015 were 16%-17% more likely to report sleeping less than 7 h a night on most nights, with an increase in short sleep duration after 2011-2013. New media screen time (electronic device use, social media, and reading news online) increased over this time period and was associated with increased odds of short sleep duration, with a clear exposure-response relationship for electronic devices after 2 or more hours of use per day. Other activities associated with short sleep duration, such as homework time, working for pay, and TV watching, were relatively stable or reduced over this time period, making it unlikely that these activities caused the sudden increase in short sleep duration. CONCLUSIONS: Increased new media screen time may be involved in the recent increases (from 35% to 41% and from 37% to 43%) in short sleep among adolescents. Public health interventions should consider electronic device use as a target of intervention to improve adolescent health.


Assuntos
Autorrelato , Sono/fisiologia , Televisão/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/tendências , Inquéritos e Questionários , Televisão/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos , Jogos de Vídeo/estatística & dados numéricos , Jogos de Vídeo/tendências
15.
Arch Sex Behav ; 46(8): 2389-2401, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28265779

RESUMO

American adults had sex about nine fewer times per year in the early 2010s compared to the late 1990s in data from the nationally representative General Social Survey, N = 26,620, 1989-2014. This was partially due to the higher percentage of unpartnered individuals, who have sex less frequently on average. Sexual frequency declined among the partnered (married or living together) but stayed steady among the unpartnered, reducing the marital/partnered advantage for sexual frequency. Declines in sexual frequency were similar across gender, race, region, educational level, and work status and were largest among those in their 50s, those with school-age children, and those who did not watch pornography. In analyses separating the effects of age, time period, and cohort, the decline was primarily due to birth cohort (year of birth, also known as generation). With age and time period controlled, those born in the 1930s (Silent generation) had sex the most often, whereas those born in the 1990s (Millennials and iGen) had sex the least often. The decline was not linked to longer working hours or increased pornography use. Age had a strong effect on sexual frequency: Americans in their 20s had sex an average of about 80 times per year, compared to about 20 times per year for those in their 60s. The results suggest that Americans are having sex less frequently due to two primary factors: An increasing number of individuals without a steady or marital partner and a decline in sexual frequency among those with partners.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Casamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parceiros Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Arch Sex Behav ; 46(2): 433-440, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27480753

RESUMO

Examining age, time period, and cohort/generational changes in sexual experience is key to better understanding sociocultural influences on sexuality and relationships. Americans born in the 1980s and 1990s (commonly known as Millennials and iGen) were more likely to report having no sexual partners as adults compared to GenX'ers born in the 1960s and 1970s in the General Social Survey, a nationally representative sample of American adults (N = 26,707). Among those aged 20-24, more than twice as many Millennials born in the 1990s (15 %) had no sexual partners since age 18 compared to GenX'ers born in the 1960s (6 %). Higher rates of sexual inactivity among Millennials and iGen also appeared in analyses using a generalized hierarchical linear modeling technique known as age-period-cohort analysis to control for age and time period effects among adults of all ages. Americans born early in the 20th century also showed elevated rates of adult sexual inactivity. The shift toward higher rates of sexual inactivity among Millennials and iGen'ers was more pronounced among women and absent among Black Americans and those with a college education. Contrary to popular media conceptions of a "hookup generation" more likely to engage in frequent casual sex, a higher percentage of Americans in recent cohorts, particularly Millennials and iGen'ers born in the 1990s, had no sexual partners after age 18.


Assuntos
Parceiros Sexuais , Sexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Efeito de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J Psychol ; 52(1): 28-39, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27976381

RESUMO

The Great Recession's influence on American undergraduate students' values was examined, testing Greenfield's and Kasser's theories concerning value development during economic downturns. Study 1 utilised aggregate-level data to investigate (a) population-level value changes between the pre-recession (2004-2006: n = 824,603) and recession freshman cohort (2008-2010: n = 662,262) and (b) overall associations of population-level values with national economic climates over long-term periods by correlating unemployment rates and concurrent aggregate-level values across 1966-2015 (n = 10 million). Study 2 examined individual-level longitudinal value development from freshman to senior year, and whether the developmental trajectories differed between those who completed undergraduate education before the Great Recession (freshmen in 2002, n = 12,792) versus those who encountered the Great Recession during undergraduate years (freshmen in 2006, n = 13,358). Results suggest American undergraduate students' increased communitarianism (supporting Greenfield) and materialism (supporting Kasser) during the Great Recession. The recession also appears to have slowed university students' development of positive self-views. Results contribute to the limited literature on the Great Recession's influence on young people's values. They also offer theoretical and practical implications, as values of this privileged group of young adults are important shapers of societal values, decisions, and policies.


Assuntos
Recessão Econômica , Valores Sociais , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Autoimagem , Mudança Social , Responsabilidade Social , Desemprego/psicologia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 112(5): e9-e17, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27929302

RESUMO

Orth, Trzesniewski, and Robins (2010) concluded that the nationally representative Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) cohort-sequential study demonstrated moderate to large age differences in self-esteem, and no birth cohort (generational) differences in the age trajectory. In a reanalysis of these data using 2 different statistical techniques, we find significant increases in self-esteem that could be attributed to birth cohort or time period. First, hierarchical linear modeling analyses with birth cohort as a continuous variable (vs. the multiple group formulation used by Orth et al.) find that birth cohort has a measurable influence on self-esteem through its interaction with age. Participants born in later years (e.g., 1960) were higher in self-esteem and were more likely to increase in self-esteem as they aged than participants born in earlier years (e.g., 1920). However, the estimated age trajectory up to age 60 is similar in Orth et al.'s results and in the results from our analyses including cohort. Second, comparing ACL respondents of the same age in 1986 versus 2002 (a time-lag design) yields significant birth cohort differences in self-esteem, with 2002 participants of the same age higher in self-esteem than those in 1986. Combined with some previous studies finding significant increases in self-esteem and positive self-views over time, these results suggest that cultural change in the form of cohort and time period cannot be ignored as influences in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Autoimagem , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo
19.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 42(10): 1364-83, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27604353

RESUMO

In three nationally representative surveys of U.S. residents (N = 10 million) from 1970 to 2015, more Americans in the early 2010s (vs. previous decades) identified as Independent, including when age effects were controlled. More in the early 2010s (vs. previous decades) expressed polarized political views, including stronger political party affiliation or more extreme ideological self-categorization (liberal vs. conservative) with fewer identifying as moderate. The correlation between party affiliation and ideological views grew stronger over time. The overall trend since the 1970s was toward more Americans identifying as Republican or conservative. Older adults were more likely to identify as conservative and Republican. More Millennials (born 1980-1994) identify as conservative than either GenXers or Boomers did at the same age, and fewer are Democrats compared with Boomers. These trends are discussed in the context of social identification processes and their implications for the political dynamics in the United States.


Assuntos
Política , Autorrelato , Identificação Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
20.
Arch Sex Behav ; 45(7): 1713-30, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27251639

RESUMO

We examined change over time in the reported prevalence of men having sex with men and women having sex with women and acceptance of those behaviors in the nationally representative General Social Survey of U.S. adults (n's = 28,161-33,728, ages 18-96 years), 1972-2014. The number of U.S. adults who had at least one same-sex partner since age 18 doubled between the early 1990s and early 2010s (from 3.6 to 8.7 % for women and from 4.5 to 8.2 % for men). Bisexual behavior (having sex with both male and female partners) increased from 3.1 to 7.7 %, accounting for much of the rise, with little consistent change in those having sex exclusively with same-sex partners. The increase in same-sex partners was larger for women than for men, consistent with erotic plasticity theory. Attitudes toward same-sex sexual behavior also became substantially more accepting, d = .75, between the early 1970s and early 2010s. By 2014, 49 % of American adults believed that same-sex sexual activity was "not wrong at all," up from 11 % in 1973 and 13 % in 1990. Controlling for acceptance reduced, but did not eliminate, the increase in same-sex behavior over time. Mixed effects (hierarchical linear modeling) analyses separating age, time period, and cohort showed that the trends were primarily due to time period. Increases in same-sex sexual behavior were largest in the South and Midwest and among Whites, were mostly absent among Blacks, and were smaller among the religious. Overall, same-sex sexual behavior has become both more common (or at least more commonly reported) and more accepted.


Assuntos
Bissexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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