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1.
Chest ; 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have elevated levels of inflammatory markers, but no prospective study has examined the role of inflammation in the development of OSA. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is C-reactive protein (CRP) prospectively associated with risk of developing OSA? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We followed 1,882 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 2002-2012), 3,854 women from NHSII (1995-2013), 3,075 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS; 1996-2012) and 1,919 women and men from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA; 2000-2012) who did not have diagnosed OSA at baseline and for whom CRP levels were available. In NHS/NHSII/HPFS, clinician-diagnosed OSA was self-reported. In MESA, at-home polysomnography was performed and OSA was identified as an Apnea-Hypopnea Index≥30. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for OSA risk according to baseline CRP level, adjusted for multiple inflammation-related factors. RESULTS: After multivariable adjustment not including BMI, the pooled OR (95% CI) for OSA risk per doubling of baseline CRP level was 1.24 (1.18, 1.30). Additional adjustment for BMI substantially attenuated the association (pooled OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.12). The fully-adjusted association was consistently stronger in individuals <55 years versus ≥55 years (p-interaction=0.01), in individuals with BMI<25 kg/m2 versus ≥25 kg/m2 (p-interaction=0.02) and in premenopausal versus postmenopausal women (p-interaction=0.002). CRP was more strongly associated with risk of OSA associated with excessive daytime sleepiness, high airway collapsibility and low arousal threshold (p-heterogeneity<0.05). INTERPRETATION: Higher CRP was prospectively associated with increased OSA risk, particularly among younger individuals, underweight/normal-weight individuals or premenopausal women. The differential associations by OSA phenotype/endotype suggest possible mechanisms through which inflammation operates to modulate OSA risk. Given our reliance on a single CRP level measured a decade before OSA assessment, future studies with repeated CRP measurements are warranted to confirm these prospective associations.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation is a well-established mechanism of ovarian carcinogenesis; however, the specific immunogenic processes influencing ovarian tumor development remain unclear. In a case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the NHSII, we examined the association between six inflammatory chemokines and cytokines (B-cell activating factor [BAFF], C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 [CXCL13], interleukin[IL]-8, solubleIL-2-receptor-a[Ra], solubleIL-6Ra) and epithelial ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: Among 299 epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 334 matched controls, six inflammatory biomarkers were measured in plasma collected 1-24 years before diagnosis or index date using two custom multiplex Luminex panels. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for the association between each biomarker and risk using multivariable conditional logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. We additionally assessed heterogeneity in the risk associations by histotype (high-grade serous carcinoma [HGSC] vs. non-HGSC), body mass index, smoking status, menopausal status, and aspirin use. RESULTS: Women with the highest versus lowest quartile (Q) levels of CXCL13 had a 72% increased ovarian cancer risk (OR=1.72, 95% CI=1.04, 2.83; Ptrend=0.007). The positive association with CXCL13 was stronger in magnitude for non-HGSC, overweight or obese women, and postmenopausal women, although only menopausal status demonstrated statistically significant heterogeneity (Pinteraction=0.04). The remaining biomarkers were not associated with risk. CONCLUSIONS: This first evidence that pre-diagnostic CXCL13, a B-cell chemoattractant, is associated with an increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer expands current understanding of the role of inflammation in ovarian carcinogenesis. IMPACT: CXCL13 may represent a novel biomarker for ovarian cancer.

3.
Nature ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536615

RESUMO

Most ovarian cancers are infiltrated by prognostically relevant activated T cells1-3, yet exhibit low response rates to immune checkpoint inhibitors4. Memory B cell and plasma cell infiltrates have previously been associated with better outcomes in ovarian cancer5,6, but the nature and functional relevance of these responses are controversial. Here, using 3 independent cohorts that in total comprise 534 patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer, we show that robust, protective humoral responses are dominated by the production of polyclonal IgA, which binds to polymeric IgA receptors that are universally expressed on ovarian cancer cells. Notably, tumour B-cell-derived IgA redirects myeloid cells against extracellular oncogenic drivers, which causes tumour cell death. In addition, IgA transcytosis through malignant epithelial cells elicits transcriptional changes that antagonize the RAS pathway and sensitize tumour cells to cytolytic killing by T cells, which also contributes to hindering malignant progression. Thus, tumour-antigen-specific and -antigen-independent IgA responses antagonize the growth of ovarian cancer by governing coordinated tumour cell, T cell and B cell responses. These findings provide a platform for identifying targets that are spontaneously recognized by intratumoural B-cell-derived antibodies, and suggest that immunotherapies that augment B cell responses may be more effective than approaches that focus on T cells, particularly for malignancies that are resistant to checkpoint inhibitors.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246686, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544776

RESUMO

Patients consented to biobanking studies typically do not specify research conducted on their samples and data. Our objective was to gauge cancer biobanking participant preferences on research topics. Patient-participants of a biobanking study at a comprehensive cancer center who had an appointment within the last 5 years, had a valid email address, and with a last known vital status of alive, were emailed a newsletter containing a link to a survey about preferences and priorities for research. The survey assessed demographics and research interest in three domains: cancer site, cancer-related topics, and issues faced by cancer patients. 37,384 participants were contacted through email to participate in the survey. 16,158 participants (43.2%) opened the email, 1,626 (4.3% overall, 10% of those who opened the email) completed the survey, and 1,291 (79.4% of those who completed the survey) selected at least one research priority. Among those who selected at least one research priorities for cancer-relevant topics, the most commonly selected were cancer treatment (66%), clinical trials (54%), and cancer prevention (53%). Similarly, the most selected priorities for cancer-related issues faced by patients were physical side effects of cancer (57%), talking to the oncologist (53%), and emotional challenges due to cancer (47%). Differences by gender were observed, with females reporting more interest in research generally. Cancer patients participating in a biobanking protocol prioritized research on treatments, prevention and side effects, which varied by gender.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433939

RESUMO

When powder is applied to the genital area, it has the potential to reach internal reproductive organs and promote carcinogenesis by irritating and inflaming exposed tissues. Although many studies have considered the association between genital powder use and ovarian cancer risk, the relationship between genital powder use and uterine cancer is less well-studied. We pooled data from four large, prospective cohorts (the Nurses' Health Study, the Nurses' Health Study II, the Sister Study and the Women's Health Initiative - Observational Study). We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for prespecified confounders. In total, 209 185 women were included, with 37% reporting ever genital powder use. Over a mean 14.5 years of follow-up, 3272 invasive uterine cancers were diagnosed. There was no overall association between ever genital powder use and uterine cancer (HR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.94-1.09), with little difference observed for frequent (≥1 times/week) vs never use (HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.95-1.16; P-for-trend = .46). Long-term use (>20 years; HR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.96-1.31; P-for-trend = 0.14) was associated with a small, but not statistically significant, increase in risk, compared to never use. There were not clear differences by uterine cancer histologic subtypes or across strata of relevant covariates, including race/ethnicity, follow-up time, menopausal status and body mass index. The results of this large, pooled analysis do not support a relationship between the use of genital powder and uterine cancer, although the positive associations observed for long-term use may merit further consideration.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with higher risk of certain chronic diseases, including ovarian cancer, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Although prior work has linked menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use with elevated ovarian cancer risk, little research considers PTSD to likelihood of MHT use. We examined whether PTSD was prospectively associated with greater likelihood of initiating MHT use over 26 years. METHODS: Using data from the Nurses' Health Study II, with trauma and PTSD (symptoms and onset date) assessed by screener in 2008 and MHT assessed via biennial survey (from 1989), we performed Cox proportional regression models with women contributing person-years from age 36 years. Relevant covariates were assessed at biennial surveys. We considered potential effect modification by race/ethnicity, age at baseline, and period (1989-2002 vs. 2003-2015). RESULTS: Over follow-up, 22,352 of 43,025 women reported initiating MHT use. For example, compared with women with no trauma, the HR for initiating MHT was 1.18 for those with trauma/1-3 PTSD symptoms [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.13-1.22] and 1.31 for those with trauma/4-7 PTSD symptoms (95% CI, 1.25-1.36; P trend < 0.001), adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Associations were maintained when adjusting for reproductive factors and health conditions. We found evidence of effect modification by age at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Trauma and number of PTSD symptoms were associated with greater likelihood of initiating MHT use in a dose-response manner. IMPACT: MHT may be a pathway linking PTSD to altered chronic disease risk. It is important to understand why women with PTSD initiate MHT use.

7.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331993

RESUMO

Oral contraceptives (OCs) have been associated with long-term lower endometrial cancer risk; relatively little is known about associations with more recent OC formulations and associations with longer-term risk. A total of 107,069 women from the Nurses' Health Study II recalled OC use from age 13 to baseline (1989); biennial questionnaires updated data on OC use until 2009. OCs were classified by estrogen and progestin type, dose, and potency based on reported brand. 864 incident endometrial cancer cases were identified through 2017. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] for the association of OC use with endometrial cancer risk. OC use was associated with lower endometrial cancer risk (ever use, HR 0.77 [95% CI 0.65-0.91]; >10 years of use, 0.43 [0.32-0.58] vs. never OC use). Inverse associations for duration were evident regardless of time since last use. Longer durations (> 5 years) of ethinyl estradiol (0.52 [0.41-0.67]) and second-generation progestins (0.43 [0.30-0.61]), both versus never use, were more strongly associated with lower risk than mestranol (0.66 [0.50-0.88], p-het = 0.01) and first-generation progestins (0.62 [0.49-0.78], p-het = 0.03). Inverse associations were generally observed for cross-classified cumulative average estrogen and progestin dose and potency (< vs. ≥ median; ever use vs. never OC use), with the exception of high estrogen and low progestin dose. OCs were associated with lower endometrial cancer risk, independent of time since last use. Use of ethinyl estradiol and second-generation progestins were more strongly inversely associated with risk compared with older formulations.

8.
J Clin Med ; 9(10)2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007946

RESUMO

Given the unalterable nature of most risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC) survival (e.g., disease stage), identifying modifiable determinants is critical. We investigated whether anxiety and depression were related to CRC survival using data from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Health Professional Follow-up Study (HPFS). Participants who received a CRC diagnosis and provided information about anxiety (nNHS = 335; nHPFS = 232) and depression (nNHS = 893; nHPFS = 272) within 4 years of diagnosis were included. Cox regression models estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of overall mortality, while controlling for covariates (sociodemographics, cancer characteristics, and lifestyle factors). Pooled risk estimates were derived from fixed effects meta-analyses of the cohorts. Among 1732 CRC patients, 814 deaths occurred during the 28-year follow-up. Each 1 standard deviation increase in anxiety or depression symptoms was associated with a similar 16% higher mortality risk (anxiety: 95% CI = 1.05-1.29; depression: 95% CI = 1.07-1.26). Comparable results were observed across all sensitivity analyses (introducing a 1-year lag, restricting to CRC-related mortality, considering potential behavioral pathways) and stratified models (cancer stage, sex). Our findings suggest greater anxiety and depression symptoms can not only impede adherence to healthy habits and reduce quality of life in cancer patients but could also be a marker for accelerated CRC progression.

9.
Sleep ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic intermittent hypoxia resulting from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may activate multiple carcinogenic pathways and lead to cancer development. METHODS: We prospectively examined the association between OSA and cancer risk among 65,330 women in the Nurses' Health Study who were free of cancer in 2008 (mean age: 73.3 years). Incident cancer diagnoses were collected until 2016 and confirmed by pathology reports. Clinically-diagnosed OSA was self-reported in 2008 and updated in 2012. We used time-dependent Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for the associations of OSA with total and site-specific cancer risk. RESULTS: We documented 5,257 incident cancer diagnoses during follow-up. In the age-adjusted model, OSA was associated with a 15% (95% CI: 1.03, 1.29) increase in total cancer risk. The association became non-significant after adjustment for multiple cancer risk factors (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.21). When examining cancer risk by site, OSA was associated with significantly increased risk for lung (fully-adjusted HR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.17), bladder (fully-adjusted HR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.12, 3.35) and thyroid cancer (fully-adjusted HR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.01, 4.22) and possibly increased risk for kidney cancer (fully-adjusted HR: 1.59; 95% CI: 0.84, 3.01). When grouping cancer sites by risk factor profiles, OSA was positively associated with smoking-related cancers (fully-adjusted HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.67), and this association was stronger in never smokers than ever smokers. CONCLUSION: While OSA was not independently associated with overall cancer risk in older women, significant associations were observed for smoking-related cancers, especially in non-smokers.

10.
Support Care Cancer ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975643

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Identify predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors impacting genetic counseling/testing among ovarian cancer patients guided by Green and Kreuter's PRECEDE-PROCEED model. METHODS: Gynecologic oncology providers (N = 4), genetic counselors (N = 4), and ovarian cancer patients (N = 9) completed semi-structured qualitative interviews exploring participants' knowledge of and experiences with genetic counseling/testing. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using inductive content analysis by two independent raters. RESULTS: Thematic analysis identified predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors impacting referral for and uptake of genetic counseling/testing. Predisposing factors included participant's knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes related to genetic counseling/testing. Both patients and providers also cited that insurance coverage and out-of-pocket cost are major concerns for ovarian cancer patients considering genetic testing. Finally, both patients and providers emphasized that genetic counseling/testing would provide additional information to an ovarian cancer patient. While providers emphasized that genetic testing results were useful for informing a patient's personal treatment plan, patients emphasized that this knowledge would be beneficial for their family members. CONCLUSION: Barriers to genetic testing for ovarian cancer patients exist at multiple levels, including the patient (e.g., knowledge, attitudes), the provider (e.g., workload, availability of services), the institution (e.g., difficulty with referrals/scheduling), and the healthcare system (e.g., insurance/cost). Interventions aiming to increase genetic testing among ovarian cancer patients will likely need to target multiple levels of influence. Future quantitative studies are needed to replicate these results. This line of work will inform specific multilevel intervention strategies that are adaptable to different practice settings, ultimately improving guideline concordant care.

11.
J Bone Miner Res ; 35(11): 2143-2150, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909307

RESUMO

Recent studies suggest a positive association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a disorder associated with intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation, and derangements in bone metabolism. However, no prospective study to date has investigated the association between OSA and fracture risk in women. We conducted a prospective study examining the relation between OSA and risk of incident vertebral fracture (VF) and hip fracture (HF) in the Nurses' Health Study. History of physician-diagnosed OSA was assessed by self-reported questionnaires. A previous validation study demonstrated high concordance between self-reports and medical record identification of OSA. OSA severity was further categorized according to the presence or absence of self-reported sleepiness. Self-reports of VF were confirmed by medical record review. Self-reported HF was assessed by biennial questionnaires. Cox proportional-hazards models estimated the hazard ratio for fracture according to OSA status, adjusted for potential confounders, including BMI, physical activity, calcium intake, history of osteoporosis, and falls, and use of sleep medications. Among 55,264 women without prior history of fracture, physician-diagnosed OSA was self-reported in 1.3% in 2002 and increased to 3.3% by 2012. Between 2002 and 2014, 461 incident VF cases and 921 incident HF cases were documented. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for confirmed VF for women with history of OSA was 2.00 (95% CI, 1.29-3.12) compared with no OSA history, with the strongest association observed for OSA with daytime sleepiness (HR 2.86; 95% CI, 1.31-6.21). No association was observed between OSA history and self-reported HF risk (HR 0.83; 95% CI, 0.49-1.43). History of OSA is independently associated with higher risk of confirmed VF but did not have a statistically significant association with self-reported HF in women. Further research is warranted in understanding the role of OSA and intermittent hypoxia in bone metabolism and health that may differ by fracture site. © 2020 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).

12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2010-2018, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers have shared developmental pathways. Few studies have prospectively examined heterogeneity in risk factor associations across these three anatomic sites. METHODS: We identified 3,738 ovarian, 337 peritoneal, and 176 fallopian tube incident cancer cases in 891,731 women from 15 prospective cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Associations between 18 putative risk factors and risk of ovarian, peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancer, overall and for serous and high-grade serous tumors, were evaluated using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression. Heterogeneity was assessed by likelihood ratio tests. RESULTS: Most associations did not vary by tumor site (P het ≥ 0.05). Associations between first pregnancy (P het = 0.04), tubal ligation (P het = 0.01), and early-adult (age 18-21 years) body mass index (BMI; P het = 0.02) and risk differed between ovarian and peritoneal cancers. The association between early-adult BMI and risk further differed between peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer (P het = 0.03). First pregnancy and tubal ligation were inversely associated with ovarian, but not peritoneal, cancer. Higher early-adult BMI was associated with higher risk of peritoneal, but not ovarian or fallopian tube, cancer. Patterns were generally similar when restricted to serous and high-grade serous cases. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers appear to have both shared and distinct etiologic pathways, although most risk factors appear to have similar associations by anatomic site. IMPACT: Further studies on the mechanisms underlying the differences in risk profiles may provide insights regarding the developmental origins of tumors arising in the peritoneal cavity and inform prevention efforts.

13.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859999

RESUMO

Recent animal and small clinical studies have suggested depression is related to altered lipid and amino acid profiles. However, this has not been examined in a population-based sample, particularly in women. We identified multiple metabolites associated with depression as potential candidates from prior studies. Cross-sectional data from three independent samples of postmenopausal women were analyzed, including women from the Women's Health Initiative-Observational Study (WHI-OS, n = 926), the WHI-Hormone Trials (WHI-HT; n = 1,325), and the Nurses' Health Study II Mind-Body Study (NHSII-MBS; n = 218). Positive depression status was defined as having any of the following: elevated depressive symptoms, antidepressant use, or depression history. Plasma metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (21 phosphatidylcholines (PCs), 7 lysophosphatidylethanolamines, 5 ceramides, 3 branched chain amino acids, and 9 neurotransmitters). Associations between depression status and metabolites were evaluated using multivariable linear regression; results were pooled by random-effects meta-analysis with multiple testing adjustment using the false discovery rate (FDR). Prevalence rates of positive depression status were 24.4% (WHI-OS), 25.7% (WHI-HT), and 44.7% (NHSII-MBS). After multivariable adjustment, positive depression status was associated with higher levels of glutamate and PC 36 : 1/38 : 3, and lower levels of tryptophan and GABA-to-glutamate and GABA-to-glutamine ratio (FDR-p < 0.05). Positive associations with LPE 18 : 0/18 : 1 and inverse associations with valine and serotonin were also observed, although these associations did not survive FDR adjustment. Associations of positive depression status with several candidate metabolites including PC 36 : 1/38 : 3 and amino acids involved in neurotransmission suggest potential depression-related metabolic alterations in postmenopausal women, with possible implications for later chronic disease.

14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(11): 2211-2219, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differential associations between ovarian cancer risk factors and estrogen receptor-α (ERα) ovarian tumor expression have been noted; however, no research has assessed estrogen receptor-ß (ERß) expression. Thus, in exploratory analyses, we assessed the association of several factors with ovarian cancer risk by ERß tumor status. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study within the prospective Nurses' Health Study cohorts (NHS/NHSII), with exposures collected through biennial questionnaires. Paraffin-embedded tumor blocks were requested for cases diagnosed from 1976 to 2006 (NHS) and 1989 to 2005 (NHSII) and tissue microarrays were stained for nuclear ERß (ERß-nuc) and cytoplasmic ERß (ERß-cyto), with any staining considered positive (+). We obtained odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using multivariate polytomous logistic regression. RESULTS: We included 245 cases [43% ERß-cyto (+) and 71% ERß-nuc (+)] and 1,050 matched controls. An inverse association was observed between parity and risk of ERß-nuc (+) (OR, parous vs. nulliparous: 0.46; 95% CI, 0.26-0.81), but not ERß-nuc (-) tumors (OR, parous vs. nulliparous: 1.51; 95% CI, 0.45-5.04; P heterogeneity = 0.04). Conversely, parity was inversely associated with ERß-cyto (-) tumors (OR, parous vs. nulliparous: 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23-0.78), but was not associated with ERß-cyto (+) tumors (OR, parous vs. nulliparous: 1.08; 95% CI, 0.45-2.63; P heterogeneity = 0.05). Associations for other exposures, including hormone therapy, did not differ by ERß-nuc or ERß-cyto status. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that parity may influence ovarian cancer risk, in part, through alterations in ERß localization within tumor cells. IMPACT: Alterations in ERß expression and localization appear to be important for ovarian cancer etiology. Future research should confirm our results and assess potential biologic mechanisms for the observed associations.

15.
Cancer Res ; 80(9): 1801-1803, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366528

RESUMO

While immuno-oncology has made significant advances in activating local tumor immune responses, leading to improved outcomes, the role of systemic immunity in cancer incidence remains poorly understood. Le Cornet and colleagues prospectively studied circulating immune cells quantified by DNA methylation markers in relation to incidence of breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancer among initially healthy individuals. A positive association with cancer risk was observed for higher FOXP3+ T-cell-mediated immune tolerance and lower CD8+ T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Further studies of systemic immunity in cancer development are crucial to identify novel prediction markers and interventional targets for cancer immunoprevention.See related article by Le Cornet et al., p. 1885.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer , Neoplasias , Contagem de Células , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(6): e200421, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239218

RESUMO

Importance: Breastfeeding has been associated with a reduced risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in multiple studies, but others showed no association. Whether risk reduction extends beyond that provided by pregnancy alone or differs by histotype is unclear. Furthermore, the observed associations between duration and timing of breastfeeding with ovarian cancer risk have been inconsistent. Objective: To determine the association between breastfeeding (ie, ever/never, duration, timing) and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. Design, Setting, and Participants: A pooled analysis of parous women with ovarian cancer and controls from 13 case-control studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium was performed. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs of the overall association were calculated using multivariable logistic regression and polytomous logistic regression for histotype-specific associations. All data were collected from individual sites from November 1989 to December 2009, and analysis took place from September 2017 to July 2019. Exposures: Data on breastfeeding history, including duration per child breastfed, age at first and last breastfeeding, and years since last breastfeeding were collected by questionnaire or interview and was harmonized across studies. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer. Results: A total of 9973 women with ovarian cancer (mean [SD] age, 57.4 [11.1] years) and 13 843 controls (mean [SD] age, 56.4 [11.7] years) were included. Breastfeeding was associated with a 24% lower risk of invasive ovarian cancer (odds ratio [OR], 0.76; 95% CI, 0.71-0.80). Independent of parity, ever having breastfed was associated with reduction in risk of all invasive ovarian cancers, particularly high-grade serous and endometrioid cancers. For a single breastfeeding episode, mean breastfeeding duration of 1 to 3 months was associated with 18% lower risk (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.76-0.88), and breastfeeding for 12 or more months was associated with a 34% lower risk (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.58-0.75). More recent breastfeeding was associated with a reduction in risk (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.47-0.66 for <10 years) that persisted for decades (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.77-0.90 for ≥30 years; P for trend = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: Breastfeeding is associated with a significant decrease in risk of ovarian cancer overall and for the high-grade serous subtype, the most lethal type of ovarian cancer. The findings suggest that breastfeeding is a potentially modifiable factor that may lower risk of ovarian cancer independent of pregnancy alone.

17.
Cancer Res ; 80(6): 1357-1367, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969373

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer has few known risk factors, hampering identification of high-risk women. We assessed the association of prediagnostic plasma metabolites (N = 420) with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer, including both borderline and invasive tumors. A total of 252 cases and 252 matched controls from the Nurses' Health Studies were included. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI), comparing the 90th-10th percentile in metabolite levels, using the permutation-based Westfall and Young approach to account for testing multiple correlated hypotheses. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA; n = 10 metabolite modules) and metabolite set enrichment analysis (n = 23 metabolite classes) were also evaluated. An increase in pseudouridine levels from the 10th to the 90th percentile was associated with a 2.5-fold increased risk of overall ovarian cancer (OR = 2.56; 95% CI, 1.48-4.45; P = 0.001/adjusted P = 0.15); a similar risk estimate was observed for serous/poorly differentiated tumors (n = 176 cases; comparable OR = 2.38; 95% CI, 1.33-4.32; P = 0.004/adjusted P = 0.55). For nonserous tumors (n = 34 cases), pseudouridine and C36:2 phosphatidylcholine plasmalogen had the strongest statistical associations (OR = 9.84; 95% CI, 2.89-37.82; P < 0.001/adjusted P = 0.07; and OR = 0.11; 95% CI, 0.03-0.35; P < 0.001/adjusted P = 0.06, respectively). Five WGCNA modules and 9 classes were associated with risk overall at FDR ≤ 0.20. Triacylglycerols (TAG) showed heterogeneity by tumor aggressiveness (case-only heterogeneity P < 0.0001). The TAG association with risk overall and serous tumors differed by acyl carbon content and saturation. In summary, this study suggests that pseudouridine may be a novel risk factor for ovarian cancer and that TAGs may also be important, particularly for rapidly fatal tumors, with associations differing by structural features. SIGNIFICANCE: Pseudouridine represents a potential novel risk factor for ovarian cancer and triglycerides may be important particularly in rapidly fatal ovarian tumors.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Pseudouridina/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/sangue , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Pseudouridina/metabolismo , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
18.
JAMA ; 323(1): 49-59, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910280

RESUMO

Importance: The relationship between use of powder in the genital area and ovarian cancer is not established. Positive associations reported in case-control studies have not been confirmed in cohort studies. Objective: To estimate the association between use of powder in the genital area and ovarian cancer using prospective observational data. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data were pooled from 4 large, US-based cohorts: Nurses' Health Study (enrollment 1976; follow-up 1982-2016; n = 81 869), Nurses' Health Study II (enrollment 1989; follow-up 2013-2017; n = 61 261), Sister Study (enrollment 2003-2009; follow-up 2003-2017; n = 40 647), and Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (enrollment 1993-1998; follow-up 1993-2017; n = 73 267). Exposures: Ever, long-term (≥20 years), and frequent (≥1/week) use of powder in the genital area. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary analysis examined the association between ever use of powder in the genital area and self-reported incident ovarian cancer. Covariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: The pooled sample included 252 745 women (median age at baseline, 57 years) with 38% self-reporting use of powder in the genital area. Ten percent reported long-term use, and 22% reported frequent use. During a median of 11.2 years of follow-up (3.8 million person-years at risk), 2168 women developed ovarian cancer (58 cases/100 000 person-years). Ovarian cancer incidence was 61 cases/100 000 person-years among ever users and 55 cases/100 000 person-years among never users (estimated risk difference at age 70 years, 0.09% [95% CI, -0.02% to 0.19%]; estimated HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.99 to 1.17]). The estimated HR for frequent vs never use was 1.09 (95% CI, 0.97 to 1.23) and for long-term vs never use, the HR was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.82 to 1.25). Subgroup analyses were conducted for 10 variables; the tests for heterogeneity were not statistically significant for any of these comparisons. While the estimated HR for the association between ever use of powder in the genital area and ovarian cancer risk among women with a patent reproductive tract was 1.13 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.26), the P value for interaction comparing women with vs without patent reproductive tracts was .15. Conclusions and Relevance: In this analysis of pooled data from women in 4 US cohorts, there was not a statistically significant association between use of powder in the genital area and incident ovarian cancer. However, the study may have been underpowered to identify a small increase in risk.


Assuntos
Genitália Feminina , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Pós/efeitos adversos , Talco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Cancer Res ; 80(5): 1210-1218, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932455

RESUMO

Repeated exposure to the acute proinflammatory environment that follows ovulation at the ovarian surface and distal fallopian tube over a woman's reproductive years may increase ovarian cancer risk. To address this, analyses included individual-level data from 558,709 naturally menopausal women across 20 prospective cohorts, among whom 3,246 developed invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (2,045 serous, 319 endometrioid, 184 mucinous, 121 clear cell, 577 other/unknown). Cox models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted HRs between lifetime ovulatory cycles (LOC) and its components and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. Women in the 90th percentile of LOC (>514 cycles) were almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer than women in the 10th percentile (<294) [HR (95% confidence interval): 1.92 (1.60-2.30)]. Risk increased 14% per 5-year increase in LOC (60 cycles) [(1.10-1.17)]; this association remained after adjustment for LOC components: number of pregnancies and oral contraceptive use [1.08 (1.04-1.12)]. The association varied by histotype, with increased risk of serous [1.13 (1.09-1.17)], endometrioid [1.20 (1.10-1.32)], and clear cell [1.37 (1.18-1.58)], but not mucinous [0.99 (0.88-1.10), P-heterogeneity = 0.01] tumors. Heterogeneity across histotypes was reduced [P-heterogeneity = 0.15] with adjustment for LOC components [1.08 serous, 1.11 endometrioid, 1.26 clear cell, 0.94 mucinous]. Although the 10-year absolute risk of ovarian cancer is small, it roughly doubles as the number of LOC rises from approximately 300 to 500. The consistency and linearity of effects strongly support the hypothesis that each ovulation leads to small increases in the risk of most ovarian cancers, a risk that cumulates through life, suggesting this as an important area for identifying intervention strategies. SIGNIFICANCE: Although ovarian cancer is rare, risk of most ovarian cancers doubles as the number of lifetime ovulatory cycles increases from approximately 300 to 500. Thus, identifying an important area for cancer prevention research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Ovário/imunologia , Ovulação/imunologia , Idoso , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Tubas Uterinas/imunologia , Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Ovário/patologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , História Reprodutiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
20.
Int J Cancer ; 146(10): 2756-2772, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443135

RESUMO

The association of dietary fat intake with ovarian cancer risk has been inconsistent across populations. We examined dietary fat intake, overall and by type and ovarian cancer risk in two prospective cohort studies. We assessed long-term dietary fat intake among Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII participants using food frequency questionnaires administered every 2-4 years beginning in 1984 and 1991, respectively. We examined cumulative energy-adjusted intake of total fat, specific types of fat (animal, vegetable, saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and trans fat) and cholesterol. We identified 700 ovarian cancer cases in NHS and 196 in NHSII with dietary information. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate associations between intake and ovarian cancer risk. Dietary fat intake changed over time in both cohorts and was lower in NHS than NHSII. Higher cumulative average intakes of animal fat and cholesterol were significantly positively associated with risk of ovarian cancer in NHS (relative risk [RR] comparing extreme quartiles = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.20, 2.06 and 1.35, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.69, respectively), but not in NHSII. Other dietary fat sources were not clearly associated with risk in either population. We did not observe clear associations between dietary fat and ovarian cancer risk in two large prospective cohort studies.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
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