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1.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(7): 1376-1382, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35775222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the influence of smoking on ovarian cancer survival. We investigated this relationship in a hospital-based study. METHODS: Analyses included 519 women with ovarian cancer. We used multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Risk of all-cause mortality was increased for current smokers (HR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.09-2.63) versus never smokers, especially for those with ≥15 cigarettes per day (HR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.15-3.20). Results were largely similar after additional adjustment for debulking status (current vs. never smokers, HR = 2.96; 95% CI: 1.07-8.21) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (comparable HR = 2.87; 95% CI: 1.02-8.06). Compared with never smokers, smoking duration ≥20 years (HR = 1.38; 95% CI: 0.94-2.03) and ≥20 pack-years (HR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.92-1.99) were suggestively associated with worse outcomes. Current smoking was also positively associated with the risk of mortality among patients with ovarian cancer recurrence (current vs. never/past smokers, HR = 2.79; 95% CI: 1.44-5.41), despite the null association between smoking and recurrence (HR = 1.46; 95% CI: 0.86-2.48). Furthermore, no association was observed for smoking initiation before age 18 (HR = 1.22; 95% CI: 0.80-1.85), or either environmental smoke exposure at home (HR = 1.16; 95% CI: 0.76-1.78) or at work (HR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.75-1.60). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest active tobacco smoking is associated with worse ovarian cancer outcomes, particularly after a recurrence. IMPACT: Our findings support structured smoking cessation programs for patients with ovarian cancer, especially in recurrent settings. Further research to confirm these findings and examine the interplay between smoking and the tumor immune microenvironment may help provide insight into ovarian cancer etiology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adolescente , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Feminino , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Microambiente Tumoral
2.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2101900, 2022 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35867953

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Frequent aspirin use has been associated with reduced ovarian cancer risk, but no study has comprehensively assessed for effect modification. We leveraged harmonized, individual-level data from 17 studies to examine the association between frequent aspirin use and ovarian cancer risk, overall and across subgroups of women with other ovarian cancer risk factors. METHODS: Nine cohort studies from the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (n = 2,600 cases) and eight case-control studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (n = 5,726 cases) were included. We used Cox regression and logistic regression to assess study-specific associations between frequent aspirin use (≥ 6 days/week) and ovarian cancer risk and combined study-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analysis. We conducted analyses within subgroups defined by individual ovarian cancer risk factors (endometriosis, obesity, family history of breast/ovarian cancer, nulliparity, oral contraceptive use, and tubal ligation) and by number of risk factors (0, 1, and ≥ 2). RESULTS: Overall, frequent aspirin use was associated with a 13% reduction in ovarian cancer risk (95% CI, 6 to 20), with no significant heterogeneity by study design (P = .48) or histotype (P = .60). Although no association was observed among women with endometriosis, consistent risk reductions were observed among all other subgroups defined by ovarian cancer risk factors (relative risks ranging from 0.79 to 0.93, all P-heterogeneity > .05), including women with ≥ 2 risk factors (relative risk, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.90). CONCLUSION: This study, the largest to-date on aspirin use and ovarian cancer, provides evidence that frequent aspirin use is associated with lower ovarian cancer risk regardless of the presence of most other ovarian cancer risk factors. Risk reductions were also observed among women with multiple risk factors, providing proof of principle that chemoprevention programs with frequent aspirin use could target higher-risk subgroups.

3.
Br J Cancer ; 2022 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35760897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is limited on inflammation-related dietary patterns and mortality in ovarian cancer survivors. METHODS: We examined the associations between pre- and post-diagnosis dietary patterns, including change in diet from before to after diagnosis, and mortality among 1003 ovarian cancer survivors in two prospective cohort studies. Dietary pattern scores for empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) and Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) were calculated based on food frequency questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazard models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ovarian cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Pre-diagnosis EDIP score and AHEI were not associated with mortality. Among non-high grade serous cases, a higher post-diagnosis EDIP score was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR5th vs 1st quintile = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.04-3.67, p-trend = 0.06). Compared to survivors consuming a low EDIP score diet before and after diagnosis, high post-diagnosis EDIP was associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer specific mortality (pre-to-post diagnosis low/high, HR = 1.38, 95% CI = 0.99-1.92; high/high HR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.09-2.30) and all-cause mortality (low/high HR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.06-1.95; high/high HR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.10-2.19). CONCLUSION: Consuming a more inflammatory dietary pattern post-diagnosis was associated with increased mortality in ovarian cancer survivors, suggesting limiting the inflammatory potential of diet post-diagnosis could lead to enhanced survivorship.

4.
J Psychosom Res ; 159: 110947, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Earlier menopause, either natural or through gynecologic surgeries, has been associated with various negative health sequelae. While posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been linked to dysregulated biological processes, including reproductive system changes that could alter menopausal timing, little work has examined whether trauma and PTSD are associated with greater risk of early cessation of menses. METHODS: Data are from 46,639 women in the Nurses' Health Study II, a prospective cohort study of women followed for up to 26 years. Lifetime trauma and PTSD symptoms were assessed with the Brief Trauma Questionnaire and a PTSD symptom screener in 2008. Age at cessation of menses and reason for cessation of menses (i.e., natural menopause, gynecologic surgery including hysterectomy and/or bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy [BSO]) were assessed. Cox proportional hazards models estimated hazards ratios (HR) of cessation of menses (separately for naturally or surgically) associated with trauma alone or PTSD symptoms, relative to no trauma, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: Trauma/PTSD status was associated with earlier cessation of menses due to surgery, but not natural menopause. Women with trauma exposure, low, and high PTSD symptoms had higher hazard of cessation of menses due to surgery relative to those with no trauma exposure (HRtrauma = 1.16, 95%CI 1.07-1.26; HRlow PTSD = 1.25, 95%CI 1.15-1.36; HRhigh PTSD = 1.29, 95%CI 1.17-1.42). Trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms were associated with similarly increased risk of hysterectomy and BSO surgeries. CONCLUSIONS: Women who experienced trauma and PTSD may be at elevated risk for common gynecological surgeries premenopausally, potentially due to increased clinical indications or gynecological conditions.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Feminino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia , Humanos , Menopausa , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia
5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(8): 1582-1592, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying risk factors for aggressive forms of breast cancer is important. Tumor factors (e.g., stage) are important predictors of prognosis, but may be intermediates between prediagnosis risk factors and mortality. Typically, separate models are fit for incidence and mortality postdiagnosis. These models have not been previously integrated to identify risk factors for lethal breast cancer in cancer-free women. METHODS: We combined models for breast cancer incidence and breast cancer-specific mortality among cases into a multi-state survival model for lethal breast cancer. We derived the model from cancer-free postmenopausal Nurses' Health Study women in 1990 using baseline risk factors. A total of 4,391 invasive breast cancer cases were diagnosed from 1990 to 2014 of which 549 died because of breast cancer over the same period. RESULTS: Some established risk factors (e.g., family history, estrogen plus progestin therapy) were not associated with lethal breast cancer. Controlling for age, the strongest risk factors for lethal breast cancer were weight gain since age 18: > 30 kg versus ± 5 kg, RR = 1.94 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.38-2.74], nulliparity versus age at first birth (AAFB) < 25, RR = 1.60 (95% CI = 1.16-2.22), and current smoking ≥ 15 cigarettes/day versus never, RR = 1.42 (95% CI = 1.07-1.89). CONCLUSIONS: Some breast cancer incidence risk factors are not associated with lethal breast cancer; other risk factors for lethal breast cancer are not associated with disease incidence. IMPACT: This multi-state survival model may be useful for identifying prediagnosis factors that lead to more aggressive and ultimately lethal breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Adolescente , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pós-Menopausa , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
6.
Cancer Causes Control ; 33(8): 1107-1120, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35759080

RESUMO

Cancer heterogeneities hold the key to a deeper understanding of cancer etiology and progression and the discovery of more precise cancer therapy. Modern pathological and molecular technologies offer a powerful set of tools to profile tumor heterogeneities at multiple levels in large patient populations, from DNA to RNA, protein and epigenetics, and from tumor tissues to tumor microenvironment and liquid biopsy. When coupled with well-validated epidemiologic methodology and well-characterized epidemiologic resources, the rich tumor pathological and molecular tumor information provide new research opportunities at an unprecedented breadth and depth. This is the research space where Molecular Pathological Epidemiology (MPE) emerged over a decade ago and has been thriving since then. As a truly multidisciplinary field, MPE embraces collaborations from diverse fields including epidemiology, pathology, immunology, genetics, biostatistics, bioinformatics, and data science. Since first convened in 2013, the International MPE Meeting series has grown into a dynamic and dedicated platform for experts from these disciplines to communicate novel findings, discuss new research opportunities and challenges, build professional networks, and educate the next-generation scientists. Herein, we share the proceedings of the Fifth International MPE meeting, held virtually online, on May 24 and 25, 2021. The meeting consisted of 21 presentations organized into the three main themes, which were recent integrative MPE studies, novel cancer profiling technologies, and new statistical and data science approaches. Looking forward to the near future, the meeting attendees anticipated continuous expansion and fruition of MPE research in many research fronts, particularly immune-epidemiology, mutational signatures, liquid biopsy, and health disparities.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Patologia Molecular , Humanos , Mutação , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Patologia Molecular/métodos , Microambiente Tumoral
7.
Int J Ment Health Addict ; 20(3): 1465-1484, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35747346

RESUMO

Prospective studies on the association between depression and telomere length have produced mixed results and have been largely limited to European ancestry populations. We examined the associations between depression and telomere length, and the modifying influence of religion and spirituality, in four cohorts, each representing a different race/ethnic population. Relative leukocyte telomere length (RTL) was measured by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Our result showed that depression was not associated with RTL (percent difference: 3.0 95% CI: -3.9, 10.5; p = 0.41; p-heterogeneity across studies = 0.67) overall or in cohort-specific analyses. However, in cohort-specific analyses, there was some evidence of effect modification by the extent of religiosity or spirituality, religious congregation membership, and group prayer. Further research is needed to investigate prospective associations between depression and telomere length, and the resources of resilience including dimensions of religion and spirituality that may impact such dynamics in diverse racial/ethnic populations.

8.
J Ovarian Res ; 15(1): 59, 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35562768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Greater ovulatory years is associated with increased ovarian cancer risk. Although ovulation leads to an acute pro-inflammatory local environment, how long-term exposure to ovulation impacts ovarian carcinogenesis is not fully understood. Thus, we examined the association between gene expression profiles of ovarian tumors and lifetime ovulatory years to enhance understanding of associated biological pathways. METHODS: RNA sequencing data was generated on 234 invasive ovarian cancer tumors that were high-grade serous, poorly differentiated, or high-grade endometrioid from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), NHSII, and the New England Case Control Study. We used linear regression to identify differentially expressed genes by estimated ovulatory years, adjusted for birth decade and cohort, overall and stratified by menopausal status at diagnosis. We used false discovery rates (FDR) to account for multiple testing. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) with Cancer Hallmarks, KEGG, and Reactome databases was used to identify biological pathways associated with ovulatory years. RESULTS: No individual genes were significantly differentially expressed by ovulatory years (FDR > 0.19). However, GSEA identified several pathways that were significantly associated with ovulatory years, including downregulation of pathways related to inflammation and proliferation (FDR < 1.0 × 10-5). Greater ovulatory years were more strongly associated with downregulation of genes related to proliferation (e.g., E2F targets, FDR = 1.53 × 10-24; G2M checkpoints, FDR = 3.50 × 10-22) among premenopausal versus postmenopausal women at diagnosis. The association of greater ovulatory years with downregulation of genes involved in inflammatory response such as interferon gamma response pathways (FDR = 7.81 × 10-17) was stronger in postmenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide novel insight into the biological pathways that link ovulatory years to ovarian carcinogenesis, which may lead to development of targeted prevention strategies for ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Transcriptoma , Carcinogênese , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia
9.
Cancer Causes Control ; 33(7): 939-950, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35554777

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is limited information on how the COVID-19 pandemic has changed health behaviors among cancer patients. We examined changes in exercise behaviors since the pandemic and identified characteristics associated with these changes among cancer patients. METHODS: Cancer patients (n = 1,210) completed a survey from August to September 2020 to assess COVID-19 pandemic-related changes in health behaviors and psychosocial factors. Patients were categorized into three groups: exercising less, exercising did not change, and exercising more. Patient characteristics were compared by exercise groups. RESULTS: One-third of the patients reported a decreased amount of regular exercise, while 10% reported exercising more during the pandemic. Patients who exercised less were more likely to be unemployed/retired and have poor health status and psychosocial stressors such as disruptions in daily life while less likely to be former smokers (all p < 0.05). In contrast, patients who exercised more were younger, had stage IV diagnosis, and also reported disruptions in daily life (all p < 0.05). Patients who were living in rural areas were also more likely not to experience changes in exercise habits (all p < 0.05), although rural-urban status was not identified as a strong predictor. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of cancer patients experienced changes in exercise habits, especially exercising less, during the first 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Age, employment status, tumor stage, health status, smoking status, and psychosocial factors were associated with changes in exercise behaviors. Our results highlight the importance of promoting physical activity guidelines for cancer survivorship during the COVID-19 pandemic and may help improve the identification of cancer patients susceptible to exercising less.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Fumar/psicologia
10.
Psychosom Med ; 84(5): 536-546, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35471987

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Metabolomic profiling may provide insights into biological mechanisms underlying the strong epidemiologic links observed between early abuse and cardiometabolic disorders in later life. METHODS: We examined the associations between early abuse and midlife plasma metabolites in two nonoverlapping subsamples from the Nurses' Health Study II, comprising 803 (mean age = 40 years) and 211 women (mean age = 61 years). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assays were used to measure metabolomic profiles, with 283 metabolites consistently measured in both subsamples. Physical and sexual abuse before age 18 years was retrospectively assessed by validated questions integrating type/frequency of abuse. Analyses were conducted in each sample and pooled using meta-analysis, with multiple testing adjustment using the q value approach for controlling the positive false discovery rate. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, race, menopausal status, body size at age 5 years, and childhood socioeconomic indicators, more severe early abuse was consistently associated with five metabolites at midlife (q value < 0.20 in both samples), including lower levels of serotonin and C38:3 phosphatidylethanolamine plasmalogen and higher levels of alanine, proline, and C40:6 phosphatidylethanolamine. Other metabolites potentially associated with early abuse (q value < 0.05 in the meta-analysis) included triglycerides, phosphatidylcholine plasmalogens, bile acids, tyrosine, glutamate, and cotinine. The association between early abuse and midlife metabolomic profiles was partly mediated by adulthood body mass index (32% mediated) and psychosocial distress (13%-26% mediated), but not by other life-style factors. CONCLUSIONS: Early abuse was associated with distinct metabolomic profiles of multiple amino acids and lipids in middle-aged women. Body mass index and psychosocial factors in adulthood may be important intermediates for the observed association.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35385367

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Recent prospective studies suggest diabetes as a risk factor for the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the extent to which diabetes-related traits, such as hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, are related to OSA risk remains uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To examine risk of developing OSA according to baseline levels of fasting insulin and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). METHODS: Participants from four prospective US cohorts were included: the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 2002-2012), NHSII (1995-2013), the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS; 1996-2012) and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA; 2000-2012). OSA was assessed by self-reported clinical diagnosis in NHS/NHSII/HPFS and by at-home polysomnography in MESA (defined as Apnea-Hypopnea Index≥30). RESULTS: Of 9,283 participants with fasting insulin data, 790 (8.5%) developed OSA over 10-18 years of follow-up. After adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle and co-morbidity factors, the odds ratio (OR) for incident OSA comparing the extreme quintiles of fasting insulin was 3.59 (95% CI: 2.67, 4.82; p-trend<0.0001). Of 6,342 participants with HbA1c data, 715 (11.3%) developed OSA. The comparable OR for HbA1c was 2.21 (95% CI: 1.69, 2.89; p-trend<0.0001). Additional adjustment for BMI and waist circumference attenuated the associations for fasting insulin (p-trend=0.005) and HbA1c (p-trend=0.03). In the fully-adjusted model simultaneously including both biomarkers, only fasting insulin but not HbA1c was associated with OSA risk. CONCLUSION: Independent of obesity, insulin resistance may play a more important role than hyperglycemia in the pathogenesis of OSA. Given the limitation of using self-reported diagnosis to exclude baseline prevalent OSA cases, additional studies are needed to further establish the temporal relationship and assess whether improving insulin resistance may reduce OSA risk.

12.
JAMA Oncol ; 8(5): 748-754, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35266953

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with cancer experience high rates of morbidity and mortality after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Immune response to mRNA-1273 vaccination across multiple cancer types and treatments remains to be established. Objective: To quantitate antibody responses after mRNA-1273 vaccination among patients with solid tumors and hematologic cancer and to assess clinical and treatment factors associated with vaccine response. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included patients with cancer who were aged 18 years or older, spoke English or Spanish, had received their first mRNA-1273 dose between January 12 and 25, 2021, and agreed to blood tests before and after vaccination. Exposures: Receipt of 1 and 2 mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine doses. Main Outcomes and Measures: Seroconversion after each vaccine dose and IgG levels against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein obtained immediately before the first and second vaccine doses and 57 days (plus or minus 14 days) after the first vaccine dose. Cancer diagnoses and treatments were ascertained by medical record review. Serostatus was assessed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Paired t tests were applied to examine days 1, 29, and 57 SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels. Binding antibody IgG geometric mean titers were calculated based on log10-transformed values. Results: The 515 participants were a mean (SD) age of 64.5 (11.4) years; 262 (50.9%) were women; and 32 (6.2%) were Hispanic individuals and 479 (93.0%) White individuals; race and ethnicity data on 4 (0.7%) participants were missing. Seropositivity after vaccine dose 2 was 90.3% (465; 95% CI, 87.4%-92.7%) among patients with cancer, was significantly lower among patients with hematologic cancer (84.7% [255]; 95% CI, 80.1%-88.6%) vs solid tumors (98.1% [210]; 95% CI, 95.3%-99.5%), and was lowest among patients with lymphoid cancer (70.0% [77]; 95% CI, 60.5%-78.4%). Patients receiving a vaccination within 6 months after anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody treatment had a significantly lower seroconversion (6.3% [1]; 95% CI, 0.2%-30.2%) compared with those treated 6 to 24 months earlier (53.3% [8]; 95% CI, 26.6%-78.7%) or those who never received anti-CD20 treatment (94.2% [456]; 95% CI, 91.7%-96.1%). Low antibody levels after vaccination were observed among patients treated with anti-CD20 within 6 months before vaccination (GM, 15.5 AU/mL; 95% CI, 9.8-24.5 AU/mL), patients treated with small molecules (GM, 646.7 AU/mL; 95% CI, 441.9-946.5 AU/mL), and patients with low lymphocyte (GM, 547.4 AU/mL; 95% CI, 375.5-797.7 AU/mL) and IgG (GM, 494.7 AU/mL; 95% CI, 304.9-802.7 AU/mL) levels. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine induced variable antibody responses that differed by cancer diagnosis and treatment received. These findings suggest that patients with hematologic cancer and those who are receiving immunosuppressive treatments may need additional vaccination doses.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos , COVID-19 , Neoplasias , /imunologia , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Florida , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Vacinação
13.
Health Psychol ; 41(4): 311-318, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35324248

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify patient-level demographic and behavioral characteristics associated with higher social isolation among patients with cancer throughout the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHOD: Moffitt Cancer Center patients seen on or after January 1, 2015, had a last known alive vital status, a valid e-mail address, and were 18-89 years old, were emailed a survey regarding social isolation. We collected information on age, sex, race, ethnicity, marital status, smoking, self-reported cancer diagnosis, cancer treatment, and perceived life changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We calculated a COVID-19 risk mitigation score by summing the frequency of risk mitigation behaviors (e.g., mask wearing). Social isolation was assessed with the self-reported Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Social Isolation Short Form. Logistic regression models compared characteristics of participants reporting higher versus lower social isolation (T-scores >60 vs. ≤60). RESULTS: Most participants (N = 9,579) were female (59.2%), White (93.0%), and non-Hispanic (92.5%). Participants at greater odds of higher social isolation were younger (per 10 years decrease odds ratio [OR] = 1.36, 95% confidence interval, CI [1.30, 1.43]), female (vs. male OR = 1.54, 95% CI [1.36, 1.74]), unmarried (vs. married OR = 1.83, 95% CI [1.62, 2.08]), current smokers (vs. never OR = 2.38, 95% CI [1.88, 3.00]), reporting more risk mitigation behaviors (per 1 SD; OR = 1.33, 95% CI [1.24, 1.42]), and more perceived life changes (vs. little/no change; OR = 2.64, 95% CI [2.08, 3.35]). CONCLUSIONS: We identified younger age, females, unmarried, current smokers, more risk mitigation behaviors, and more perceived life changes increased odds of social isolation for patients with cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic. This can inform identification of patients with cancer at higher risk of social isolation for targeted mitigation strategies. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Autorrelato , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Rural Health ; 2022 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35243690

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted many facets of life. We evaluated pandemic-related health care experiences, COVID-19 prevention behaviors and measures, health behaviors, and psychosocial outcomes among rural and urban cancer patients. METHODS: Among 1,472 adult cancer patients, who visited Huntsman Cancer Institute in the past 4 years and completed a COVID-19 survey (August-September 2020), we assessed the impact of the pandemic on medical appointments, prevention/health behaviors, and psychosocial factors, stratified by urbanicity. FINDINGS: Mean age was 61 years, with 52% female, 97% non-Hispanic White, and 27% were residing in rural areas. Rural versus urban patients were more likely to be older, not employed, uninsured, former/current smokers, consume alcohol, and have pandemic-related changes/cancellations in surgery appointments (all P<.05). Changes/cancellations in other health care access (eg, doctor's visits) were also common, particularly among urban patients. Urban versus rural patients were more likely to socially distance, use masks and hand sanitizer, and experience changes in exercise habits and in their daily lives (all P<.05). Less social interaction and financial stress were common among cancer patients but did not differ by urbanicity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic had a substantial impact on cancer patients, with several challenges specific to rural patients. This comprehensive study provides unique insights into the first 6 months of COVID-19 pandemic-related experiences and continuity of care among rural and urban cancer patients predominantly from Utah. Further research is needed to better characterize the pandemic's short- and long-term effects on rural and urban cancer patients and appropriate interventions.

15.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(4): 831-838, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35131884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estrogens increase breast cancer risk through estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated pathway activation. It is unclear whether a broader assessment of plasma compounds that lead to ER activation would be more strongly related to risk than measurement of individual estrogens. METHODS: A prospective nested case-control study was conducted among postmenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study, that included 371 cases with blood samples collected prior to breast cancer diagnosis and 731 matched controls. Total estrogen pathway activity (EA) was assessed via a luciferase reporter assay using plasma-treated T47D-Kbluc (ATCC) human breast cancer cells. We also assessed the contribution of EA to risk, independent of circulating estrone, estradiol, and estrone sulfate concentrations. Multivariable ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression adjusting for breast cancer risk factors. RESULTS: Women in the highest, versus lowest EA quartile had an 86% increased risk of invasive breast cancer (ORQ4vsQ1, 1.86; 95% CI = 1.16-2.97). After accounting for estradiol only, a weaker association was observed (ORQ4vsQ1, 1.27; 95% CI = 0.75-2.17). No association was observed after accounting for all three estrogens (ORQ4vsQ1, 1.01; 95% CI = 0.56-1.84). CONCLUSIONS: A positive association between EA and breast cancer risk was observed. However, the association was substantially attenuated after accounting for levels of other estrogens. IMPACT: Our study provides a first detailed assessment of a breast cancer cell line-based EA assay and postmenopausal breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estradiol , Estrona , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pós-Menopausa , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Cancer Causes Control ; 33(2): 279-291, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34988766

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Circulating estrogens are an established risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer (BCa). We describe the distribution of urinary estrogens, their metabolites, and relevant metabolic pathway ratios among healthy postmenopausal women and examine associations of several known BCa factors with these estrogen measures. METHODS: Eligible postmenopausal women (n = 167) had no history of hormone use (previous 6 months) and cancer/metabolic disorders and had a body mass index (BMI) ≤ 35 kg/m2. Estrogens were quantified in spot urine samples with liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry and corrected for creatinine. We assessed overall distributions of estrogens and associations of age, BMI, race/ethnicity, parity/age at first birth, age at menarche, alcohol, and smoking with log-transformed estrogen measures using multivariate regression. RESULTS: BMI was positively associated with estrone (ß per unit = 0.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.00; 0.07), combined parent estrogens (ß = 0.04, 95% CI 0.01; 0.07), and E2:total estrogens (ß = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02; 0.06), and inversely associated with 4-MeOE1 (ß = - 0.17, 95% CI - 0.33; - 0.02), E3:parent estrogens (ß = - 0.04, 95% CI - 0.07; - 0.00), and 16-pathway:parent (ß = - 0.04, 95% CI - 0.07; - 0.01). Being African American vs. white was associated with higher levels of 4-MeOE1 (ß = 3.41, 95% CI 0.74; 6.08), 17-epiE3 (ß = 1.19, 95% CI 0.07; 2.31), 2-pathway:parent (ß = 0.54, 95% CI 0.04; 1.04), and lower levels of E2:total estrogens (ß = - 0.48, 95% CI - 0.83; - 0.13). Having < 7 alcohol drinks/week vs. none was associated with higher levels of 16-ketoE2 (ß = 1.32, 95% CI 0.36; 2.27), 16-epiE3 (ß = 1.02, 95% CI 0.24; 1.79), and 17-epiE3 (ß = 0.55, 95% CI 0.02; 1.08). Smoking was positively associated with E3:parent (ß = 0.29, 95% CI 0.01; 0.57), 16-pathway:parent (ß = 0.25, 95% CI 0.01; 0.49), and inversely associated with estradiol (ß = - 0.52, 95% CI - 0.93; - 0.10). As compared to nulliparous, parous women with age at first birth ≥ 25 years had lower levels of estrone, combined parent estrogens, 2-OHE1, and 2-OHE2. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that BMI, race/ethnicity, and some reproductive and lifestyle factors may contribute to postmenopausal BCa through their effects on circulating estrogens.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Estrogênios , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Estrona , Feminino , Humanos , Pós-Menopausa , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
17.
Am J Epidemiol ; 191(6): 1021-1029, 2022 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35094053

RESUMO

We examined the association of sedentary behavior with risk of ovarian cancer overall, by tumor subtype, and by participant characteristics in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II). A total of 69,558 NHS participants (1992-2016) and 104,130 NHS II participants (1991-2015) who reported on time spent sitting at home, at work, and while watching television were included in the analysis, which included 884 histologically confirmed ovarian cancer cases. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ovarian cancer by sitting time (no mutual adjustment for individual sitting types in primary analyses). We examined potential heterogeneity by tumor histological type (type I or II), body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2; < 25 or ≥25), and total physical activity (<15 or ≥15 metabolic equivalent of task-hours/week). We observed an increased risk of ovarian cancer for women who sat at work for 10-19 hours/week (HR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.51) and ≥20 hours/week (HR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.71) versus <5 hours/week. This association did not vary by body mass index, physical activity, or histotype (P for heterogeneity ≥ 0.43). No associations were observed for overall sitting, sitting while watching television, or other sitting at home. Longer sitting time at work was associated with elevated risk of ovarian cancer. Further investigations are required to confirm these findings and elucidate underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Comportamento Sedentário , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Eur Respir J ; 59(2)2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reduced physical activity and increased sedentary behaviour may independently contribute to the development of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) through increased adiposity, inflammation, insulin resistance and body fluid retention. However, epidemiological evidence remains sparse and is primarily limited to cross-sectional studies. METHODS: We prospectively followed 50 332 women from the Nurses' Health Study (2002-2012), 68 265 women from the Nurses' Health Study II (1995-2013) and 19 320 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1996-2012). Recreational physical activity (quantified by metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-h per week) and sitting time spent watching TV and at work/away from home were assessed by questionnaires every 2-4 years. Physician-diagnosed OSA was identified by validated self-report. Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals for OSA incidence associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviour. RESULTS: During 2 004 663 person-years of follow-up, we documented 8733 incident OSA cases. After adjusting for potential confounders, the pooled HR for OSA comparing participants with ≥36.0 versus <6.0 MET-h per week of physical activity was 0.46 (95% CI 0.43-0.50; ptrend<0.001). Compared with participants spending <4.0 h per week sitting watching TV, the multivariable-adjusted HR was 1.78 (95% CI 1.60-1.98) for participants spending ≥28.0 h per week (ptrend<0.001). The comparable HR was 1.49 (95% CI 1.38-1.62) for sitting hours at work/away from home (ptrend<0.001). With additional adjustment for several metabolic factors, including body mass index and waist circumference, the associations with physical activity and sitting hours at work/away from home were attenuated but remained significant (ptrend<0.001), whereas the association with sitting hours watching TV was no longer statistically significant (ptrend=0.18). CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of physical activity and fewer sedentary hours were associated with lower OSA incidence. The potential mediating role of metabolic factors in the association between sedentary behaviour and OSA incidence may depend on the type of sedentary behaviour. Our results suggest that promoting an active lifestyle may reduce OSA incidence.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sedentário , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia
19.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 226(6): 821.e1-821.e26, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral contraceptive use has been associated with a higher breast cancer risk; however, evidence for the associations between different oral contraceptive formulations and breast cancer risk, especially by disease subtype, is limited. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the associations between oral contraceptive use by formulation and breast cancer risk by disease subtype. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective cohort study included 113,187 women from the Nurses' Health Study II with recalled information on oral contraceptive usage from 13 years of age to baseline (1989) and updated data on usage until 2009 collected via biennial questionnaires. A total of 5799 breast cancer cases were identified until the end of 2017. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between oral contraceptive use and breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen and progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status. Oral contraceptive use was evaluated by status of use (current, former, and never), duration of and time since last use independently and cross-classified, and formulation (ie, estrogen and progestin type). RESULTS: Current oral contraceptive use was associated with a higher risk for invasive breast cancer (hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.58) when compared with never use, with stronger associations observed for longer durations of current use (>5 years: hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.99; ≤5 years: hazard ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.95-1.49). Among former users with >5 years since cessation, the risk was similar to that of never users (eg, >5 to 10 years since cessation: hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-1.11). Associations did not differ significantly by tumor subtype. In analyses by formulation, current use of formulations containing levonorgestrel in triphasic (hazard ratio, 2.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.98-4.03) and extended cycle regimens (hazard ratio, 3.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-9.53) and norgestrel in monophasic regimens (hazard ratio, 1.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-3.06), all combined with ethinyl estradiol, was associated with a higher breast cancer risk when compared with never oral contraceptive use. No association was observed for current use of the other progestin types evaluated (norethindrone, norethindrone acetate, ethynodiol diacetate, desogestrel, norgestimate, and drospirenone), however, sample sizes were relatively small for some of the subgroups, limiting these analyses. CONCLUSION: Current oral contraceptive use was associated with a higher risk for invasive breast cancer regardless of disease subtype, however, the risk in former users was comparable with never users 5 years after cessation. In analyses by progestin type, associations were observed for select formulations containing levonorgestrel and norgestrel. Assessment of the associations for newer progestin types (desogestrel, norgestimate, drospirenone) was limited by sample size, and further research on more recently introduced progestins is warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Anticoncepcionais Orais , Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados , Desogestrel , Estrogênios , Etinilestradiol , Feminino , Humanos , Levanogestrel , Norgestrel , Progestinas , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(24)2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944787

RESUMO

By iCluster analysis, we found that the integrative molecular classification of the UM was primarily driven by DNA copy number variation on chromosomes 3, 6 and 8, differential methylation and expression of genes involved in the immune system, cell morphogenesis, movement and migration, and differential mutation of genes including GNA11, BAP1, EIF1AX, SF3B1 and GNAQ. Integrative analysis revealed that pathways including IL6/JAK/STAT3 signaling, angiogenesis, allograft rejection, inflammatory response and interferon gamma response were hypomethylated and up-regulated in the M3 iSubtype, which was associated with a worse overall survival, compared to the D3 iSubtype. Using two independent gene expression datasets, we demonstrated that the subtype-driving genes had an excellent prognostic power in classifying UM into high- or low-risk groups for metastasis. Integrative analysis of UM multi-omics data provided a comprehensive view of UM biology for understanding the underlying mechanism leading to UM metastasis. The concordant molecular alterations at multi-omics levels revealed by our integrative analysis could be used for patient stratification towards personalized management and surveillance.

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