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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125458, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505416

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the effects of feeding flaxseed meal (FSM) and turmeric rhizome powder (TRP) supplementation on tissue lipid profile, lipid metabolism, health indices, oxidative stability, and physical properties of broiler chicken meat. The 100 g FSM along with 10.0 g TRP supplementation significantly increased the ω-3 PUFA, particularly ALA, EPA, DPA, and DHA of broiler chicken meat due to the corresponding increase ∆9 and Δ5 + Δ6 desaturase activities. The increased activities of the desaturases resulted in significantly better health indices of the broiler chicken meat. The feeding of 100 g FSM along with 10.0 g TRP supplementation reduced the atherogenic and thrombogenic indices of broiler chicken meat. The 100 g FSM feeding reduced the oxidative stability, water holding capacity, extract release volume of broiler chicken meat and increased drip loss, whereas, 10.0 g TRP supplementation reversed these negative effects of FSM.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701396

RESUMO

A feeding trial of 10 weeks duration was undertaken on laying hens (n = 240) to evaluate feeding value of rice distiller's dried grains with soluble (rDDGS) with or without enzyme supplementation (α-amylase, ß-glucanase, xylanase, carboxymethylcellulase, pectinase, proteinase, α-galactosidase, ß-galactosidase, lipase, and phytase), following 4 × 2 factorial design, on egg production, nutrient utilization, and cost economics of egg production. The birds were randomly assigned to eight dietary treatments with 30 birds/treatment. The birds were housed individually in layer cages and each bird was taken as an experimental unit. Eight experimental diets were prepared by incorporating four levels (0, 50, 75, and 100 g/kg) of rDDGS with and without enzyme supplementation. The results revealed a significant (P < 0.01) increase of egg mass, feed intake, egg production, and body weight gain in dietary treatments with up to 75 g rDDGS though the values were statistically similar to the hens fed 100 g rDDGS. Enzyme supplementation resulted in significant (P < 0.01) improvement of egg mass, egg production, feed conversion ratio (FCR) per dozen eggs, FCR per kilogramme egg mass, and net FCR. The significantly (P < 0.01) higher yolk index was observed at 100 g rDDGS level, while shell thickness improved significantly (P < 0.01) up to 75 g rDDGS level. No significant effect of rDDGS inclusion was observed on shape index, albumin index, and Haugh unit. Enzyme supplementation significantly improved the shell thickness and yolk colour of eggs. Nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus retention and dry matter metabolizability did not show any significant treatment effects. There was significant (P < 0.01) reduction in feed-cost per kilogramme egg mass or per dozen eggs with the increased DDGS levels and dietary enzyme supplementation. It was concluded that rDDGS can be used up to 100 g/kg diet of laying hens along with enzyme supplementation for better productivity of layer hens.

3.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(6): 1800-1809, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483533

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi) shell powder (SSP), a cheap source of saponins, on growth performance, immunity, serum biochemistry and gut health of broiler chickens. The experimental design was 4×2, employing four saponin levels (0, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg diet), each provided for two time durations (0-42 day and 21-42 day) resulting into eight dietary treatments. Results revealed no significant effect of dietary saponins on body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of birds. The abdominal fat percentage, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, faecal total plate count, coliform count and E. coli count decreased (p < .05) progressively with increasing saponin levels and lower values were observed at 150 mg and 200 mg saponin levels. Significant improvement of cell-mediated and humoral immune response was observed in birds fed 150 mg and 200 mg saponin compared to control. The serum glucose concentration was significantly (p < .05) higher in control group compared to other groups. No significant effects of dietary saponin were observed on carcass characteristics, faecal Lactobacillus count, intestinal histomorphometry and cost economics of broiler chicken production. Thus, dietary saponins at 150 mg/kg diet as SSP for three weeks (21-42 days) was optimum for better immunity and welfare of birds without adverse effects on the growth performance.

4.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(2): 525-533, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604902

RESUMO

The present study was carried out to study the effect of different doses of hemp seed alone or in combination with dill seed against antibiotic growth promoter on performance, serum biochemicals and gut health of broiler chickens over a period of 42 days. Total 192 broiler chicks were grouped randomly into six treatments and fed with basal diet (BD) along with different levels of seeds, viz., T1 (BD), T2 (BD + 0.2% HS), T3 (BD + 0.2% HS + 0.3 DS), T4 (BD + 0.3% HS) and T5 (BD + 0.3% HS + 0.3 DS) and T6 (BD + 0.025% Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate-BMD). The performance traits like feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) and carcass traits like cut-up parts, giblet and abdominal fat yield remained unaffected due to dietary treatments for overall trial period; however, the average feed intake in early phase (0-3 weeks) reduced significantly (p < 0.05) in treatment birds than both controls (T1 & T6). Serum protein concentration remained unchanged, whereas significant (p < 0.05) reduction in serum lipids like triglyceride, LDL and total cholesterol concentration was noticed due to dietary inclusion of seeds. Serum enzymes like AST and ALT concentrations depleted significantly (p < 0.05) treated groups, except at higher seed doses (T5); however, alkaline phosphatase levels were unaffected. Coliform count in caecum and jejunum reduced linearly (p < 0.01) due to seed inclusion, whereas dose-dependent proliferation of lactobacilli was evident (p < 0.01) in caecum and jejunum of treated birds. No effect was observed on the villus height and crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa. To conclude, dietary supplementation of hemp and dill seed could not affect the growth performance and carcass traits; however, it positively altered the serum lipid profile of the birds and improved gut health as well, thereby enhanced overall performance of broiler chickens.


Assuntos
Anethum graveolens , Ração Animal/análise , Cannabis , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Sementes , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Composição Corporal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Distribuição Aleatória
5.
J Food Sci Technol ; 54(12): 3899-3907, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29085132

RESUMO

A total of 240 broiler chicken of same hatch with uniform weight were used in a biological experiment with completely randomized design to investigate the effects of incorporating organic chromium (Cr) in flaxseed meal based diet on the fatty acid profile, oxidative stability and functional properties of broiler chicken meat. Five diets were formulated as per the recommendations of BIS (Nutrient requirements for poultry 13: 9863, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 1992) in which flaxseed meal was used to replace 10% of soyabean in basal diet and four levels of Cr (0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg diet) as Cr-picolinate were used. The results revealed that flaxseed feeding significantly increased the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids, including MUFA, PUFA, ω-3, ω-6 fatty acids and ω-3:ω-6 and PUFA:SFA ratios, whereas, significant decline was seen in saturated fatty acids and no effect of Cr was observed on the fatty acid profile of broiler chicken. Flaxseed feeding significantly reduced the cholesterol and fat percentage of meat, whereas, significant progressive reduction was observed with increasing Cr levels. The combination of 10% flaxseed with 1.0 mg Cr/kg diet increased the final pH of broiler meat. The addition of flaxseed significantly reduced water holding capacity, extract release volume and antioxidant potential of broiler meat, whereas, increasing Cr supplementation progressively increased them. Flaxseed feeding significantly increased the drip loss and lipid peroxidation of broiler meat, whereas, Cr supplementation decreased them. It was concluded that inclusion of 10% flaxseed and 1.5 mg Cr/kg diet results in desirable fatty acid profile, oxidative stability and functional properties of broiler chicken meat.

6.
Br Poult Sci ; 48(1): 104-10, 2007 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17364548

RESUMO

1. Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of feeding higher supplemental vitamin E (VE) concentrations on male reproductive variables, fertility and hatchability of quails. 2. In experiment 1, sixty 5-week-old male quails, reared in individual cages, were fed male breeder diets supplemented with 0, 75, 150, 225 or 300 IU alpha-tocopherol acetate/kg. At 10 weeks, observations on cloacal gland size, foam production, testes weight and blood samples for testosterone estimation were taken. 3. In experiment 2, 50 male and 50 female cage-reared quails (5 weeks old) were fed male breeder and layer rations, respectively, supplemented with 0, 75, 150, 225 or 300 IU/kg. At 13 weeks, 9 different mating pairs (5 pairs/group) were formed. Group 1 contained one control male and one control female in each of 5 pens. In groups 2 to 5, control males were paired with females on supplements of 75, 150, 225 or 300 IU/kg. In groups 6 to 9, control females were paired with males on supplements of 75, 150, 225 and 300 IU/kg. During subsequent adaptation and egg collection periods, each of 10 d, control layer ration was fed to all groups. All the eggs laid during the 10-d egg collection period were incubated artificially to estimate fertility and hatchability. The trial was repeated at 15 weeks. 4. Adult male quails receiving moderate supplemental VE (75 and 150 IU/kg) had a higher cloacal gland index, quantity of foam secretion, testicular weight and plasma testosterone than quails fed on either VE-deficient or more highly supplemented diets (225 and 300 IU alpha-tocopherol acetate/kg). 5. It was concluded that a supplement of 75 IU VE/kg in maize/soybean diet could provide the best reproductive performance of male breeder quails. Cloacal gland index, quantity of foam secretion, testicular weight and plasma testosterone can serve as indirect indicators of testicular activity and fertilising ability in quails. Supplemental VE did not affect the fertility and hatchability of male and female Japanese quails.


Assuntos
Coturnix/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , alfa-Tocoferol/análogos & derivados , Animais , Cloaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloaca/fisiologia , Coturnix/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Reprodução/fisiologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/fisiologia , Testosterona/sangue , Tocoferóis , alfa-Tocoferol/administração & dosagem
7.
Br Poult Sci ; 47(3): 336-41, 2006 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16787858

RESUMO

1. Nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolisable energy values (AMEN) of three varieties of sorghum (white-low tannin, brown-medium tannin and red-high tannin) were measured in three species of poultry (cockerel, guinea fowl and Japanese quail) by a practical diet replacement (total collection) method. 2. Each variety of sorghum was tested at two concentrations (200 and 400 g/kg of reference diet) in 6 replications with one cockerel or guinea fowl or two quails per replication. The duration of the trial included a 10 d preliminary feeding period (on conventional grower diet) followed by a 12 d adaptation period (on reference and test diets) and a 3 d balance period (with recording of feed intake and excreta output). 3. The calculated AMEN values of different sorghum varieties were: white--12.9, 12.8 and 12.7; brown--12.7, 12.3 and 12.6; and red--11.4, 11.1 and 11.6 MJ/kg for cockerels, guinea fowls and quails, respectively. The mean AMEN value of red sorghum (11.3 MJ/kg) was significantly lower than those of brown (12.5 MJ/kg) or white sorghum (12.8 MJ/kg). A negative correlation was observed between tannin concentration and AMEN. 4. There was no significant difference in the AMEN values of white, brown and red sorghum varieties to the different poultry species. AMEN values of sorghum for the cockerel could, therefore, be used in practical feed formulation for guinea fowl and quail.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Galliformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sorghum/química , Taninos/análise , Taninos/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Br Poult Sci ; 46(1): 75-9, 2005 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15835255

RESUMO

(1) The nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolisable energy (AME(N)) content of solvent-extracted rapeseed and sunflower seed (un-decorticated) meals in relation to species (chicken, guinea fowl and quail) and dietary addition of feed enzymes (0 or 0.5 g/kg diet) was evaluated by a diet replacement method in a 3 x 2 factorial design. (2) The metabolism trial was conducted at two substitution levels (200 and 400 g/kg diet) of each meal with or without supplementation of commercial enzyme preparation in 6 individuals or 6 groups of cockerels, guinea fowls and quails. (3) The experimental diets were fed for a period of 12 d followed by a 3-d collection period during which total feed consumed and droppings output were quantitatively recorded. (4) The AME(N) values of rapeseed meal for cockerels, guinea fowls and quails were 8.4, 8.7 and 8.8 MJ/kg, respectively, while the corresponding values for sunflower seed meal were 6.1, 6.1 and 6.2 MJ/kg dry matter, without enzyme supplementation. (5) The AME(N) value of rapeseed meal did not improve with enzyme supplementation. However, AME(N) values of sunflower seed meal significantly increased with enzyme supplementation, from 6.1 to 6.5 MJ/kg dry matter. (6) Since AME(N) values of rapeseed meal and sunflower seed meal were similar in chicken, guinea fowl and quail, values reported for chicken could, therefore, be used for guinea fowl and Japanese quail.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Galliformes/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/administração & dosagem , Helianthus/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Energia , Masculino
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