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1.
Results Phys ; 29: 104661, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518795

RESUMO

In this study, a new attempt has been made using mathematical modelling to study dynamic behaviour and estimate the final size of spread of the psychological stress arising due to sudden outbreak of COVID-19 in India. The proposed mathematical model examines and includes different behaviours of transition from one process to another in current situation and study their propagation mode. We propose a mathematical model, where two different type of psychological stresses occur due to COVID-19 situation and its impact on people's life such as their mental well being and happiness. We present some sufficient conditions for the vanishing or spreading of the psychological stress through qualitative and quantitative analysis. The basic reproduction number ( R 0 ) of the model is computed and the local and the global stabilities of different equilibria are studied. Moreover, to better understand the level of psychological stress and decreasing mental well-being during the COVID-19 outbreak in India, we also conducted an online survey. Our findings establish several factors associated with level of psychological impact and mental health status. Based on the empirical analysis, we found that psychological stress has a significant negative influence on mental well being. Further, this study confirms that coping strategies with stress have significantly contributed towards the betterment in the mental well-being of the people. Numerical simulations are also given to illustrate the theoretical results. The results of the present study can be generalized to the society, Government, and others that they can adopt different strategies to avoid stressful situations during COVID-19 outbreak. The findings suggest that policy-makers, Government officials should focus on coping strategies to combat with pandemic disease.

2.
BMJ Open Qual ; 10(Suppl 1)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unintended pregnancies have a negative impact on the health and economy of a nation, which can be prevented by effective family planning (FP) services. Postpartum intrauterine device (PPIUCD) is a safe and effective FP method which allows women to obtain long-acting contraception before discharge from the point of delivery. We observed poor coverage of deliveries with PPIUCD at our facility. This was the trigger to initiate a quality improvement (QI) initiative to increase the PPIUCD coverage from current rate of 4.5%-10% in 3-month period. METHOD: A fishbone analysis of the problem was done and the following causes were identified: lack of focused counselling for FP, lack of sensitisation and training of resident doctors and inconsistent supply of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs). A QI team was constituted with representatives from faculty members, residents, interns, nursing officers and FP counsellors. The point of care quality improvement methodology was used. INTERVENTIONS: Daily counselling of antenatal women was started by the counsellors and interns in antenatal wards. A WhatsApp group of residents was made initially to sensitise them; and later for parking of problems and trouble shooting. The residents were provided hands-on training at skills lab. Uninterrupted supply of IUCDs was ensured by provision of buffer stock of IUCDs with respective store keepers. RESULT: The PPIUCD insertion rates improved from 4.5% to 19.2% at 3 months and have been sustained to a current 30%-35% after 1 ½ years of initiation of the project tiding through the turbulence during the COVID-19 pandemic using QI techniques. CONCLUSION: Sensitisation and training of residents as well as creation of awareness among antenatal women through targeted counselling helped improve PPIUCD coverage at the facility. QI initiatives have the potential to facilitate effective implementation of the FP programmes by strategic utilisation of the resources.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Dispositivos Intrauterinos , Período Pós-Parto , Melhoria de Qualidade , Adulto , COVID-19 , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Pandemias , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Alta do Paciente , Gravidez
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(33)2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389669

RESUMO

Cellular function depends on the correct folding of proteins inside the cell. Heat-shock proteins 70 (Hsp70s), being among the first molecular chaperones binding to nascently translated proteins, aid in protein folding and transport. They undergo large, coordinated intra- and interdomain structural rearrangements mediated by allosteric interactions. Here, we applied a three-color single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) combined with three-color photon distribution analysis to compare the conformational cycle of the Hsp70 chaperones DnaK, Ssc1, and BiP. By capturing three distances simultaneously, we can identify coordinated structural changes during the functional cycle. Besides the known conformations of the Hsp70s with docked domains and open lid and undocked domains with closed lid, we observed additional intermediate conformations and distance broadening, suggesting flexibility of the Hsp70s in adopting the states in a coordinated fashion. Interestingly, the difference of this distance broadening varied between DnaK, Ssc1, and BiP. Study of their conformational cycle in the presence of substrate peptide and nucleotide exchange factors strengthened the observation of additional conformational intermediates, with BiP showing coordinated changes more clearly compared to DnaK and Ssc1. Additionally, DnaK and BiP were found to differ in their selectivity for nucleotide analogs, suggesting variability in the recognition mechanism of their nucleotide-binding domains for the different nucleotides. By using three-color FRET, we overcome the limitations of the usual single-distance approach in single-molecule FRET, allowing us to characterize the conformational space of proteins in higher detail.

4.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; : 11206721211035632, 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited multisystemic oncologic syndrome, presenting predominantly with angiomatosis in embryologically similar neurologic tissue such as retina, cerebellum and adrenals. Retinal hemangioblastomas are the hallmark ophthalmic finding. In this case report, we describe the importance of timely diagnosis, thorough systemic examination and treatment of bilaterally asymmetrical retinal hemangioblastomas in a young adult male. CASE PRESENTATION: A 31-year-old male presented with painless diminution of vision in both eyes, associated with eyestrain and headache. Multiple asymmetric retinal lesions and dilated feeder vessels were noted on ophthalmoscopic examination and confirmed by fluorescein angiography to be retinal hemangioblastomas. Comprehensive systemic examination revealed cerebellar hemangioblastomas and multiple pancreatic and renal cysts. Treatment of retinal lesions was done by combination therapy of argon laser photocoagulation and cryopexy, which lead to a good visual outcome. Subsequently, neurosurgical resection of cerebellar hemangioblastoma proved to be lifesaving for the patient. CONCLUSION: RHBs are the earliest, easiest and the most frequently detected manifestation of VHL. Identification of ocular manifestations play a pivotal role in early diagnosis and timely intervention in VHL syndrome, thereby significantly reducing associated morbidity and mortality. Therefore, an ophthalmologist's role is crucial in the management of these potentially deadly tumours.

5.
Chaos Solitons Fractals ; 144: 110707, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558795

RESUMO

In this work, we present and discuss the approaches, that are used for modeling and surveillance of dynamics of infectious diseases by considering the early stage asymptomatic and later stage symptomatic infections. We highlight the conceptual ideas and mathematical tools needed for such infectious disease modeling. We compute the basic reproduction number of the proposed model and investigate the qualitative behaviours of the infectious disease model such as, local and global stability of equilibria for the non-delayed as well as delayed system. At the end, we perform numerical simulations to validate the effectiveness of the derived results.

7.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 125-144, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079628

RESUMO

Plants are susceptible to phytopathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses, which cause colossal financial shortfalls (pre- and post-harvest) and threaten global food safety. To combat with these phytopathogens, plant possesses two-layer of defense in the form of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI), or Effectors-triggered immunity (ETI). The understanding of plant-molecular interactions and revolution of high-throughput molecular techniques have opened the door for innovations in developing pathogen-resistant plants. In this context, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) has transformed genome editing (GE) technology and being harnessed for altering the traits. Here we have summarized the complexities of plant immune system and the use of CRISPR-Cas9 to edit the various components of plant immune system to acquire long-lasting resistance in plants against phytopathogens. This review also sheds the light on the limitations of CRISPR-Cas9 system, regulation of CRISPR-Cas9 edited crops and future prospective of this technology.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Edição de Genes , Doenças das Plantas/genética
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18183, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082464

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

9.
PeerJ ; 8: e9448, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685287

RESUMO

Background: Chrysanthemum boreale Makino (Anthemideae, Asteraceae) is a plant of economic, ornamental and medicinal importance. We characterized and compared the chloroplast genomes of three C. boreale strains. These were collected from different geographic regions of Korea and varied in floral morphology. Methods: The chloroplast genomes were obtained by next-generation sequencing techniques, assembled de novo, annotated, and compared with one another. Phylogenetic analysis placed them within the Anthemideae tribe. Results: The sizes of the complete chloroplast genomes of the C. boreale strains were 151,012 bp (strain 121002), 151,098 bp (strain IT232531) and 151,010 bp (strain IT301358). Each genome contained 80 unique protein-coding genes, 4 rRNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. Comparative analyses revealed a high degree of conservation in the overall sequence, gene content, gene order and GC content among the strains. We identified 298 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 106 insertions/deletions (indels) in the chloroplast genomes. These variations were more abundant in non-coding regions than in coding regions. Long dispersed repeats and simple sequence repeats were present in both coding and noncoding regions, with greater frequency in the latter. Regardless of their location, these repeats can be used for molecular marker development. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the evolutionary relationship of the species in the Anthemideae tribe. The three complete chloroplast genomes will be valuable genetic resources for studying the population genetics and evolutionary relationships of Asteraceae species.

10.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(5)2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365609

RESUMO

Aster spathulifolius, a common ornamental and medicinal plant, is widely distributed in Korea and Japan, and is genetically classified into mainland and island types. Here, we sequenced the whole chloroplast genome of mainland A. spathulifolius and compared it with those of the island type and other Aster species. The chloroplast genome of mainland A. spathulifolius is 152,732 bp with a conserved quadripartite structure, has 37.28% guanine-cytosine (GC) content, and contains 114 non-redundant genes. Comparison of the chloroplast genomes between the two A. spathulifolius lines and the other Aster species revealed that their sequences, GC contents, gene contents and orders, and exon-intron structure were well conserved; however, differences were observed in their lengths, repeat sequences, and the contraction and expansion of the inverted repeats. The variations were mostly in the single-copy regions and non-coding regions, which, together with the detected simple sequence repeats, could be used for the development of molecular markers to distinguish between these plants. All Aster species clustered into a monophyletic group, but the chloroplast genome of mainland A. spathulifolius was more similar to the other Aster species than to that of the island A. spathulifolius. The accD and ndhF genes were detected to be under positive selection within the Aster lineage compared to other related taxa. The complete chloroplast genome of mainland A. spathulifolius presented in this study will be helpful for species identification and the analysis of the genetic diversity, evolution, and phylogenetic relationships in the Aster genus and the Asteraceae.

11.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(20)2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409538

RESUMO

Azotobacter chroococcum strain W5 (MTCC 25045) is an effective diazotrophic bacterium with plant growth-promoting traits. Here, we report the draft genome assembly of this biologically and agronomically evaluated A. chroococcum strain. The genome assembly in 55 contigs is 4,617,864 bp long, with a G+C content of 66.83%.

12.
J Biotechnol ; 319: 36-53, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446977

RESUMO

The discovery of CRISPR: Cas9 and its application as a powerful gene-editing tool has transformed the world of basic and applied science, especially the molecular biology dome. Also, the smooth, quick, flexible, and very efficient nature of this technology has enabled the biologists to alter the genome of prokaryotes to complex eukaryotic systems, including plants and animals. Using CRISPR and associated tools, investigation, control, and modification of significant biological events have been more accessible than before. These biological scissors are now being used to accelerate breeding programs of crop and livestock, engineer new antimicrobials, and control disease-carrying pathogens. However, like other techniques, these cutters emerged as a double-edged sword and put several challenges to the scientific society. Here in this review article, we summarized the beneficial application of the CRISPR: Cas9 system and unsafe perception to the society if handled carelessly. We also discussed the limitations and ethical issues related to CRISPR: Cas9 technology.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes , Animais , Pesquisa Biomédica , Edição de Genes/ética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Edição de Genes/normas , Humanos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6547, 2020 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300135

RESUMO

Microbial volatile compounds (MVCs) significantly influence the growth of plants and phytopathogens. However, the practical application of MVCs at the field level is limited by the fact that the concentrations at which these compounds antagonize the pathogens are often toxic for the plants. In this study, we investigated the effect of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), one of the MVCs produced by microorganisms, on the fitness of tomato plants and its fungicidal potential against a fungal phytopathogen, Sclerotinia minor. DMDS showed strong fungicidal and plant growth promoting activities with regard to the inhibition of mycelial growth, sclerotia formation, and germination, and reduction of disease symptoms in tomato plants infected with S. minor. DMDS exposure significantly upregulated the expression of genes related to growth and defense against the pathogen in tomato. Especially, the overexpression of PR1 and PR5 suggested the involvement of the salicylic acid pathway in the induction of systemic resistance. Several morphological and ultrastructural changes were observed in the cell membrane of S. minor and the expression of ergosterol biosynthesis gene was significantly downregulated, suggesting that DMDS damaged the membrane, thereby affecting the growth and pathogenicity of the fungus. In conclusion, the tripartite interaction studies among pathogenic fungus, DMDS, and tomato revealed that DMDS played roles in antagonizing pathogen as well as improving the growth and disease resistance of tomato. Our findings provide new insights into the potential of volatile DMDS as an effective tool against sclerotial rot disease.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Membrana Celular/patologia , Resistência à Doença , Dissulfetos/farmacologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascomicetos/ultraestrutura , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Família 51 do Citocromo P450/metabolismo , Ergosterol/análise , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucanos/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
15.
Cell Metab ; 30(2): 343-351.e3, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178361

RESUMO

Most neurons are not replaced during an animal's lifetime. This nondividing state is characterized by extreme longevity and age-dependent decline of key regulatory proteins. To study the lifespans of cells and proteins in adult tissues, we combined isotope labeling of mice with a hybrid imaging method (MIMS-EM). Using 15N mapping, we show that liver and pancreas are composed of cells with vastly different ages, many as old as the animal. Strikingly, we also found that a subset of fibroblasts and endothelial cells, both known for their replicative potential, are characterized by the absence of cell division during adulthood. In addition, we show that the primary cilia of beta cells and neurons contains different structural regions with vastly different lifespans. Based on these results, we propose that age mosaicism across multiple scales is a fundamental principle of adult tissue, cell, and protein complex organization.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Senescência Celular/genética , Mosaicismo , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Animais , Cílios/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Pâncreas/metabolismo
16.
A A Pract ; 12(6): 185-186, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169387

RESUMO

Acute fatty liver of pregnancy is one of the most common causes of fulminant hepatic failure. A 28-year-old G3P1L1A1 presented at 37 weeks with diagnosis of acute fatty liver of pregnancy with grade 3 hepatic encephalopathy. Laboratory findings were suggestive of coagulopathy, metabolic acidosis, and liver and renal dysfunction. Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block with ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block is widely used for postoperative analgesia. We applied these blocks, supplemented with intravenous ketamine for breakthrough visceral pain, to conduct cesarean delivery with a favorable outcome. Thus, transversus abdominis plane with ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric is a viable alternative in patients where general and neuraxial anesthesia is unsafe.


Assuntos
Cesárea/métodos , Falência Hepática Aguda/complicações , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Anestesia Obstétrica/métodos , Fígado Gorduroso/complicações , Fígado Gorduroso/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Hepática Aguda/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos
17.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 4(2): 3133-3134, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33365886

RESUMO

Chrysanthemum morifolium (Dendranthema grandiflorum), known as florist's daisy is an important ornamental and medicinal plant of the Asteraceae family. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of one economic cultivar 'Baekma' was 151,060 bp in length with a large single copy (LSC) region (82,862 bp), a small single copy (SSC) region (18,294 bp) and two inverted repeats (IRs) (24,952 bp). It contained 130 genes, including 85 protein-coding genes, 8 rRNAs and 37 tRNAs. The overall GC content was 37%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that C. morifolium 'Baekma' was grouped together with other Chrysanthemum species.

18.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 221, 2018 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30567591

RESUMO

Biomarkers of aging can be used to assess the health of individuals and to study aging and age-related diseases. We generate a large dataset of genome-wide RNA-seq profiles of human dermal fibroblasts from 133 people aged 1 to 94 years old to test whether signatures of aging are encoded within the transcriptome. We develop an ensemble machine learning method that predicts age to a median error of 4 years, outperforming previous methods used to predict age. The ensemble was further validated by testing it on ten progeria patients, and our method is the only one that predicts accelerated aging in these patients.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Transcriptoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Progéria/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Crit Rev Biotechnol ; 38(8): 1277-1296, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29862848

RESUMO

In the natural environment, plants communicate with various microorganisms (pathogenic or beneficial) and exhibit differential responses. In recent years, research on microbial volatile compounds (MVCs) has revealed them to be simple, effective and efficient groups of compounds that modulate plant growth and developmental processes. They also interfere with the signaling process. Different MVCs have been shown to promote plant growth via improved photosynthesis rates, increased plant resistance to pathogens, activated phytohormone signaling pathways, or, in some cases, inhibit plant growth, leading to death. Regardless of these exhibited roles, the molecules responsible, the underlying mechanisms, and induced specific metabolic/molecular changes are not fully understood. Here, we review current knowledge on the effects of MVCs on plants, with particular emphasis on their modulation of the salicylic acid, jasmonic acid/ethylene, and auxin signaling pathways. Additionally, opportunities for further research and potential practical applications presented.


Assuntos
Microbiota/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/microbiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo
20.
Cell Rep ; 22(13): 3660-3671, 2018 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29590630

RESUMO

Phenylalanine-glycine-rich nucleoporins (FG-Nups) are intrinsically disordered proteins, constituting the selective barrier of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Previous studies showed that nuclear transport receptors (NTRs) were found to interact with FG-Nups by forming an "archetypal-fuzzy" complex through the rapid formation and breakage of interactions with many individual FG motifs. Here, we use single-molecule studies combined with atomistic simulations to show that, in sharp contrast, FG-Nup214 undergoes a coupled reconfiguration-binding mechanism when interacting with the export receptor CRM1. Association and dissociation rate constants are more than an order of magnitude lower than in the archetypal-fuzzy complex between FG-Nup153 and NTRs. Unexpectedly, this behavior appears not to be encoded selectively into CRM1 but rather into the FG-Nup214 sequence. The same distinct binding mechanisms are unperturbed in O-linked ß-N-acetylglucosamine-modified FG-Nups. Our results have implications for differential roles of distinctly spatially distributed FG-Nup⋅NTR interactions in the cell.


Assuntos
Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/metabolismo , Poro Nuclear/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Glicina/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Poro Nuclear/química , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/química , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica
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