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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 136, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low- and Middle-income countries (LMIC) face considerable health and nutrition challenges, many of which can be addressed through strong academic leadership and robust research translated into evidence-based practice. A North-South-South partnership between three universities was established to implement a master's programme in nutritional epidemiology at the Kinshasa School of Public Health (KSPH), Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The partnership aimed to develop academic leadership and research capacity in the field of nutrition in the DRC. In this article we describe the educational approach and processes used, and discuss successes, challenges, and lessons learned. METHODS: Self-administered questionnaires, which included both open and closed questions, were sent to all graduates and students on the master's programme to explore students' experiences and perceptions of all aspects of the educational programme. Quantitative data was analysed using frequencies, and a thematic approach was used to analyse responses to open-ended questions. RESULTS: A two-year master's programme in Nutritional Epidemiology was established in 2014, and 40 students had graduated by 2020. Key elements included using principles of authentic learning, deployment of students for an internship at a rural residential research site, and support of selected students with bursaries. Academic staff from all partner universities participated in teaching and research supervision. The curriculum and teaching approach were well received by most students, although a number of challenges were identified. Most students reported benefits from the rural internship experience but were challenged by the isolation of the rural site, and felt unsupported by their supervisors, undermining students' experiences and potentially the quality of the research. Financial barriers were also reported as challenges by students, even among those who received bursaries. CONCLUSION: The partnership was successful in establishing a Master Programme in Nutritional Epidemiology increasing the number of nutrition researchers in the DRC. This approach could be used in other LMIC settings to address health and nutrition challenges.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3173, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542437

RESUMO

In the ANRS 12174 trial, HIV-exposed uninfected African neonates who received lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r) prophylaxis for 1 year exhibited slower growth from birth to week 50 compared with those receiving lamivudine (3TC). We assessed whether this difference in growth persisted over time, and was accompanied by differences in neuropsychological and clinical outcomes. Between February 2017 and February 2018, we conducted a cross-sectional clinical evaluation among former trial participants who completed the 50-week follow-up and who were not HIV-infected. In addition to clinical examination, neuropsychological outcomes were assessed using the tests Kaufman-ABCII, Test of Variables of Attention, Movement Assessment Battery for Children and the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire, parent version. Of 1101 eligible children, aged 5-7 years, 553 could be traced and analysed (274 in the LPV/r and 279 in the 3TC groups). Growth, clinical and neuropsychological outcomes did not differ between treatment groups. At school age, children exposed to LPV/r and 3TC at birth for 1 year had comparable growth and neuropsychological outcomes without evidence of long-term side-effects of LPV/r. It provides reassuring data on clinical outcomes for all HIV-infected children treated with this antiretroviral drug in early life.

3.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e041723, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574146

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, predictors and case fatality risk of hypothermia among neonates in Lira district, Northern Uganda. SETTING: Three subcounties of Lira district in Northern Uganda. DESIGN: This was a community-based cross-sectional study nested in a cluster randomised controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Mother-baby pairs enrolled in a cluster randomised controlled trial. An axillary temperature was taken during a home visit using a lithium battery-operated digital thermometer. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: The primary outcome measure was the prevalence of hypothermia. Hypothermia was defined as mild if the axillary temperature was 36.0°C to <36.5°C, moderate if the temperature was 32.0°C to <36.0°C and severe hypothermia if the temperature was <32.0°C. The secondary outcome measure was the case fatality risk of neonatal hypothermia. Predictors of moderate to severe hypothermia were determined using a generalised estimating equation model for the Poisson family. RESULTS: We recruited 1330 neonates. The prevalence of hypothermia (<36.5°C) was 678/1330 (51.0%, 95% CI 46.9 to 55.1). Overall, 32% (429/1330), 95% CI 29.5 to 35.2 had mild hypothermia, whereas 18.7% (249/1330), 95% CI 15.8 to 22.0 had moderate hypothermia. None had severe hypothermia. At multivariable analysis, predictors of neonatal hypothermia included: home birth (adjusted prevalence ratio, aPR, 1.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 2.6); low birth weight (aPR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.3) and delayed breastfeeding initiation (aPR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.5). The case fatality risk ratio of hypothermic compared with normothermic neonates was 2.0 (95% CI 0.60 to 6.9). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of neonatal hypothermia was very high, demonstrating that communities in tropical climates should not ignore neonatal hypothermia. Interventions designed to address neonatal hypothermia should consider ways of reaching neonates born at home and those with low birth weight. The promotion of early breastfeeding initiation and skin-to-skin care could reduce the risk of neonatal hypothermia. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrial.gov as NCT02605369.

4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 81, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asylum-seeking children represent an increasing and vulnerable group of patients whose health needs are largely unmet. Data on the health care provision to asylum-seeking children in European contexts is scarce. In this study we compare the health care provided to recent asylum-seeking and non-asylum-seeking children at a Swiss tertiary hospital. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional retrospective study in a pediatric tertiary care hospital in Basel, Switzerland. All patients and visits from January 2016 to December 2017 were identified, using administrative and medical electronic health records. The asylum-seeking status was systematically assessed and the patients were allocated accordingly in the two study groups. RESULTS: A total of 202,316 visits by 55,789 patients were included, of which asylum-seeking patients accounted for 1674 (1%) visits by 439 (1%) individuals. The emergency department recorded the highest number of visits in both groups with a lower proportion in asylum-seeking compared to non-asylum-seeking children: 19% (317/1674) and 32% (64,315/200,642) respectively. The median number of visits per patient was 1 (IQR 1-2) in the asylum-seeking and 2 (IQR 1-4) in the non-asylum-seeking children. Hospital admissions were more common in asylum-seeking compared to non-asylum-seeking patients with 11% (184/1674) and 7% (14,692/200,642). Frequent visits (> 15 visits per patient) accounted for 48% (807/1674) of total visits in asylum-seeking and 25% (49,886/200,642) of total visits in non-asylum-seeking patients. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital visits by asylum-seeking children represented a small proportion of all visits. The emergency department had the highest number of visits in all patients but was less frequently used by asylum-seeking children. Frequent care suggests that asylum-seeking patients also present with more complex diseases. Further studies are needed, focusing on asylum-seeking children with medical complexity.

5.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1859823, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446087

RESUMO

Background: Perinatal mortality in Uganda remains high at 38 deaths/1,000 births, an estimate greater than the every newborn action plan (ENAP) target of ≤24/1,000 births by 2030. To improve perinatal survival, there is a need to understand the persisting risk factors for death. Objective: We determined the incidence, risk factors, and causes of perinatal death in Lira district, Northern Uganda. Methods: This was a community-based prospective cohort study among pregnant women in Lira district, Northern Uganda. Female community volunteers identified pregnant women in each household who were recruited at ≥28 weeks of gestation and followed until 50 days postpartum. Information on perinatal survival was gathered from participants within 24 hours after childbirth and at 7 days postpartum. The cause of death was ascertained using verbal autopsies. We used generalized estimating equations of the Poisson family to determine the risk factors for perinatal death. Results: Of the 1,877 women enrolled, the majority were ≤30 years old (79.8%), married or cohabiting (91.3%), and had attained only a primary education (77.7%). There were 81 perinatal deaths among them, giving a perinatal mortality rate of 43/1,000 births [95% confidence interval (95% CI: 35, 53)], of these 37 were stillbirths (20 deaths/1,000 total births) and 44 were early neonatal deaths (23 deaths/1,000 live births). Birth asphyxia, respiratory failure, infections and intra-partum events were the major probable contributors to perinatal death. The risk factors for perinatal death were nulliparity at enrolment (adjusted IRR 2.7, [95% CI: 1.3, 5.6]) and maternal age >30 years (adjusted IRR 2.5, [95% CI: 1.1, 5.8]). Conclusion: The incidence of perinatal death in this region was higher than had previously been reported in Uganda. Risk factors for perinatal mortality were nulliparity and maternal age >30 years. Pregnant women in this region need improved access to care during pregnancy and childbirth.

6.
Trop Med Health ; 48(1): 89, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypoglycemia is the most common endocrine abnormality in children, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The burden and risk factors of neonatal hypoglycemia in rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for neonatal hypoglycemia in Lira District, Northern Uganda. METHODS: This was a community-based cross-sectional study, nested in a cluster randomized controlled trial designed to promote health facility births and newborn care practices in Lira District, Northern Uganda. This study recruited neonates born to mothers in the parent study. Random blood glucose was measured using an On Call® Plus glucometer (ACON Laboratories, Inc., 10125 Mesa Road, San Diego, CA, USA). We defined hypoglycemia as a blood glucose of < 47 mg/dl. To determine the factors associated with neonatal hypoglycemia, a multivariable linear regression mixed-effects model was used. RESULTS: We examined 1416 participants of mean age 3.1 days (standard deviation (SD) 2.1) and mean weight of 3.2 kg (SD 0.5). The mean neonatal blood glucose level was 81.6 mg/dl (SD 16.8). The prevalence of a blood glucose concentration of < 47 mg/dl was 2.2% (31/1416): 95% CI 1.2%, 3.9%. The risk factors for neonatal hypoglycemia were delayed breastfeeding initiation [adjusted mean difference, - 2.6; 95% CI, - 4.4, - 0.79] and child age of 3 days or less [adjusted mean, - 12.2; 95% CI, - 14.0, - 10.4]. CONCLUSION: The incidence of neonatal hypoglycemia was low in this community and was predicted by delay in initiating breastfeeding and a child age of 3 days or less. We therefore suggest targeted screening and management of neonatal hypoglycemia among neonates before 3 days of age and those who are delayed in the onset of breastfeeding.

7.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207772

RESUMO

Infant antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis given to children who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed but uninfected (CHEU) to prevent HIV transmission through breastfeeding previously proved its efficacy in the fight against the pediatric epidemic. However, few studies have investigated the short- and long-term safety of prophylactic regimens. We previously reported a decrease of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content among CHEU who received one year of lamivudine (3TC) or lopinavir-boosted ritonavir (LPV/r) as infant prophylaxis. We aimed to describe mtDNA content at six years of age among these CHEU, including those for whom we identified mtDNA depletion at week 50 (decrease superior or equal to 50% from baseline), and to compare the two prophylactic drugs. We also addressed the association between mtDNA depletion at week 50 with growth, clinical, and neuropsychological outcomes at year 6. Quantitative PCR was used to measure mtDNA content in whole blood of CHEU seven days after birth, at week 50, and at year 6. Among CHEU with identified mtDNA depletion at week 50 (n = 17), only one had a persistent mtDNA content decrease at year 6. No difference between prophylactic drugs was observed. mtDNA depletion was not associated with growth, clinical, or neuropsychological outcomes at year 6. This study brought reassuring data concerning the safety of infant 3TC or LPV/r prophylaxis.

8.
N Engl J Med ; 383(22): 2138-2147, 2020 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Face-mask ventilation is the most common resuscitation method for birth asphyxia. Ventilation with a cuffless laryngeal mask airway (LMA) has potential advantages over face-mask ventilation during neonatal resuscitation in low-income countries, but whether the use of an LMA reduces mortality and morbidity among neonates with asphyxia is unknown. METHODS: In this phase 3, open-label, superiority trial in Uganda, we randomly assigned neonates who required positive-pressure ventilation to be treated by a midwife with an LMA or with face-mask ventilation. All the neonates had an estimated gestational age of at least 34 weeks, an estimated birth weight of at least 2000 g, or both. The primary outcome was a composite of death within 7 days or admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with moderate-to-severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy at day 1 to 5 during hospitalization. RESULTS: Complete follow-up data were available for 99.2% of the neonates. A primary outcome event occurred in 154 of 563 neonates (27.4%) in the LMA group and 144 of 591 (24.4%) in the face-mask group (adjusted relative risk, 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.51; P = 0.26). Death within 7 days occurred in 21.7% of the neonates in the LMA group and 18.4% of those in the face-mask group (adjusted relative risk, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.63), and admission to the NICU with moderate-to-severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy at day 1 to 5 during hospitalization occurred in 11.2% and 10.1%, respectively (adjusted relative risk, 1.27; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.93). Findings were materially unchanged in a sensitivity analysis in which neonates with missing data were counted as having had a primary outcome event in the LMA group and as not having had such an event in the face-mask group. The frequency of predefined intervention-related adverse events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In neonates with asphyxia, the LMA was safe in the hands of midwives but was not superior to face-mask ventilation with respect to early neonatal death and moderate-to-severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. (Funded by the Research Council of Norway and the Center for Intervention Science in Maternal and Child Health; NeoSupra ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03133572.).

9.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1833510, 2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is important for growth, development and survival of HIV exposed infants. Exclusive breastfeeding reduces the risk of morbidity, mortality and increases HIV free survival of infants. Evidence on risk factors for inappropriate breastfeeding in Northern Uganda is limited. OBJECTIVE: This study determined the risk factors for non-exclusivity of breastfeeding in the first 14 weeks of life. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted among 466 mother-infant pairs between August 2018 and February 2020 in Lira district, Northern Uganda. HIV infected pregnant women were enrolled and followed up at delivery, 6- and 14- weeks postpartum. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain data on socio-demographic, reproductive-related, HIV-related characteristics and exclusive breastfeeding. Data were analysed using Stata version 14.0 (StataCorp, College Station, Texas, USA.). We estimated adjusted risk ratios using modified Poisson regression models. RESULTS: The proportion of HIV exposed infants that were exclusively breastfed reduced with increasing age. Risk factors for non-exclusive breastfeeding included infants being born to HIV infected women who: were in the highest socioeconomic strata (adjusted risk ratio = 1.5, 95%CI: 1.01- 2.1), whose delivery was supervised by a non-health worker (adjusted risk ratio = 1.6, 95%CI: 1.01- 2.7) and who had not adhered to their ART during pregnancy (adjusted risk ratio = 1.3, 95%CI: 1.01- 1.7). CONCLUSIONS: HIV infected women: with highest socioeconomic status, whose delivery was not supervised by a health worker and who did not adhere to ART were less likely to practice exclusive breastfeeding. We recommend ART adherence and infant feeding counselling to be emphasised among HIV infected women who are at risk of having a home delivery, those with poor ART adherence and those of higher socioeconomic status. We also recommend integration of these services into other settings like homes, community and work places instead of limiting them to hospital settings. ABBREVIATIONS: HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus; ART: Antiretroviral therapy; HEI: HIV exposed infant; PMTCT: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV; MTCT: Mother-to-child transmission of HIV; AFASS: Acceptable, Feasible, Affordable, Sustainable and Safe; LRRH: Lira regional referral hospital; CI: confidence interval; ARR: Adjusted risk ratio; SD: Standard deviation; PCA: Principal component analysis.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16319, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004969

RESUMO

Prevention of unintended pregnancies is a global strategy to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Factors surrounding unintended pregnancy among women living with HIV are not well understood. We aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors for unintended pregnancy among these women in Northern Uganda. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 518 women using a structured questionnaire. We asked questions on socio-demographic, reproductive-related and HIV-related characteristics. We conducted multivariable logistic regression and reported adjusted odds ratios. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy was 41.1%. The predictors for unintended pregnancy were: being single (not living with a partner or being in a marital union), having five or more children and taking antiretroviral drugs for long periods of time. HIV counselling services should target women living with HIV who are not in a marital union, those having a higher parity and those who have taken ART for longer periods.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240529, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sub-optimal adherence to infant prophylaxis has been associated with mother-to-child-transmission of HIV. However, the factors associated have not been well characterised in different settings. This study describes barriers and enablers of adherence to infant prophylaxis among 6-week-old HIV exposed infants in Lira district, Northern Uganda. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted from 2018-2020 at the PMTCT clinic at Lira Regional Referral Hospital and included 472 mother-infant pairs. HIV-infected pregnant women were recruited, followed up at delivery and 6 weeks postpartum. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain data on socio-demographic, reproductive-related, HIV-related characteristics and adherence. Data were analysed using Stata to estimate adjusted risk ratios using Poisson regression models to ascertain barriers and enablers of adherence to infant nevirapine prophylaxis. RESULTS: Barriers to infant adherence are maternal characteristics including: younger age (≤20 years adjusted risk ratio (ARR) = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.1-2.2), missing a viral load test during pregnancy (ARR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1-1.7) and not receiving nevirapine syrup for the baby after childbirth (ARR = 6.2; 95% CI: 5.1-7.6). Enablers were: having attained ≥14 years of schooling (ARR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.5-0.9), taking a nevirapine-based regimen (ARR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9), long-term ART (≥ 60 months ARR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.6-0.9), accompanied by a husband to hospital during labour and childbirth (ARR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.4-0.7) and labour starting at night (ARR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.6-0.8). CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Despite mothers receiving nevirapine syrup from the health workers for the infant, non-adherence rates still prevail at 14.8%. The health system needs to consider giving HIV infected pregnant women the nevirapine syrup before birth to avoid delays and non-adherence. There is need to pay particular attention to younger women and those who recently started ART.

12.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048971

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Deaths during the perinatal period remain a big challenge in Africa, with 38 deaths per 1000 pregnancies in Uganda. The consequences of these deaths can be detrimental to the women; some ending up with postpartum depression. We examined the association between perinatal death and postpartum depression among women in Lira district, Northern Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1,789 women. Trained research assistants screened women for postpartum depressive symptoms on day 50 postpartum using the Edinburgh postpartum depression scale (EPDS). Socio-demographic, economic, birth and survival status of the neonate were collected during pregnancy and within one week postpartum. We used generalized estimating equation for the Poisson family with a log link using Stata to estimate the prevalence ratio of the association between postpartum depressive symptoms (EPDS scores ≥14) and perinatal death. Mothers who lost their babies between 7-49 days postpartum were excluded. RESULTS: Of the 1,789 participants symptomatically screened for postpartum depression, 377 (21.1%) [95% confidence interval (95%CI): 17.2%, 23.0%] had probable depressive symptoms. The prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms among the 77 women who had experienced perinatal death (37 stillbirths and 40 early neonatal deaths (≤7 days of life)) was 62.3% [95% CI: 50.8%, 72.6%] compared to 19.2% [95% CI: 17.4%, 21.2%], among 1,712 with live infants at day 50 postpartum. Women who had experienced a perinatal death were three times as likely to have postpartum depressive symptoms as those who had a live birth [adjusted prevalence ratio 3.45 (95% CI: 2.67, 4.48)]. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms, assessed by EPDS, was high among women who had had a perinatal death in Northern Uganda. Women experiencing a perinatal death need to be screened for postpartum depressive symptoms in order to intervene and reduce associated morbidity.

13.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002002

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Population-based HIV-free survival at 18-24 months of age among HIV-exposed infants in high prevalence settings in the era of treatment for all is largely unknown. We conducted a community-based survey to determine outcomes of HIV-exposed infants at 18-24 months in Lesotho. METHODS: Between November 2015 and December 2016, we conducted a survey among households with a child born 18-24 months prior to data collection. Catchment areas from 25 health facilities in Butha-Buthe, Maseru, Mohale's Hoek and Thaba-Tseka districts were randomly selected using probability proportional to size sampling. Consecutive households were visited and eligible consenting caregivers and children were enrolled. Rapid HIV antibody testing was performed on mothers of unknown HIV status (never tested or tested HIV-negative >3 months prior) and their children, and to children born to known HIV-positive mothers. Information on demographics, health-seeking behavior, HIV, and mortality were captured for mothers and children, including those who died. The difference in survival between subgroups was determined using the log-rank test. RESULTS: Of the 1,852 mothers/caregivers enrolled, 570 mothers were HIV-positive. The mother-to-child HIV transmission rate was 5.7% [95% CI: 4.0-8.0]. The mortality rate was 2.6% [95% CI: 1.6-4.2] among HIV-exposed children compared to 1.4% (95% CI: 0.9-2.3) among HIV-unexposed children. HIV-free survival was 91.8% [95% CI: 89.2-93.8] among HIV-exposed infants. Disclosure of mother's HIV status (aOR = 4.9, 95% CI: 1.3-18.2) and initiation of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in the child (aOR = 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2-12.6) were independently associated with increased HIV-free survival while child growth problems (aOR = 0.2, 95% CI: 0.09-0.5) were independently associated with reduced HIV-free survival. CONCLUSION: Even in the context of lifelong antiretroviral therapy among pregnant and breastfeeding women, HIV has a significant effect on survival among HIV-exposed children compared to unexposed children. Lesotho has not reached elimination of HIV transmission from mother to child.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Aleitamento Materno , Estudos Transversais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Soronegatividade para HIV , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesoto/epidemiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e034770, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109638

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We report the effectiveness of a mentoring approach to improve health workers' (HWs') knowledge, attitudes and confidence with counselling on HIV and infant feeding. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental controlled before-after study. SETTING: Randomly selected primary healthcare clinics (n=24 intervention, n=12 comparison); two districts, South Africa. PARTICIPANTS: All HWs providing infant feeding counselling in selected facilities were invited. INTERVENTIONS: Three 1-2 hours, on-site workshops over 3-6 weeks. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Knowledge (22 binary questions), attitude (21 questions-5-point Likert Scale) and confidence (19 questions-3-point Likert Scale). Individual item responses were added within each of the attitude and confidence domains. The respective sums were taken to be the domain composite index and used as a dependent variable to evaluate intervention effect. Linear regression models were used to estimate the mean score difference between intervention and comparison groups postintervention, adjusting for the mean score difference between them at baseline. Analyses were adjusted for participant baseline characteristics and clustering at health facility level. RESULTS: In intervention and comparison sites, respectively: 289 and 131 baseline and 253 and 114 follow-up interviews were conducted (August-December 2017). At baseline there was no difference in mean number of correctly answered knowledge questions; this differed significantly at follow-up (15.2 in comparison; 17.2 in intervention sites (p<0.001)). At follow-up, the mean attitude and confidence scores towards breast feeding were better in intervention versus comparison sites (p<0.001 and p=0.05, respectively). Controlling for confounders, interactions between time and intervention group and preintervention values, the attitude score was 5.1 points significantly higher in intervention versus comparison groups. CONCLUSION: A participatory, low-intensity on-site mentoring approach to disseminating updated infant feeding guidelines improved HWs' knowledge, attitudes and confidence more than standard dissemination via a circular. Further research is required to evaluate the effectiveness, feasibility and sustainability of this approach at scale.

15.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937988

RESUMO

Children who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed but uninfected (CHEU) accumulate maternal HIV and antiretroviral exposures through pregnancy, postnatal prophylaxis, and breastfeeding. Here, we compared the dynamics of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) parameters in African breastfed CHEU receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) or lamivudine (3TC) pre-exposure prophylaxis during the first year of life. The number of mtDNA copies per cell (MCN) and the proportion of deleted mtDNA (MDD) were assessed at day 7 and at week 50 post-delivery (PrEP group). mtDNA depletion was defined as a 50% or more decrease from the initial value, and mtDNA deletions was the detection of mtDNA molecules with large DNA fragment loss. We also performed a sub-analysis with CHEU who did not receive a prophylactic treatment in South Africa (control group). From day seven to week 50, MCN decreased with a median of 41.7% (interquartile range, IQR: 12.1; 64.4) in the PrEP group. The proportion of children with mtDNA depletion was not significantly different between the two prophylactic regimens. Poisson regressions showed that LPV/r and 3TC were associated with mtDNA depletion (reference: control group; LPV/r: PR = 1.75 (CI95%: 1.15-2.68), p < 0.01; 3TC: PR = 1.54 (CI95%: 1.00-2.37), p = 0.05). Moreover, the proportion of children with MDD was unexpectedly high before randomisation in both groups. Long-term health impacts of these mitochondrial DNA parameters should be investigated further for both CHEU and HIV-infected children receiving LPV/r- or 3TC- based regimens.

16.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 4(1): e000688, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760813

RESUMO

Background: Heart rate (HR) assessment is crucial in neonatal resuscitation, but pulse oximetry (PO) and electrocardiography (ECG) are rarely accessible in low-resource to middle-resource settings. This study evaluated a free-of-charge smartphone application, NeoTap, which records HR with a screen-tapping method bypassing mental arithmetic calculations. Methods: This observational study was carried out during three time periods between May 2015 and January 2019 in Uganda in three phases. In phase 1, a metronome rate (n=180) was recorded by low-end users (midwives) using NeoTap. In phase 2, HR (n=69) in breathing neonates was recorded by high-end users (paediatricians) using NeoTap versus PO. In phase 3, HR (n=235) in non-breathing neonates was recorded by low-end users using NeoTap versus ECG. Results: In high-end users the mean difference was 3 beats per minute (bpm) higher with NeoTap versus PO (95% agreement limits -14 to 19 bpm), with acquisition time of 5 seconds. In low-end users, the mean difference was 6 bpm lower with NeoTap versus metronome (95% agreement limits -26 to 14 bpm) and 3 bpm higher with NeoTap versus ECG in non-breathing neonates (95% agreement limits -48 to 53 bpm), with acquisition time of 2.7 seconds. The agreement between NeoTap and ECG was good in the HR categories of 60-99 bpm and ≥100 bpm; HR <60 bpm had few measurements (kappa index 0.71, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.79). Conclusion: HR could be accurately and rapidly assessed using a smartphone application in breathing neonates in a low-resource setting. Clinical assessment by low-end users was less accurate with wider CI but still adds clinically important information in non-breathing neonates. The authors suggest low-end users may benefit from auscultation-focused training. More research is needed to evaluate its feasibility in clinical use.

17.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-12, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602386

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic started in the Hubei province of China, but is rapidly spreading all over the world. Much of the information and literature have been centered on the adult population while a few reports pertaining to COVID-19 and neonates have been published so far. Actual guidelines are based on expert opinion and show significant differences among the official neonatal societies around the world. Recommendations for the care of neonates born to suspected or confirmed COVD-19 positive mothers in low-resource settings are very limited. This perspective aims to provide practical support for the planning of delivery, resuscitating, stabilizing, and providing postnatal care to an infant born to a mother with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 in low-resource settings where resources for managing emergency situations are limited.

18.
Int J MCH AIDS ; 9(2): 232-241, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704410

RESUMO

Background / Objectives: Detectable HIV viral load among HIV-infected pregnant women remains a public health threat. We aimed to determine factors associated with detectable viral load among HIV-infected pregnant women in Lira, Northern Uganda. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 420 HIV-infected pregnant women attending Lira Regional Referral Hospital using a structured questionnaire and combined it with viral load tests from Uganda National Health Laboratories. We conducted multivariable logistic regression while adjusting for confounders to determine the factors associated with detectable viral load and we report adjusted odds ratios and proportion of women with viral load less than 50 copies/ml and above 1000 copies, respectively. Results: The prevalence of detectable viral load (>50 copies/ml) was 30.7% (95%CI: 26.3% - 35.4%) and >1000 copies/ml was 8.1% (95% CI: 5.7% - 11.1%). Factors associated with detectable viral load were not belonging to the Lango ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.05 - 3.90) and taking a second-line (protease inhibitor-based) regimen (adjusted odds ratio = 4.41, 95%CI: 1.13 - 17.22). Conclusions and Global Health Implications: HIV-infected pregnant women likely to have detectable viral load included those taking a protease inhibitor-based regimen and those who were not natives of Lira. We recommend intensified clinical and psychosocial monitoring for medication compliance among HIV-infected pregnant women that are likely to have a detectable viral load to significantly lower the risk of vertical transmission of HIV in Lira specifically those taking a protease inhibitor-based regimen and those who are non-natives to the study setting. Much as the third 90% of the global UNAIDS 90-90-90 target has been achieved, the national implementation of PMTCT guidelines should be tailored to its contextual needs.

19.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1743496, 2020 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skilled birth attendants must be competent to provide prompt resuscitation to save newborn lives at birth. Both knowledge and skills (competence) decline with time after training but the optimal duration for refresher training among frontline-skilled birth attendants in low-resource settings is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the effect of an innovative Helping-Babies-Breathe simulation-based teaching method using video-debriefing compared to standard Helping-Babies-Breathe training on 1) neonatal resuscitation knowledge and skills attainment and 2) competence retention among skilled birth attendants in Northern Uganda. METHODS: A total of 26 health facilities with 86 birth attendants were equally randomised to intervention and control arms. The 2nd edition of the American Association of Pediatrics Helping-Babies-Breathe curriculum was used for training and assessment. Knowledge and skills were assessed pre- and post-training, and during follow-up at 6 months. A mixed effects linear regression model for repeated measures was used to assess the short and long-term effects of the intervention on neonatal resuscitation practices while accounting for clustering. RESULTS: Eighty-two (95.3%) skilled birth attendants completed follow-up at 6 months. Approximately 80% of these had no prior Helping-Babies-Breathe training and 75% reported practicing neonatal resuscitation routinely. Standard Helping-Babies-Breathe training with video-debriefing improved knowledge and skills attainment post-training [adjusted mean difference: 5.34; 95% CI: 0.82-10.78] and retention [adjusted mean difference: 2.97; 95% CI: 1.52-4.41] over 6 months post-training compared to standard training after adjusting for confounding and clustering. Factors that reduced knowledge and skills retention among birth attendants were monthly resuscitation of one neonate or more and being in service for more than 5 years. CONCLUSION: Adding video-debriefing to standard Helping-Babies-Breathe training had an effect on birth attendants' competence attainment and retention over 6 months in Uganda. However, more research is needed to justify the proposed intervention in this context.

20.
Int Breastfeed J ; 15(1): 43, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months reduces infant morbidity and mortality and can positively impact on cognitive function. In Uganda, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is recommended but many women introduce alternative feeds early. Interventions to scale-up peer support provision for exclusive breastfeeding are limited. We explored the barriers, facilitators and solutions to scaling-up of peer counselling support for exclusive breastfeeding in Uganda. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in Mbale District and Kampala City between April and July 2014. Data were collected through 15 key informant interviews with health workers and managers of organizations involved in child and maternal health as well as seven focus group discussions with peer counsellors who took part in the PROMISE EBF Trial (2006-2008), VHT members, mothers and fathers of children aged 1 year and below. Data were analysed using the content thematic approach. RESULTS: The need for peer support for exclusive breastfeeding, especially for young and first-time mothers, was highlighted by most study participants. While mothers, mothers-in-law, friends and husbands were mentioned as major stakeholders regarding infant feeding, they were perceived to lack adequate information on breastfeeding. Health workers were mentioned as a key source of support, but their constraints of heavy workloads and lack of education materials on breastfeeding were highlighted. High community expectations of peer counsellors, the perceived inadequacy of breast milk, general acceptability of complimentary feeding, household food insecurity, heavy workload for women and unsupportive 'work-places' were key barriers to scaling-up of peer counselling support for breastfeeding. The peer counsellors who were part of the PROMISE EBF trial in Mbale, the village health team programme, health facilities, community groups, the media and professional associations emerged as potential facilitators that can aid the scaling-up of peer counselling support for breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS: Peer support for breastfeeding is highly valued in this setting. The health system and health workers are regarded as the main facilitators to scaling-up of peer support for exclusive breastfeeding. Partnerships with village health teams (VHTs), community groups, role models, professional associations and the media are other potential facilitators to this scaling-up.

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