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1.
Gene ; 712: 143962, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288057

RESUMO

Veratrum nigrum is protected plant of Melanthiaceae family, able to synthetize unique steroidal alkaloids important for pharmacy. Transcriptomes from leaves, stems and rhizomes of in vitro maintained V. nigrum plants were sequenced and annotated for genes and markers discovery. Sequencing of samples derived from the different organs resulted in a total of 108,511 contigs with a mean length of 596 bp. Transcripts derived from leaf and stalk were annotated at 28%, and 38% in Nr nucleotide database, respectively. The sequencing revealed 949 unigenes related with lipid metabolism, including 73 transcripts involved in steroids and genus-specific steroid alkaloids biosynthesis. Additionally, 3203 candidate SSRs markers we identified in unigenes with average density of one SSR locus every 6.2 kb sequence. Unraveling of biochemical machinery of the pathway responsible for steroidal alkaloids will open possibility to design and optimize biotechnological process. The transcriptomic data provide valuable resources for biochemical, molecular genetics, comparative transcriptomics, functional genomics, ecological and evolutionary studies of V. nigrum.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Esteroides/biossíntese , Transcriptoma , Veratrum/metabolismo , Mapeamento de Sequências Contíguas , DNA Complementar/metabolismo , Biblioteca Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Repetições de Microssatélites , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA
2.
Physiol Plant ; 165(4): 711-727, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29774565

RESUMO

Microdochium nivale is a fungal pathogen that causes yield losses of cereals during winter. Cold hardening under light conditions induces genotype-dependent resistance of a plant to infection. We aim to show how photosystem II (PSII) regulation contributes to plant resistance. Using mapping population of triticale doubled haploid lines, three M. nivale strains and different infection assays, we demonstrate that plants that maintain a higher maximum quantum efficiency of PSII show less leaf damage upon infection. The fungus can establish necrotrophic or biotrophic interactions with susceptible or resistant genotypes, respectively. It is suggested that local inhibition of photosynthesis during the infection of sensitive genotypes is not balanced by a supply of energy from the tissue surrounding the infected cells as efficiently as in resistant genotypes. Thus, defence is limited, which in turn results in extensive necrotic damage. Quantitative trait loci regions, involved in the control of both PSII functioning and resistance, were located on chromosomes 4 and 6, similar to a wide range of PSII- and resistance-related genes. A meta-analysis of microarray experiments showed that the expression of genes involved in the repair and de novo assembly of PSII was maintained at a stable level. However, to establish a favourable energy balance for defence, genes encoding PSII proteins resistant to oxidative degradation were downregulated to compensate for the upregulation of defence-related pathways. Finally, we demonstrate that the structural and functional integrity of the plant is a factor required to meet the energy demand of infected cells, photosynthesis-dependent systemic signalling and defence responses.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Triticale/metabolismo , Triticale/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fotossíntese/genética , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Triticale/genética
3.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 50(9): 1619-1626, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30014459

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common tumor disease in western countries and a leading cause of cancer-driven mortality in men. Current methods for prostate cancer detection, like prostate-specific antigen screening, lead to significant overtreatment. The purpose of the study was to analyze circulating microRNAs in serum as non-invasive biomarkers in patients with diagnosis of prostate cancer and healthy individuals. METHODS: This preliminary study included a population of 20 patients with mean age of 68.6 years and mean PSA of 21.3 ng/ml. Eight healthy patients were used as control. MiRNAs were quantified in the total RNA fraction extracted from serum and levels of five microRNAs (miR-106b, miR-141, miR-21, mir-34a, and miR-375) were quantified by RT-qPCR. Statistical analyses evaluated correlation between clinicopathological data and miRNAs expression levels. RESULTS: Relative expression ratios of miR-106b, miR-141-3p, miR-21, and miR-375 were significantly increased (1.8-, 1.9-, 2.4-, and 2.6-fold, respectively) in the PCa group compared to healthy control. Using receiver operating characteristics, the highest area under the curve equal to 0.906 was obtained for miR-357 and indicates a very good diagnostic properties of this biomarker. We found expression level of mir-34a not related with PCa. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support previous findings on the possibility of discriminating prostate cancer patients from healthy controls by detecting miRNA (miR-141-3p, miR-21, and miR-375). Further insights into miRNA abundance and characteristics are necessary to validate the panel of miRNA as surrogate markers in diagnosis of prostate cancer.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Curva ROC , Transcriptoma
4.
Mol Cytogenet ; 11: 11, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29416566

RESUMO

Background: Telomeres are transcriptionally inactive genomic areas, which, if shortened, are associated with pathological processes, unsuccessful fertilization, aging, and death. Telomere dysfunction has also been linked to chromosomal rearrangements and genomic instability. The role of telomeres in postnatal life has been extensively studied and discussed both in physiological as well as in pathological processes. However, the role of telomere length in prenatal development is still poorly understood, and mainly concerns the preimplantation stage. The aim of this study was to estimate relative telomere length in spontaneously eliminated human embryos between 5th and 12th week of gestation. Results: Relative telomere length was measured from total genomic DNA using a real-time polymerase chain reaction approach. In this study, we examined relative telomere length in 80 spontaneously eliminated embryos and in 25 embryos eliminated due to induced abortions. Relative telomere length in spontaneous abortions was significantly lower (P = 0.000001) compared to the induced abortions. Spontaneous abortions with aneuploid anomalies (monosomy X, trisomy 21, trisomy 16 and triploidy) were characterized by shorter telomeres, compared to spontaneous abortions, subgroup with euploid (46,XN) karyotype. Conclusion: Spontaneously lost pregnancies are characterized by shortened telomeres, especially in embryos with aneuploidies. We hypothesize that the shortening of telomeres is involved in the processes leading to spontaneous abortions.

5.
Genomics ; 2017 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29107013

RESUMO

Changes in fenugreek transcriptome related to enhanced production of steroids were induced by methyl jasmonate, cholesterol and squalene, and recorded using RNA-seq. A total of 112,850 unigenes were obtained after de novo assembling of next generation sequencing data, and used for functional annotations. In steroidal saponins pathway, transcripts involved in mevalonate, terpenoid backbone and plant sterol synthesis were annotated. Overexpression of several transcripts from phytosterol biosynthesis pathway was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. In diosgenin biosynthesis pathway, fatty acid ω-hydroxylase (CYP86A2) and steroid 22-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP90B1) genes were annotated in all induced transcriptomes. Moreover, direct sequencing confirmed increased levels of CYP90B1, unspecific monooxygenase and 26-hydroxylase genes in plants with elevated level of diosgenin. New unigenes corresponding to enzymes involved in biosynthesis of diosgenin from cycloartenol via cholesterol were obtained and the role of CYP72A family in steroidal saponin biosynthesis was proposed. Additional support for biosynthetic pathway from cycloartenol to diosgenin was provided.

6.
Planta ; 245(5): 977-991, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28161815

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Representational difference analysis of cDNA was performed and differential products were sequenced and annotated. Candidate genes involved in biosynthesis of diosgenin in fenugreek were identified. Detailed mechanism of diosgenin synthesis was proposed. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) is a valuable medicinal and crop plant. It belongs to Fabaceae family and has a unique potential to synthesize valuable steroidal saponins, e.g., diosgenin. Elicitation (methyl jasmonate) and precursor feeding (cholesterol and squalene) were used to enhance the content of sterols and steroidal sapogenins in in vitro grown plants for representational difference analysis of cDNA (cDNA-RDA). To identify candidate genes involved in diosgenin biosynthesis, differential, factor-specific libraries were subject to the next-generation sequencing. Approximately 9.9 million reads were obtained, trimmed, and assembled into 31,491 unigenes with an average length of 291 bp. Then, functional annotation and gene ontogeny enrichment analysis was performed by aligning all-unigenes with public databases. Within the transcripts related to sterol and steroidal saponin biosynthesis, we discovered novel candidate genes of diosgenin biosynthesis and validated their expression using quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Based on these findings, we supported the idea that diosgenin is biosynthesized from cycloartenol via cholesterol. This is the first report on the next-generation sequencing of cDNA-RDA products. Analysis of the transcriptomes enriched in low copy sequences contributed substantially to our understanding of the biochemical pathways of steroid synthesis in fenugreek.


Assuntos
Acetatos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Diosgenina/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Trigonella/genética , DNA Complementar/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Trigonella/metabolismo
7.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 292(2): 415-433, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28028612

RESUMO

The present study aimed at identifying the regions of triticale genome responsible for cell wall saturation with phenolic compounds under drought stress during vegetative and generative growth. Moreover, the loci determining the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus, leaf water content (LWC) and osmotic potential (Ψ o) were identified, as leaf hydration and functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus under drought are associated with the content of cell wall-bound phenolics (CWPh). Compared with LWC and Ψ o, CWPh fluctuations were more strongly associated with changes in chlorophyll fluorescence. At the vegetative stage, CWPh fluctuations were due to the activity of three loci, of which only QCWPh.4B was also related to changes in F v/F m and ABS/CSm. In the other QTLs (QCWPh.6R.2 and QCWPh.6R.3), the genes of these loci determined also the changes in majority of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. At the generative stage, the changes in CWPh in loci QCWPh.4B, QCWPh.3R and QCWPh.6R.1 corresponded to those in DIo/CSm. The locus QCWPh.6R.3, active at V stage, controlled majority of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. This is the first study on mapping quantitative traits in triticale plants exposed to drought at different stages of development, and the first to present the loci for cell wall-bound phenolics.


Assuntos
Fenóis/química , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticale/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Clorofila/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Secas , Genes de Plantas , Ligação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Limite de Detecção , Osmose , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/química , Água
8.
Front Plant Sci ; 7: 1600, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27833625

RESUMO

Large genome size and complexity hamper considerably the genomics research in relevant species. Rye (Secale cereale L.) has one of the largest genomes among cereal crops and repetitive sequences account for over 90% of its length. Diversity Arrays Technology is a high-throughput genotyping method, in which a preferential sampling of gene-rich regions is achieved through the use of methylation sensitive restriction enzymes. We obtained sequences of 6,177 rye DArT markers and following a redundancy analysis assembled them into 3,737 non-redundant sequences, which were then used in homology searches against five Pooideae sequence sets. In total 515 DArT sequences could be incorporated into publicly available rye genome zippers providing a starting point for the integration of DArT- and transcript-based genomics resources in rye. Using Blast2Go pipeline we attributed putative gene functions to 1101 (29.4%) of the non-redundant DArT marker sequences, including 132 sequences with putative disease resistance-related functions, which were found to be preferentially located in the 4RL and 6RL chromosomes. Comparative analysis based on the DArT sequences revealed obvious inconsistencies between two recently published high density consensus maps of rye. Furthermore we demonstrated that DArT marker sequences can be a source of SSR polymorphisms. Obtained data demonstrate that DArT markers effectively target gene space in the large, complex, and repetitive rye genome. Through the annotation of putative gene functions and the alignment of DArT sequences relative to reference genomes we obtained information, that will complement the results of the studies, where DArT genotyping was deployed, by simplifying the gene ontology and microcolinearity based identification of candidate genes.

9.
J Appl Genet ; 57(4): 439-451, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27085345

RESUMO

Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) is an efficient method of genotyping in numerous plant species. One of the crucial steps toward the application of GBS markers in crop improvement is anchoring them on particular chromosomes. In rye (Secale cereale L.), chromosomal localization of GBS markers has not yet been reported. In this paper, the application of GBS markers generated by the DArTseq platform for extending the high-density map of rye is presented. Additionally, their application is used for the localization of the Rfc1 gene that restores male fertility in plants with the C source of sterility-inducing cytoplasm. The total number of markers anchored on the current version of the map is 19,081, of which 18,132 were obtained from the DArTseq platform. Numerous markers co-segregated within the studied mapping population, so, finally, only 3397 unique positions were located on the map of all seven rye chromosomes. The total length of the map is 1593 cM and the average distance between markers is 0.47 cM. In spite of the resolution of the map being not very high, it should be a useful tool for further studies of the Secale cereale genome because of the presence on this map of numerous GBS markers anchored for the first time on rye chromosomes. The Rfc1 gene was located on high-density maps of the long arm of the 4R chromosome obtained for two mapping populations. Genetic maps were composed of DArT, DArTseq, and PCR-based markers. Consistent mapping results were obtained and DArTs tightly linked to the Rfc1 gene were successfully applied for the development of six new PCR-based markers useful in marker-assisted selection.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Secale/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , DNA de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
10.
PLoS One ; 10(12): e0145714, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26717308

RESUMO

Triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm) is an economically important crop for fodder and biomass production. To facilitate the identification of markers for agronomically important traits and for genetic and genomic characteristics of this species, a new high-density genetic linkage map of triticale was constructed using doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross between cultivars 'Hewo' and 'Magnat'. The map consists of 1615 bin markers, that represent 50 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 842 diversity array technology (DArT), and 16888 DArTseq markers mapped onto 20 linkage groups assigned to the A, B, and R genomes of triticale. No markers specific to chromosome 7R were found, instead mosaic linkage group composed of 1880 highly distorted markers (116 bins) from 10 wheat chromosomes was identified. The genetic map covers 4907 cM with a mean distance between two bins of 3.0 cM. Comparative analysis in respect to published maps of wheat, rye and triticale revealed possible deletions in chromosomes 4B, 5A, and 6A, as well as inversion in chromosome 7B. The number of bin markers in each chromosome varied from 24 in chromosome 3R to 147 in chromosome 6R. The length of individual chromosomes ranged between 50.7 cM for chromosome 2R and 386.2 cM for chromosome 7B. A total of 512 (31.7%) bin markers showed significant (P < 0.05) segregation distortion across all chromosomes. The number of 8 the segregation distorted regions (SDRs) were identified on 1A, 7A, 1B, 2B, 7B (2 SDRs), 5R and 6R chromosomes. The high-density genetic map of triticale will facilitate fine mapping of quantitative trait loci, the identification of candidate genes and map-based cloning.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Triticale/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Ligação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma de Planta
11.
J Appl Genet ; 56(3): 299-309, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25716655

RESUMO

The tolerance of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars to spring drought is an important agronomic trait affecting crop yield and quality in Poland. Therefore, breeders require new molecular markers to select plants with lower spring drought susceptibility. With the advent of genomic selection technology, simple molecular tools may still be applicable to screen material for markers of the most important traits and in-depth genome scanning. In previous studies, diversity arrays technology (DArT)-based genetic maps were constructed for F2 populations of Polish fodder and malt barley elite breeding lines, and 15 and 18 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to spring drought tolerance were identified, respectively. In this paper, we show the results of a conversion of 30 DArT markers corresponding to 11 QTLs into simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence tagged site (STS) markers. Twenty-two polymorphic markers were obtained, including 13 DArT-based SSRs. Additionally, 31 SSR markers, located in close proximity to the DArT markers, were selected from the GrainGenes database and tested. Further analyses of 24 advanced breeding lines with different drought tolerances confirmed that five out of the 30 converted markers, as well as three out of the 31 additional SSR markers, were effective in marker-assisted selection for drought tolerance. The possible function of clones related to these markers in drought tolerance is discussed.


Assuntos
Secas , Hordeum/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Sitios de Sequências Rotuladas , Cruzamento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Ligação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Hordeum/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Locos de Características Quantitativas
12.
Theor Appl Genet ; 126(12): 3021-34, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24057106

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: An effective approach for the further evolution of QTL markers, may be to create mapping populations for locally adapted gene pools, and to phenotype the studied trait under local conditions. Mapping populations of Polish fodder and malting spring barleys (Hordeum vulgare L.) were used to analyze traits describing short-time drought response at the seedlings stage. High-throughput genotyping (Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers) and phenotyping techniques were used. The results showed high genetic diversity of the studied populations which allowed the creation of high-density linkage maps. There was also high diversity in the physiological responses of the barleys. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis revealed 18 QTLs for nine physiological traits on all chromosomes except 1H in malting barley and 15 QTLs for five physiological traits on chromosomes 2H, 4H, 5H and 6H in fodder barley. Chromosomes 4H and 5H contained QTLs which explained most of the observed phenotypic variations in both populations. There was a major QTL for net photosynthetic rate in the malting barley located on chromosome 5H and two major QTLs for overall photochemical performance (PI) located on 5H and 7H. One major QTL related to photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence was located on chromosome 4H in fodder barley. Three QTL regions were common to both mapping populations but the corresponding regions explained different drought-induced traits. One region was for QTLs related to PSII photosynthetic activity stress index in malting barley, and the corresponding region in fodder barley was related to the water content stress index. These results are in accordance with previous studies which showed that different traits were responsible for drought tolerance variations in fodder and malting barleys.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Secas , Hordeum/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Polônia , Estações do Ano
13.
Genet Epigenet ; 5: 17-22, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25512704

RESUMO

Insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2) is a mitogen, growth and differentiation modulator for many cell types. It is mainly expressed during the prenatal development, and its activity strongly depends on the genomic imprinting. Genomic imprinting in the chorionic tissues of spontaneously eliminated human embryos has been studied on the model of 820-AG (Apa1) of the IGF-2 gene locus. Molecular and genetic analysis was performed on the polymorphic 820-AG IGF2 locus in 107 samples of DNA extracted from the chorionic tissues of spontaneously eliminated human embryos within 5-10 weeks of gestation. Presence of AG genotype Apa1 single nucleotide polymorphisms of the IGF-2 was shown to cause more than a 7-fold increase in the risk of embryo elimination. Thus, the loss of genomic imprinting of the IGF-2 gene may be an important cause of the miscarriages in human.

14.
J Appl Genet ; 49(2): 127-34, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18436986

RESUMO

Genomic sequence AY661558, representing a part of the BAC contig of the Rym4/Rym5 locus conferring resistance to the barley yellow mosaic virus complex (BaMMV/BaYMV), was exploited in order to develop SSR markers for practical barley breeding. Out of 57 SSR motifs found within this sequence, primers were designed and tested for the 5 SSRs with the highest repeat length. The polymorphic SSR marker QLB1 co-segregated with rym4 and rym5 phenotypes in respective high-resolution mapping populations developed for the construction of the original BAC contig. The primers targeted 2 sites located 756 bp and 5173 bp downstream of the translation initiation factor 4E (Hv-eIF4E). Physical linkage of the QLB1 marker to the Rym4/Rym5 locus was confirmed experimentally on Morex BAC 519J14, a seed BAC of Hv-eIF4E, and BAC 801A11, which is located proximally to Hv-eIF4E. QLB1 revealed 7 alleles in a set of 100 winter barley lines and cultivars. Five alleles were found within 673 advanced breeding lines derived from applied Polish winter barley breeding programmes, which corresponds to a PIC value of 0.684. No recombinants between Rym4/5 and QLB1 were detected, suggesting that QLB1 can be used efficiently in marker-assisted selection of the Hv-eIF4E-mediated bymovirus resistance.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Hordeum/genética , Sequência de Bases , Primers do DNA
15.
Ann Bot ; 101(5): 689-99, 2008 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18245808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cold acclimation modifies the balance of the energy absorbed and metabolized in the dark processes of photosynthesis, which may affect the expression of cold-regulated (COR) genes. At the same time, a gradual acclimation to the relatively high light conditions is observed, thereby minimizing the potential for photo-oxidative damage. As a result, the resistance to photoinhibition in the cold has often been identified as a trait closely related to freezing tolerance. Using four barley genotypes that differentially express both traits, the effect of cold acclimation on freezing tolerance and high-light tolerance was studied together with the expression of COR14b, one of the best-characterized barley COR genes. METHODS: Plants were cold acclimated for 2 weeks at 2 degrees C. Freezing tolerance was studied by means of electrolyte leakage. Changes in photosynthetic apparatus and high-light tolerance were monitored by means of chlorophyll fluorescence. Accumulation of COR14b and some proteins important in photosynthetic acclimation to cold were studied with western analysis. COR14b transcript accumulation during cold acclimation was assessed with real-time PCR. KEY RESULTS: Cold acclimation increased both freezing tolerance and high-light tolerance, especially when plants were treated with high light after non-lethal freezing. In all plants, cold acclimation triggered the increase in photosynthetic capacity during high-light treatment. In two plants that were characterized by higher high-light tolerance but lower freezing tolerance, higher accumulation of COR14b transcript and protein was observed after 7 d and 14 d of cold acclimation, while a higher transient induction of COR14b expression was observed in freezing-tolerant plants during the first day of cold acclimation. High-light tolerant plants were also characterized with a higher level of PsbS accumulation and more efficient dissipation of excess light energy. CONCLUSIONS: Accumulation of COR14b in barley seems to be important for resistance to combined freezing and high-light tolerance, but not for freezing tolerance per se.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Temperatura Baixa , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Luz , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Congelamento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Hordeum/efeitos da radiação , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
16.
J Appl Genet ; 46(4): 357-64, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16278507

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to detect candidate DNA markers for selected leaf rust resistance genes. A total number of 286 loci in the 'Thatcher' near-isogenic lines carrying resistance gene Lr1, Lr9, Lr10, Lr13, Lr19, Lr21, Lr24, Lr26, Lr28, Lr35, and Lr37 were screened for DNA polymorphism by the PstIAFLP method. A survey with 33 selective primers yielded 16 candidate markers. Further validation studies on cultivars characterized for the presence and absence of selected resistance genes confirmed specificity of markers for Lr24, Lr26 and Lr37. The AFLP-based marker P42-530 was successfully converted into an STS marker. The new marker was linked with the Lr37-specific marker (CslVrga13) at the distance of 1.7 cM. The PstIAFLP method was found to be effective in the identification of DNA changes induced in hexaploid wheat by translocations from Agropyron elongatum, Secale cereale and Aegilops ventricosa.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Imunidade Inata/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/genética , Sequência de Bases , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Biologia Computacional , Primers do DNA , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
J Appl Genet ; 46(2): 125-31, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15876679

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses for selection of the best parents for breeding of hybrid winter triticale. Phenotypic diversity was measured for 8 agronomic traits in 10 parents and 27 F1 hybrids. Genotypic diversity was measured by 91 AFLP markers. Coefficients of correlation of genetic similarity (AFLP-GS) with both Euclidean distances and mean values of the traits were generally not significant. A correction of the preliminary binary matrix into trait-specific derived matrices increased the values of 5 correlation coefficients to a significant level. The correlation of AFLP-GS with mid-parent heterosis of grain weight per plant was low but significant (r = -0.452). Our study confirms the effectiveness of marker preselection for obtaining AFLP-GS better correlated with heterosis. The use of derived matrices is promising for reducing the number of cross combinations tested for specific combining ability.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Variação Genética , Seleção Genética , Agricultura , Cruzamento , Previsões , Marcadores Genéticos , Vigor Híbrido , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Fenótipo
18.
J Appl Genet ; 45(4): 405-10, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15523150

RESUMO

A simplified AFLP method, based on methylation-sensitive Alw44I restriction endonuclease, has been developed and evaluated for fingerprinting 15 wheat cultivars. The selected germplasms represented groups of spring and winter wheats with and without the 1BL.1RS translocation. Ten selective primers yielded 57 markers, including 19 polymorphic bands. Three markers (15.8%) were specific to wheat carrying the 1BL.1RS translocation, thus conflicting with the frequency expected by random marker distribution (2.4%), and suggesting qualitative differences in DNA methylation among winter wheat cultivars with the 1BL.1RS translocation. Mean Dice's similarities ranged from 0.85 to 0.99, thus all cultivars could be identified by the banding profile. Winter wheat cultivars, with and without the 1BL.1RS chromosome, were slightly more similar to one another (0.959) than spring wheat cultivars (0.952). Five (9%) specific markers were obtained from cultivars Sicco, Cheyenne, Fenman, Disponent and Chinese Spring.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico/métodos , Triticum/genética , Enzimas de Restrição do DNA/metabolismo , DNA de Plantas/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Metilação , Filogenia , Translocação Genética , Triticum/classificação
19.
J Appl Genet ; 45(3): 283-95, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15306719

RESUMO

At present two separate nomenclature systems exist for wheat and rye. This paper provides a proposed common catalogue of wheat, rye and triticale resistance gene symbols. More than 130 postulated wheat resistance genes are listed. Over 39 rye and 6 triticale resistance (R) genes have been identified and named. Genes responsible for reaction to powdery mildew and to leaf, stem and yellow rusts are the best-represented group of resistance genes. From the common catalogue it can be concluded that there exists a potential for further transfer of rye resistance genes to wheat and triticale. Many molecular markers can be applied for marker-assisted gene transfer, but the expression of the R genes in the new genetic background of triticale remains to be investigated.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Secale/genética , Triticum/genética , Genoma de Planta , Imunidade Inata/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética
20.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 9(4B): 879-89, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15647804

RESUMO

The range of publicly available data on plant nucleotide sequences opens a new possibility in the design of SNP assays. The purpose of this study was to identify point mutations in genomic sequences closely linked to the Lr1 leaf rust resistance gene, and to develop SNP markers based on primer extension (SNuPE) facilitating efficient marker-based selection procedures, e.g. the pyramiding of resistance genes. Studies were performed on the panel of 37 wheat cultivars, the set of 41 Thatcher near-isogenic lines of spring wheat and on the 21 individuals derived from doubled-haploid (DH) lines derived from 'Henika' (Lr1) x 'IPG-SW-14'. A minisequencing reaction run with Lr1_98F primer detected four genotypes (T, C+T, C and "null") in the set of all Triticum aestivum varieties tested. In this study, it turned out that the T allele is associated with the Lr1 gene in a wide genetic background.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Triticum/genética , Sequência de Bases , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Triticum/microbiologia
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