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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444117

RESUMO

Tobacco taxation and price policies are considered the most effective for lowering demand for tobacco products. While this statement is based on research from numerous countries, scant evidence exists on this topic for Israel. Accordingly, we assessed the association between cigarette prices and smoking prevalence and intensity from a national sample of adults in Israel (2002-2017). Data on smoking behavior were derived from the Israeli Knowledge Attitudes and Practices (KAP) survey, a repeated cross-sectional survey. Price information is from the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) since it was not collected in the KAP survey. We used the price of a pack of 20 cigarettes for Marlboro and the local brand. These two price variables were the primary independent variables, and we adjusted for inflation. The dependent variables were current smoking (yes/no) and smoking intensity, defined as the number of cigarettes smoked per week. Multivariable analysis was employed using a two-part model while adjusting for covariates. The first step of the model utilized logistic regression with current smoking as the dependent variable. The second step examining smoking intensity as the dependent variable, used OLS regression. Price elasticity was estimated as well. Analysis revealed that a one-unit increase (Israeli currency) in the price of local brand of cigarettes was related to 2.0% (OR = 0.98; 95%CI 0.98, 0.99) lower odds of being a current smoker, adjusting for covariates including household income. Moreover, a one unit increase in the price of the local brand of cigarettes was related to consuming 1.49 (95% CI -1.97, -1.00) fewer weekly cigarettes, controlling for household income and covariates. Similar results were found with the Marlboro cigarette prices. The total price elasticity of cigarette demand, given by the sum of price elasticities of smoking prevalence and intensity, showed that a 10.0% increase in the price is associated with a 4.6-9.2% lower cigarette consumption among Israeli adults. Thus, increasing cigarette prices will likely lead to a reduction in cigarette smoking thereby improving public health in Israel.


Assuntos
Comércio , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Impostos
2.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 10(1): 36, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 outbreak, (March 1 - June 15, 2020) citizens expressed sympathy and gratitude towards medical staff through the media, while the entire hospital staff faced the same danger of infection as other citizens. This might have made hospital staff develop sympathy, understanding for the patients` and family's needs, and a better communication. OBJECTIVES: To investigate if there is a relation between the mutual change in attitude between citizens and hospital staff during the first COVID-19 outbreak, and the incidence of violence cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross sectional study conducted at Rambam Medical Center (RMC) in Israel. The data about the number of violence cases were collected from the security department, and the data about hospital wards activity were collected from the hospital Business Intelligence (BI) software. The number of violence cases in relation to the number of Emergency Department (ED) visits, admissions to hospital wards, and length of stay (LOS) were compared during the COVID-19 outbreak to the corresponding period in 2019 using the T- test. The difference in the incidence of violence between general population and people with a psychiatric or social disorder (like drug abuse and criminal background) in both periods were also compared using the Fisher exact test. RESULTS: During the first COVID-19 outbreak, there were 6 violence cases against medical staff out of 24,740 visits to the ED, vs. 21 cases out of 30,759 visits during the same periods in 2019 (P < 0.05). There were 19 violence cases in the whole hospital with 14,482 admissions in 2020 vs. 51 violence cases of 17,599 admissions in 2019 (P < 0.05). Violence against security guards in the entire hospital dropped from 20 to 11 cases, and in the set of the ED, from 13 to 4 cases in both periods respectively. A 20 % decrease in the number of visits to the ED, might have influenced the average LOS during the study period, 2020 compared to 2019 (4.4 + 0.45 vs. 5.4 + 0.36 h. (P < 0.001). The ratio of violence among general population vs. people with a psychiatric or social background revealed a non-significant change in both periods (P = 0.75 and P = 0.69) respectively. DISCUSSION: The COVID-19 outbreak supplied some evidence that a change in environmental conditions, trust, waiting time, personal attitude and communication might have reduced violence against hospital staff. CONCLUSIONS: Except for violence coming from patients with psychiatric or social disorders, most other violence cases might be reduced if the environment conditions and attitudes of both citizens and staff are improved.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Violência no Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Israel , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Qual Health Res ; 31(3): 590-599, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213280

RESUMO

The debate around ethics review boards (IRBs) has assumed an increasingly central place in academic practice and discourse. In this article, we summarize a unique workshop (study-group) that convened at the University of Haifa, attended by 27 academics from around the globe, representing nine countries in four continents. The participants presented data and points of view, which served as the basis for an open, interdisciplinary discussion. The group developed a set of recommendations, including working toward a transition from a review system to an advisory and validation system; focusing on respectful research approach to participants, rather than "ethical" research; building a procedure that focuses on feedback, rather than the process itself; recognizing that a unified examination need not necessarily be standardized; and constructing a feedback procedure in which researchers can respond to the review of their research.

4.
Rambam Maimonides Med J ; 11(3)2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792044

RESUMO

At the time of writing, in July 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has already inflicted dramatic international restrictions, including airports closing and limiting international travel. It has been suggested that re-opening of airports should involve and even rely on testing travelers for COVID-19. This paper discusses the methodology of estimating the detection and diagnostic accuracy of COVID-19 tests. It explains the clear distinction between the technical characteristics of the tests, the detection measures, and the diagnostic measures that have clinical and public health implications. It demonstrates the importance of the prevalence of COVID-19 in terms of determining the ability of a test to yield a diagnosis. We explain the methodology of evaluating diagnostic tests, using the predictive summary index (PSI), and the minimum number of tests that need to be performed in order to correctly diagnose one person, which is estimated by 1/PSI. In a population with low prevalence, even a high-sensitivity test may lead to a high percentage of false positive diagnoses, resulting in the need for multiple high-cost tests to achieve a correct diagnosis. Thus, basing a policy for opening airports on diagnostic testing, even with the best test for COVID-19, has some limits.

5.
Rev. psicol. trab. organ. (1999) ; 31(1): 31-39, abr. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-134491

RESUMO

Purpose. The paper explores attitudinal and behavioral antecedents of trust and respective outcomes within the service industry at multiple levels of analysis. Method. Data were obtained from academic and administrative service providers (n = 76) and clients (n = 868) using paper-and-pencil and on-line questionnaires. Findings. Individual, dyadic and organizational factors throughout service delivery affect trust as a behavior. Value fit between service providers and clients contributed to trust as a behavioral action. Implications. Our findings confirm that success of service delivery is a multi-dimensional phenomenon. It confirms that actionable trust is a dominant factor in service success, thus calls for the need to pay attention to the relational aspect of service encounters. Finally, value fit between clients and service providers is crucial in achieving trust throughout the service interaction. Originality. The study provides a management tool for measuring action based trust within service organizational context (AU)


Objetivo. Este trabajo explora los antecedentes actitudinales y comportamentales de la confianza y sus consecuencias en el sector de servicios a diversos niveles de análisis. Método. Se obtuvieron datos de proveedores de servicios académicos y administrativos (n = 76) y clientes (n = 868) mediante cuestionarios de papel y lápiz y online. Resultados. Factores individuales, diádicos y organizativos afectan a la confianza como comportamiento en todo suministro de servicios. El ajuste de valores entre los proveedores de servicios y clientes contribuye a la confianza como acción comportamental. Implicaciones. Nuestros resultados confirman que el éxito en el suministro de servicios es un fenómeno multidimensional. Confirma que la confianza como acción es un factor dominante en el éxito en los servicios, lo que plantea la necesidad de prestar atención al aspecto relacional de los encuentros de servicio. Por último, el ajuste de valores entre clientes y proveedores de servicios es fundamental para lograr la confianza en toda interacción en la prestación de servicios. Originalidad. El estudio aporta una herramienta de gestión para medir la confianza centrada en la acción en el contexto de las empresas de servicios (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Confiança/psicologia , Justiça Social , Objetivos Organizacionais , Ética Institucional , Organizações de Serviços Gerenciais
6.
J Interpers Violence ; 28(6): 1123-42, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23262826

RESUMO

The aggressive behavior of clients toward employees in service organizations is an alarming phenomenon, which harms employees and damages the organization itself. Employees all over the public sector, especially in social service departments, are continuously exposed to aggressive behavior by clients. The focus of the current study is on understanding the short- and long-term implications of aggressive client behavior on social workers and the organization in which they operate. A qualitative approach was used to understand the perspective of the workers exposed to aggressive client behavior as well as its organizational implications. In-depth interviews were conducted with the 40 participants between February and May, 2009. The participants included district managers, agency managers, supervisors, social workers, and administrators, in 17 agencies all over the country. The study findings identified negative impacts of client aggression on several levels and on several focal areas. On the emotional, cognitive, and behavioral levels, both short-term and long-term consequences can be seen, which affect not only the attacked individual but also resonate throughout the organization. Individual events may diffuse to affect other levels of the service process by role-learning, imitation of behavior, and by noticing that the organization provides incentives for client aggression, while providing disincentives for assertiveness and self-protective actions on the part of workers.


Assuntos
Agressão , Exposição Ocupacional , Serviço Social , Adulto , Humanos , Israel , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
7.
Int J Health Care Qual Assur ; 21(2): 203-18, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18578204

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to test a theoretically driven model of the relationship between job demands, employees' motivation and resources, and supervisory support on employees' quality of work lives and their general health. DEISGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The study uses large survey data that were collected in the years 1995, 2002, and 2003 respectively, drawn from the public health care employees sector in Catalonia (Spain). Albeit cross-sectional methodology, the study embraces an additional retrospective and longitudinal design. FINDINGS: The 2002 cross-sectional study (n = 2,926) supports the assertion made by stress researchers regarding the extent to which both job demands and lack of supervisory support predict low QWL and negative health outcomes: perceived motivation, resources and capabilities also appear as determinants but to a lesser extent. The stability of the results obtained was tested retrospectively by cross-legging the model for the 1995 survey (n = 2,901). In addition, a follow-up study (i.e. longitudinal) was conducted in 2003 (n = 10,003) to see whether the model still holds. By and large, the three-level design shows the stability of the prediction in the same direction. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The paper discusses some possible prevention strategies to reduce the low QWL and negative health outcomes within the Public Health Sector. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The paper covers all categories of personnel in the health care personnel and thus external validity is very strong. Findings permit the taking of concrete actions to reduce stress, reduce negative health outcomes and by and large enhance the quality of work lives of the people in this sector.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Administração em Saúde Pública , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Satisfação no Emprego , Motivação , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia
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