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2.
J Dermatol ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189395

RESUMO

Genital warts are a common sexually transmitted disease caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. The prevalence of dementia is 4-8% in those aged 65 years or older in Taiwanese community studies, with a high social and economic burden for patients, family caregivers, the community and society. Previous studies have shown that viral infections such as herpes simplex and herpes zoster were associated with dementia. This study aimed to investigate the association between dementia and HPV infections. A population-based cohort study using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database was conducted. Fine and Grays's survival analysis was employed to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between genital warts and dementia. From all of the potential participants aged 50 years or more, a total of 16 116 patients were enrolled, including 4029 genital warts-infected patients, with 12 087 sex-, age- and indexed date-matched controls (1:3). The cumulative incidences of dementia were 10.72 per 103  person-years and 6.43 per 103  person-years in the genital warts and control group, respectively. There were 475 dementia cases from the genital warts cohort during the follow-up period of 15 years. The adjusted HR for dementia was 1.485 (95% CI, 1.321-1.668; P < 0.001) for genital warts patients after adjusting for all of the covariates. Our study indicates that genital warts infection may increase the risk of dementia.

3.
J Affect Disord ; 265: 381-388, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the association between traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) and the risk of affective and other psychiatric disorders, and the role of the rehabilitation therapies. METHODS: In this population-based, retrospective cohort study, we used Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database to analyze the patients who were newly diagnosed with TSCI between 2000 and 2015 were included, with a 1:3 ratio by age, sex, and index year matched in the non-TSCI comparison group, for the risk of affective and other psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: In total, 5375 out of 16,151 patients with TSCI developed psychiatric disorders, and 1467 out of 48,543 patients in the non-TSCI group developed psychiatric disorders (2930.88 vs 2823.29 per 100,000 persons/year). The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the TSCI cohort had a significantly higher risk of psychiatric disorders (log-rank, p < 0.001). Fine and Gray's survival analysis revealed that the adjusted hazard ratio was 1.977 (95% CI: 1.914-2.042, p < 0.001). Rehabilitation therapies, including physical and occupational therapies, within 90 days after the injury, was associated with a lowered risk of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression, and bipolar disorder, in the TSCI cohort (adjusted HR = 0.702 [95% CI: 0.661-0.746, p < 0.001]). In the subgroups with low, medium, and high intensity, rehabilitation therapies were associated with a lowered risk of psychiatric disorders. CONCLUSIONS: TSCI was associated with the risk of affective and other psychiatric disorders, and rehabilitation therapies were associated with a lowered risk of these in the TSCI cohort.

4.
J Affect Disord ; 264: 130-137, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine the association between narcolepsy and anxiety disorders. METHODS: This population-based, retrospective case-control study analyzed Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database between 2000 and 2013. We included narcoleptic patients aged at least 12 years, diagnosed according to the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code 347. The cases and the propensity score-matched controls were selected in a 1:4 ratio. Each subject with anxiety disorders (ICD-9-CM code 300) was required to visit the outpatient clinic at least three times within a year. Multivariate logistic regression and interaction analyses were used to calculate the association between anxiety disorders and narcolepsy. RESULTS: This study enrolled 478 and 1912 subjects with and without narcolepsy, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, patients with anxiety disorders had an approximately 2.7 odds ratio of developing narcolepsy when compared to the control subjects (adjusted odds ratio [aOR)] = 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.699-4.344). Interaction analysis and subgroup analysis showed a higher incidence of previously diagnosed anxiety disorders in narcoleptic patients aged 12 to 17 years and female patients (aOR = 25.9; 95% CI = 15.194-42.896; aOR = 3.6; 95% CI = 1.818-7.062, respectively). LIMITATIONS: The narcolepsy and anxiety disorders were not distinguished by validated structural diagnostic instruments. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study revealed higher comorbidity rates of anxiety disorders in narcoleptic patients. The incidence of previously diagnosed anxiety disorders was higher in narcoleptic patients aged 12 to 17 years and female patients.

5.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 129(3): 237-247, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077707

RESUMO

The valine66methionine (Val66Met) polymorphism (rs6265) of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene has been shown to influence autonomic arousal pathways, which in turn predict elevated syndromal anxiety in healthy humans. We examined whether the BDNF variant is associated with an increased risk of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), one of the most prevalent anxiety disorders, through altering parasympathetic stress/relaxation reactivity. A total of 2,250 Han Chinese adults (750 GAD patients and 1,500 healthy controls) were included in the genotyping. High-frequency heart rate variability, an index of vagal (parasympathetic) activity, was measured during the supine-standing-supine test (5 min in each position); vagal withdrawal and vagal activation were calculated as baseline supine minus standing and recovery supine minus standing, respectively. Analysis of healthy participants indicated that Val/Val homozygotes displayed significantly blunted vagal withdrawal and vagal activation compared with Met allele carriers. After analyzing the entire sample, these effects remained significant. Furthermore, both attenuated vagal response patterns were found to be significantly associated with a higher incidence of GAD. Lastly, the path analysis identified a significant indirect effect of BDNF on the risk of GAD via diminishing vagal response to either orthostatic stress or supine relaxation. Even when further testing the subsample comprising only comorbidity- and medication-free GAD patients and healthy controls to minimize the confounding bias, the results still remained. Our findings demonstrate that individuals carrying the BDNF Val/Val genotype, compared to Met-carriers, may be at higher risk of GAD due to blunted vagal reactivity in response to both stress and relaxation. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917196

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of psychiatric disorders after traumatic brain injury (TBI), and to clarify whether the post-TBI rehabilitation was associated with a lower risk of developing psychiatric disorders. DESIGN: A register-based, retrospective cohort design. SETTING: Using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, we established an exposed cohort with TBI and a nonexposed group without TBI matched by age and year of diagnosis between 2000 and 2015. PARTICIPANTS: This study included 231,894 patients with TBI and 695,682 patients without TBI (N=927,576). INTERVENTIONS: Rehabilitation therapies in TBI patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to compare the risk of developing psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: The incidence rate of psychiatric disorders was higher in the TBI group than the control group. Compared with the control group, the risk of psychiatric disorders in the TBI group was twofold (hazard ratio [HR]=2.072; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.955-2.189; P<.001). Among the participants with TBI, 49,270 (21.25%) had received rehabilitation therapy and had a lower risk of psychiatric disorders (HR=0.691; 95% CI, 0.679-0.703; P<.001). In the subgroup analysis, the medium- to high-level intensity rehabilitation therapy was associated with lower risks of psychiatric disorder (HR=0.712 and 0.568, respectively), but there was no significant finding in the low-intensity group. CONCLUSIONS: We found that TBI was associated with a high risk for developing psychiatric disorders, and that the post-TBI rehabilitation significantly reduced the risk of psychiatric disorders in a dose-dependent manner.

7.
Child Abuse Negl ; 101: 104362, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child abuse affects children physiologically and psychologically, increasing the risk of future psychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether child abuse victims have a higher incidence of future psychiatric disorders or substance abuse. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: The participants consisted of a nationwide, population-based cohort selected in accordance with the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. All children were enrolled between 2000 and 2015. METHODS: This was a retrospective study with a matched-cohort design. Children who experienced child abuse were identified using International Classification of Disease codes and compared with children who had not experienced child abuse by measuring rates of anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, sleep disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder/acute stress disorder, eating disorders, substance-related disorders (alcohol use disorder and illicit drug use disorder), psychotic disorders, and organic mental disorders. RESULTS: The psychiatric disorder risk was significantly higher in victims of child abuse than in controls (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.15; 95 % confidence interval, 1.92-2.40; P < 0.001). The Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significantly higher 15-year cumulative incidence of psychiatric disorders among child abuse victims than among controls (394.57 vs. 317.56 events per 100,000 person-years; log-rank test, P <  0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In Taiwan, child abuse is associated with increased psychiatric disorder and substance abuse risk. Individuals involved in caring for abused children, including family members, pediatricians, nurses, and social workers, as well as policy makers, should be aware of this risk. Early referral of child abuse victims to pediatric psychiatrists may help detect high-risk cases and facilitate early intervention.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362034

RESUMO

No studies have examined the efficacy of bi-anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) coupled with bilateral extracephalic references in treating negative symptoms of non-acute schizophrenia patients. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of the new approach of tDCS on negative symptoms, other schizophrenia symptoms, cognitive deficits and psychosocial functioning in a double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled trial. Patients with non-acute schizophrenia (N = 60) in randomized order received sham treatment or bilaterally provided tDCS (2 mA, twice-daily sessions for five consecutive days) with the anode over the DLPFC and the reference (cathode) over the ipsilateral forearm. The negative symptoms as measured by a dimensional approach of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) were rapidly reduced by bimodal tDCS relative to sham stimulation (F = 24.86, Cohen's d = 0.661, p = 6.11 × 10-6). The beneficial effect on negative symptoms lasted for up to 3 months. The authors also observed improvement with tDCS of psychosocial functioning as measured by the global score of Personal and Social Performance scale (PSP) and psychopathological symptoms especially for disorganization and cognitive symptoms as measured by the PANSS. No effects were observed on other schizophrenia symptom dimensions and the performance on a series of neurocognitive tests. Our results show promise for bi-anodal tDCS over bilateral DLPFC using bilateral extracephalic references in treating negative symptoms and other selected manifestations of schizophrenia. Further studies with electrophysiological or imaging evaluation help unravel the exact mechanism of action of this novel stimulation parameter of tDCS in schizophrenia patients. (ClinicalTrials.gov ID:NCT03701100).

9.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 15: 3155-3166, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814723

RESUMO

Background: The associations between the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and dementias are as yet to be studied in Taiwan. The aim of this study is to clarify as to whether HIV infections are associated with the risk of dementia. Methods: A total of 1,261 HIV-infected patients and 3,783 controls (1:3) matched for age and sex were selected between January 1 and December 31, 2000 from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Fine and Gray's survival analysis (competing with mortality) analyzed the risk of dementias during the 15-year follow up. The association between the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and dementia was analyzed by stratifying the HAART status among the HIV subjects. Results: During the follow-up period, 25 in the HIV group (N= 1,261) and 227 in the control group (N= 3,783) developed dementia (656.25 vs 913.15 per 100,000 person-years). Fine and Gray's survival analysis revealed that the HIV patients were not associated with an increased risk of dementia, with the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) as 0.852 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.189-2.886, p=0.415) after adjusting for sex, age, comorbidities, geographical region, and the urbanization level of residence. There was no significant difference between the two groups of HIV-infected patients with or without HAART in the risk of dementia. Conclusion: This study found that HIV infections, either with or without HAART, were not associated with increased diagnoses of neurodegenerative dementias in patients older than 50 in Taiwan.

11.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 204: 107516, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outcome of methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) varies in each patient with opioid use disorder (OUD). Opioid abuse activates proinflammatory processes by increasing cytokine production and impairing neurotrophic factor expression, and possibly leads to a vicious cycle that hinders recovery. Therefore, we investigated whether markers of inflammation and neurotrophic expression correlate with the MMT outcomes in OUD patients. METHOD: We investigated OUD patients undergoing MMT and followed them up for 12 weeks. We measured plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1ß, transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), urinary morphine tests, and plasma morphine levels at baseline and on weeks 1, 4, 8, and 12 during MMT. Multiple linear regressions and generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to examine the correlation between the cytokine and BDNF levels and MMT outcomes. RESULTS: We initially enrolled 104 patients, but only 78 patients completed end-of-study assessments. Plasma levels of CRP, TGF-ß1, and BDNF fell during MMT. Plasma IL-6 levels were significantly associated with plasma morphine levels (P = 0.005) and urinary morphine-positive (+) results (P = 0.04), and significantly associated with poor compliance (P = 0.009) and early dropout from MMT (P = 0.001). However, other cytokine and BDNF levels were not consistently associated with MMT outcomes. CONCLUSION: Higher IL-6 levels were associated with poor MMT outcomes. Additional studies on regulating IL-6 expression to improve treatment outcomes in OUD patients might be warranted.

12.
J Clin Psychopharmacol ; 39(5): 472-478, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) exert a short-term mortality risk in people with dementia. We assessed whether additional randomized clinical trials influence the current evidence and the potential effect modifiers. METHODS: Electronic databases were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials from their inception through March 2018. A random-effects model was used for analysis. Potential effect modifiers were examined through meta-regression. Trial sequential analysis was performed to quantify the statistical reliability of data in the cumulative meta-analysis with adjustment of significance levels for sparse data and repetitive testing on accumulating data. Certainty of evidence and risk of bias were also evaluated. RESULTS: We found that compared with placebos, AAPs may increase the risk of mortality (odds ratio [OR], 1.536; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 1.028-2.296; P = 0.036, high certainty). In the subgroup analysis, the estimated ORs were the highest for olanzapine (1.919; P = 0.232), followed by those for quetiapine (1.663; P = 0.506), aripiprazole (1.649; P = 0.297), and risperidone (1.354; P = 0.277); however, the mortality risk presented by individual AAPs did not exhibit between-group differences. The meta-regression did not identify any effect modifiers, including the chlorpromazine equivalent dose, trial duration, and cognitive status. The trial sequential analysis revealed that future similar trials are unlikely to alter our findings. CONCLUSIONS: Atypical antipsychotics are associated with increased short-term mortality risk, although a disease-drug interaction may contribute to such risk in people with dementia. Patients with dementia may still benefit by AAPs after appropriate assessment of the disease severity as well as the dosage of AAPs, treatment duration, and monitoring of AAPs.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Demência/tratamento farmacológico , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Med Hypotheses ; 132: 109327, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421431

RESUMO

Dementia is a cluster of brain dysfunctions with a characteristic of progressively debilitating in individuals' ability of operating cognitive functions and that affects seriously to patients' daily life. We presented a hypothesis in this article that earlier exposure of a common used cognitive enhancer amphetamine may lead to individuals to be more liable to develop dementia in their later life based on the opponent process theory. The theory proposes that following a positive response, homeostatic changes in brain circuits may function to go opposite to the positive response, thus a cognitive deterioration may incur in later life in the individuals who exposed to amphetamine earlier. Along with the hypothesis, amphetamine is also highly associated with the working hypothesis updated for dementia in terms of beta-amyloid cascade, tau protein, oxidative stress and neural inflammation. Finally, we presented two practical methods to evaluate the hypothesis. In non-human approach, rat model of amphetamine dependence would be employed together with evaluations of behavioral performance of memory test and neurochemical markers associated with oxidative stress. In human approach, a matched-cohort design observational study would be highly recommended.

15.
J Investig Med ; 67(6): 977-986, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266811

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the association between pulmonary embolism (PE) and the risk of psychiatric disorders. A total of 21,916 patients aged ≥20 years with PE between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2015, were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, along with 65,748 (1:3) controls matched for sex and age. Cox regression model revealed the crude HR was 1.539 (95% CI 1.481 to 1.599; p<0.001), and after adjusting all the covariates, the adjusted HR was 1.704 (95% CI 1.435 to 1.991, p<0.001), for the risk of psychiatric disorders in the PE cohort. PE was associated with the overall psychiatric disorders, dementia, anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders, after the exclusion of the psychiatric diagnoses in the first year. PE was associated with the overall psychiatric disorders, dementia, anxiety, and depression, after the exclusion of the psychiatric diagnoses in the first 5 years. The patients with PE were associated with psychiatric disorders. This finding could serve as a reminder to the physicians to be more watchful and aware in the long-term follow-up of patients with PE for their care and potential mental health problems.

16.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(2): 172-181, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decompression sickness (DCS) primarily manifests musculoskeletal pain, cutaneous manifestations, lymphatic symptoms, and neurological symptoms. DCS might affect the central nervous system and induce the stress in the patients, but few studies about the psychiatric morbidity after DCS have been conducted. This study aimed to investigate the association between DCS and the risk of developing psychiatric disorders. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study was a population-based, matched-cohort design. A total of 738 enrolled patients, with 123 study subjects who had suffered from DCS, and 615 controls matched for sex and age, from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Databank from 2000-2010 in Taiwan, and selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. After adjusting for the confounding factors, Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to compare the risk of developing psychiatric disorders during the 10 years of follow-up period. RESULTS: Of the study subjects, 10 (8.13%) developed psychiatric disorders when compared to 35 (5.69%) in the control group. The study subjects were more likely to develop psychiatric disorders (crude hazard ratio [HR]: 2.79 (95% CI=1.37-5.69, P<0.01). After adjusting for sex, age, monthly income, urbanization level, geographic region, and comorbidities, the adjusted HR was 3.83 (95% CI=1.60-9.16, P<0.01). Sleep disorders was associated with DCS with the adjusted HR as 5.74 (95% CI=1.04-31.56, P<0.01). Hyperbaric oxygenation therapy was not associated with a lower risk of psychiatric disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who suffered from DCS have a 3.8-fold risk of developing psychiatric disorders, and a 5.7-fold risk of sleep disorders. This finding is a reminder for the clinicians that a regular psychiatric follow-up might well be needed for these patients.


Assuntos
Doença da Descompressão/complicações , Doença da Descompressão/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Compr Psychiatry ; 93: 14-19, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280142

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to investigate the association between males with pinworm infections and the risk of developing psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A total of 2044 enrolled patients, with 511 pinworm subjects and 1533 unexposed subjects (1:3) matched for sex, age and index year, from Taiwan's Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) from 2000 to 2015, selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). After adjusting for confounding factors, the Cox regression model was used to compare the risk of developing psychiatric disorders during the 15 years of follow-up. RESULTS: Of all the enrollees, 24 in the pinworm cohort and 18 in the unexposed cohort (343.10 vs 84.96 per 100,000 person-year) developed psychiatric disorders. The Cox regression model revealed that, after adjusting for sex, age, monthly income, urbanization level, geographic region, and comorbidities, the adjusted HR was 4.581 (95% CI: 2.214-9.480, p < .001, p < .001). Pinworm infections were associated with the increased risk in anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, and sleep disorders, respectively. CONCLUSION: Patients who suffered from pinworm infections have a higher risk of developing psychiatric disorders, and this finding should be considered as a timely reminder for the clinicians to provide much more attention for these patients because of their mental health issues.

19.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Altered heart rate variability (HRV), an index of autonomic nervous system function, has been reported in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but the results have been mixed. Thus, the present study, using a large sample size and better methodology, aims to examine whether GAD is associated with impaired HRV, both at rest and in response to posture challenges. METHODS: In total, 1832 participants were recruited in this study, consisting of 682 patients with GAD (including 326 drug- and comorbidity-free GAD patients) and 1150 healthy controls. Short-term HRV was measured during the supine-standing-supine test (5-min per position). Propensity score matching (PSM), a relatively novel method, was used to control for potential confounders. RESULTS: After PSM algorithm, drug- and comorbidity-free GAD patients had reductions in resting (baseline) high-frequency power (HF), an index for parasympathetic modulation, and increases in the low-frequency/HF ratio (LF/HF), an index for sympathovagal balance as compared to matched controls. Furthermore, the responses of HF and LF/HF to posture changes were all attenuated when compared with matched controls. Effect sizes, given by Cohen's d, for resting HF and HF reactivity were 0.42 and 0.36-0.42, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: GAD is associated with altered sympathovagal balance, characterized by attenuation in both resting vagal modulation and vagal reactivity, with an almost medium effect size (Cohen's d ≈ 0.4), regardless of medication use or comorbidity status.

20.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 15(6): 881-889, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138389

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To examine the risk of hospitalization for motor vehicle accident injury (MVAI) in patients with narcolepsy and the effects of stimulant use on MVAI occurrence in patients with narcolepsy. METHODS: This is a population-based, retrospective cohort study using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database between 2000 and 2013. We included patients with narcolepsy based on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes, 347. The case and matched control participants were selected in a ratio of 1:3, and the traffic accident (ICD-9-CM codes: E810-E819) plus injury codes (ICD-9-CM codes: 800.xx-999.xx) due to MVAI following hospitalization were used for the study outcome. The type of injury, causes, intentionality, and the effects of stimulant use on patients with narcolepsy were also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 1,316 participants were enrolled, including 329 participants with narcolepsy and 987 participants without narcolepsy. During a 14-year follow-up period, a total of 104 participants had MVAI, of whom 47 (1,559.54 per 100,000 person-years) belonged to the narcolepsy cohort and 57 (556.21 per 100,000 person-years) to the non-narcolepsy cohort. After adjusting for covariates, the risk of hospitalization for MVAI among participants with narcolepsy was still significantly higher than those without narcolepsy (adjusted hazard ratio = 6.725; 95% confidence interval = 4.421-10.231; P < .001). The use of modafinil or methylphenidate, as monotherapy or combined treatment, was associated with a lower risk of MVAI in the narcolepsy cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with narcolepsy may have a higher risk of hospitalization for MVAI and stimulant use could mitigate such risk.

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