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1.
Urology ; 2020 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962119

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety, feasibility and treatment outcomes of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) as a same day surgery (SDS). METHODS: HoLEPs performed from November 2013 to December 2018 at our institution were reviewed retrospectively. Inclusion criteria for same day surgery (SDS) included living in the local metropolitan area with access to local hospital and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) 0-2, regardless of prostate size and anticoagulation status. Those patients who were discharged directly from the postoperative care unit were identified as SDS cases. Patients admitted overnight after HoLEP during the same period were used as a matched cohort. Patient demographics, disease characteristics and treatment outcomes were compared. RESULTS: A total of 377 patients were identified, including 199 SDS and 178 non-SDS patients. No statistical difference was present between the 2 groups regarding the post-op complication and readmission rates. The non-SDS group had a significantly higher percentage of patients with history of urinary retention, lower pre-op Qmax, and larger prostate volume. The SDS group had shorter operative time, length of stay (LOS), and catherization time (all P <.05). At 1-year follow-up, no statistically different change in Qmax, PVR, or IPSS score was noted between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: Same day outpatient surgery for HoLEP is safe in patients who live in close proximity and have ECOG status 0-2. Our readmission rate and complication rate are comparable to those reported in the literature with markedly decreased LOS. Long-term functional outcome is not compromised by SDS.

2.
Urology ; 135: 171-172, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate how bladder ultrasound can be useful in completing morcellation during difficult Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate (HoLEP). As HoLEP has emerged as a standard of care for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, multiple studies have reported the potentially catastrophic complication of bladder injury during morcellation. This video aims to assist any urologist performing HoLEP by providing step-by-step instruction for using ultrasound to complete morcellation safely. METHODS: Enucleation is performed using a 26-French continuous flow scope, off-set laser bridge with a laser stabilization catheter, and a 550 µm holmium laser fiber. Once the median and lateral lobes have been enucleated, the outer sheath is removed and the nephroscope is inserted to facilitate morcellation. Under dual inflow irrigation, the Piranha morcellator (Richard Wolf, Knittlingen, Germany) is introduced and set to the manufacturer's recommended settings of 1500 rpm. A 3.5-MHz convex abdominal ultrasound transducer (Hitachi Prosound Alpha 7; Hitachi Aloka Medical America, Wallingford, CT) under B-mode is used to visualize the bladder, predominantly in the sagittal orientation. Morcellation proceeds under simultaneous ultrasound and direct cystoscopic guidance. RESULTS: The distended bladder is visualized concurrently with the ultrasound and via the nephroscope as the Piranha engages the adenoma and begins morcellation. Once the adenoma is engaged, the operator then drops their hands to place the morcellator in the center of the bladder. Ultrasound provides real-time feedback as to the location of the morcellator in relation to the adenoma and bladder. CONCLUSION: This video highlights the use of intraoperative bladder ultrasound as a visual aid to assist during the morcellation portion of HoLEP. This proof of concept demonstrates that ultrasound can be an additional tool to utilize during difficult cases when cystoscopic visualization during morcellation is limited.


Assuntos
Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Morcelação/métodos , Prostatectomia/métodos , Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Terapia a Laser/efeitos adversos , Terapia a Laser/instrumentação , Lasers de Estado Sólido/efeitos adversos , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Morcelação/efeitos adversos , Morcelação/instrumentação , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Prostatectomia/instrumentação , Hiperplasia Prostática/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia , Bexiga Urinária/lesões
3.
BJU Int ; 125(2): 284-291, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811835

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare clinical outcomes in patients who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) with renal tract dilatation performed under fluoroscopic guidance vs renal tract dilatation with ultrasound guidance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study, enrolling successive patients undergoing PCNL between July 2015 and March 2018. Included in this retrospective analysis were cases where the renal puncture was successfully obtained with ultrasound guidance. Cases were then grouped according to whether fluoroscopy was used to guide renal tract dilatation or not. All statistical analyses were performed using Stata version 15.1 including univariate (Fisher's exact test, Welch's t-test) and multivariate analyses (binomial logistic regression, ordinal logistic regression, and linear regression). RESULTS: A total of 176 patients underwent PCNL with successful ultrasonography-guided renal puncture, of whom 38 and 138 underwent renal tract dilatation with fluoroscopic vs ultrasound guidance, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in patient age, gender, body mass index (BMI), preoperative hydronephrosis, stone burden, procedure laterality, number of dilated tracts, and calyceal puncture location between the two groups. Among ultrasound tract dilatations, a higher proportion of patients were placed in the modified dorsal lithotomy position as opposed to prone, and a significantly shorter operating time was observed. Only modified dorsal lithotomy position remained statistically significant after multivariate regression. There were no statistically significant differences in postoperative stone clearance, complication rate, or intra-operative estimated blood loss. A 5-unit increase in a patient's BMI was associated with 30% greater odds of increasingly severe Clavien-Dindo complications. A 5-mm decrease in the preoperative stone burden was associated with 20% greater odds of stone-free status. No variables predicted estimated blood loss with statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Renal tract dilatation can be safely performed in the absence of fluoroscopic guidance. Compared to using fluoroscopy, the present study demonstrated that ultrasonography-guided dilatations can be safely performed without higher complication or bleeding rates. This can be done using a variety of surgical positions, and future studies centred on improving dilatation techniques could be of impactful clinical value.

4.
Can Urol Assoc J ; 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599714

RESUMO

Ultrasonography has emerged as an alternative to fluoroscopy for image-guided guided PCNL (F-PCNL), ultrasound-guided PCNL (US-PCNL) is easier to learn and reduces radiation exposure to patients and providers. Despite these advantages, uptake of ultrasound-guided PCNL (US-PCNL) in Canada has been almost nonexistent, largely because it is not incorporated into urologists' training. In this article, we seek to familiarize Canadian urologists with this approach by describing our step-by-step technique for US-PCNL. Additionally, we provide keys to successful implementation of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in many countries. Compared to fluoroscopy-this technique.

5.
Urology ; 133: 245-246, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376473

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ultrasound guidance for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has gained acceptance amongst urologists given its numerous advantages over fluoroscopy. While traditionally performed in the prone position, this video demonstrates a step-by-step approach to performing PCNL in the supine position, solely under ultrasound guidance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Once in the modified supine (Galdakao-modified Valdivia) position, important anatomic landmarks are identified. It is important to first orient the ultrasound probe such that its cranial side corresponds to the left of the ultrasound screen. After optimizing a target calyx, keeping the needle in the imaging plane of the probe facilitates renal access. Tract dilation under ultrasound guidance is then achieved by keeping the wire and dilators in the same imaging plane. RESULTS: The 11th and 12th ribs, paraspinous muscle, iliac crest, midaxillary line, and costal margin are the anatomic landmarks that orient the probe to the location of the kidney. Placing the ultrasound probe in the midaxillary line, parallel to the 11th rib allows the operator to identify key renal landmarks: the renal cortex, peri-pelvic fat, collecting system, kidney stone with its associated postacoustic shadow, and the intended target calyx. Controlling the needle is easiest in the longitudinal view, as the needle can be visualized from skin to target. Dilation under ultrasound relies on keeping the wire in view. The tip of the 10-French dilator is based on the location where the wire image disappears as the dilator advances. The balloon dilator tip is visualized on ultrasound reaching the appropriate depth just inside the collecting system, at which time balloon inflation results in complete dilation of the tract. CONCLUSIONS: This video provides a step-by-step approach demonstrating that PCNL can be performed in the supine position using only ultrasound-guidance. This approach facilitates renal access in this position and obviates the need for radiation exposure.


Assuntos
Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/métodos , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Dilatação , Humanos , Decúbito Dorsal
6.
J Endourol ; 33(9): 742-749, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044624

RESUMO

Introduction: American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines recommend percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for total stone burden greater than 20 mm, yet it is unclear if the number of stones affects adherence to this guideline. We aim to assess the impact of stone multiplicity on the choice of ureteroscopy (URS) vs PCNL as a first-line therapy for patients with high burden (>20 mm), and examine whether the AUA guideline-discordant care impacts patient outcomes. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from the Registry for Stones of the Kidney and Ureter (ReSKU) database, a prospectively collected registry of patients with stone disease. Multivariate logistic regression (MLR) was used to estimate the association between stone multiplicity and the decision to perform URS for high stone burden (>20 mm) patients. MLR was further used to estimate the association between performing URS and the following outcomes: stone-free rate, need for a second operation, and complications. Postoperative hospital stay was compared between patients receiving URS vs PCNL using Student's t-test. Results: One hundred twenty-five patients were included in this analysis. For patients with total stone burden exceeding 20 mm, those with more than three stones had roughly nine times the likelihood of undergoing URS over PCNL compared with patients with a single stone (adjusted odds ratio 9.21, confidence interval [95% CI] 2.55-40.58, p = 0.001). Stone-free rates, Clavien-Dindo scores, and frequency of second-look operations did not differ significantly between URS and PCNL patients. URS patients were discharged an average of 1.26 days earlier than patients who received PCNL (95% CI 0.72-1.81, p < 0.001). Discussion: Stone multiplicity strongly predicts which patients with stone burden >20 mm will undergo URS and who will undergo PCNL. These deviations from AUA guidelines do not appear to worsen patient outcomes. These results suggest that careful consideration of each patient may warrant deviation from guidelines.

7.
Urology ; 131: 57-63, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132427

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine social factors associated with advanced stone disease (defined as unilateral stone burden >2 cm) at time of presentation to a regional stone referral center. Little is known about social determinants of urolithiasis. We hypothesize that socioeconomic factors impact kidney stone severity at intake to referral centers. METHODS: A retrospective review of the prospectively collected data from the Registry for Stones of the Kidney and Ureter from 2015 to 2018 was conducted to evaluate patient characteristics predictive of having a large (>2 cm) unilateral kidney stone. Data on patient age, gender, body mass index, diabetes, race, language, education level, infection, distance, income, referring regional urologist density, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, and stone analysis were evaluated. RESULTS: Complete imaging and patient variable data was present in 650 of 1142 patients including 197 patients with unilateral stone burden >2 cm. On multivariate analysis, obesity, lower education level, increased distance from the referral center, and symptoms of infection predicted for unilateral stone burden greater than 2 cm. Among 191 patients with stone analysis data present, stone type, income, and urologist density predicted for unilateral stone burden greater than 2 cm. CONCLUSION: In addition to known biological risk factors, patients with lower education levels and from regions of lower mean income were found to be more likely to present to our tertiary care center with stone burden greater than 2 cm. More research is needed to elucidate the social and societal determinants of advanced stone disease and the impact this has on population costs for stone treatment.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/epidemiologia , Cálculos Renais/patologia , Cálculos Ureterais/epidemiologia , Cálculos Ureterais/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Endourol ; 33(7): 619-624, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030576

RESUMO

Purpose: Kidney stone patients routinely have CT scans during diagnostic work-up before being referred to a tertiary center. How often these patients exceed the recommended dose limits for occupational radiation exposure of >100 mSv for 5 years and >50 mSv in a single year from CT alone remains unknown. This study aimed to quantify radiation doses from CTs received by stone patients before their evaluation at a tertiary care stone clinic. Methods: From November 2015 to March 2017, consecutive new patients enrolled into the Registry for Stones of the Kidney and Ureter (ReSKU™) had the dose-length product of every available CT abdomen/pelvis within 5 years of their initial visit recorded, allowing for an effective dose (EDose) calculation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified factors associated with exceeding recommended dose limits. Models were created to test radiation reducing effects of low-dose and phase-reduction CT protocols. Results: Of 343 noncontrast CTs performed, only 29 (8%) were low-dose CTs (calculated EDose <4 mSv). Among 389 total patients, 101 (26%) and 25 (6%) had an EDose >20 mSv and >50 mSv/year, respectively. Increased body mass index, number of scans, and multiphase scans were associated with exceeding exposure thresholds (p < 0.01). The implementation of a low-dose CT protocol decreased the estimated number of scans contributing to overexposure by >50%. Conclusions: Stone patients referred to a tertiary stone center may receive excessive radiation from CT scans alone. Unnecessary phases and underutilization of low-dose CT protocols continue to take place. Enacting new approaches to CT protocols may spare stone patients from exceeding recommended dose limits.

9.
J Urol ; 202(1): 119-124, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865567

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Kidney stones are a source of significant morbidity which have been shown to negatively impact health related quality of life. We sought to understand the association between health related quality of life, socioeconomic status and race among patients with kidney stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with stones at a total of 11 stone centers across the United States completed the WISQOL (Wisconsin Stone Quality of Life questionnaire). The patient ZIP Code™ was used to estimate household income. A mixed effects regression model was constructed for analysis with ZIP Code as the random intercept. RESULTS: A total of 2,057 stone formers completed the WISQOL. Lower income was independently associated with significantly lower health related quality of life (ß = 0.372, p = 0.014), as were nonwhite race (ß = -0.299, p = 0.001), unemployed work status (ß = -0.291, p = 0.008), female gender (ß = -0.204, p <0.001), body mass index greater than 40 kg/m2 (ß = -0.380, p <0.001), 5 or more medical comorbidities (ß = -0.354, p = 0.001), severe recurrent stone formation (ß = -0.146, p = 0.045), enrollment at an acute care visit, or a preoperative or postoperative appointment (ß = -0.548, p <0.001) and recent stone symptoms (ß = -0.892, p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Lower income, nonwhite race and unemployed work status were independently associated with lower health related quality of life among patients with kidney stones. While clinical characteristics such as body mass and stone disease severity were also associated with health related quality of life, this study shows that socioeconomic factors are similarly important. Further research to understand the specific mechanisms by which socioeconomic status and race impact health may lend insight into methods to optimize clinical treatment of stone formers and patients with other chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Cálculos Renais/complicações , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Doença Crônica , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
J Urol ; 200(5): 972, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30081021
11.
J Endourol Case Rep ; 4(1): 133-135, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131978

RESUMO

Background: Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) has emerged as an accepted standard of care for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. This surgery relies on morcellation of the prostate adenoma once enucleation of the transition zone has been completed. Caution is required during this portion of the operation, as engaging bladder mucosa within the morcellator can result in bladder injury, a rare but potentially catastrophic complication of HoLEP. Morcellation of the prostatic tissue can be additionally challenging if visualization is poor from either equipment failure or increased bleeding from a highly vascularized prostate. Case Presentation: We report the case of a 66-year-old Caucasian man with an estimated 158 g prostate who underwent HoLEP at our institution. Enucleation was uneventful; however, upon placement of the nephroscope to begin morcellation, it was immediately evident that the lens of the nephroscope was damaged as there was extremely poor visualization. Without a replacement nephroscope available, this would have normally resulted in aborting the case and returning another day to complete the morcellation. Concurrent bladder ultrasonography was performed and allowed for additional visual feedback to the operator, helping guide the morcellator to safely engage the enucleated adenoma and complete the operation. Conclusion: This case report demonstrates the ability of performing the morcellation portion of HoLEP mainly with the visualization provided by concurrent bladder ultrasonography. By providing additional imaging feedback to the operator, ultrasound can be a complementary tool to assist in safely performing morcellation in situations of suboptimal cystoscopic visualization during HoLEP.

12.
Urology ; 116: e5-e6, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29545053

RESUMO

Inverted papilloma of the prostatic urethra is an especially rare finding. A 75-year-old man with urinary retention wished to proceed with a holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) and was found to have a mass arising from his prostate vs bladder on preoperative imaging. Cystourethroscopy revealed the mass arising from the median lobe of the prostate. After transurethral resection and frozen analysis confirmed the benign pathology of an inverted papilloma, the patient subsequently underwent a successful HoLEP during the same surgical setting. Images of this rare prostatic mass are presented to increase urologist recognition and to assist management during HoLEP.


Assuntos
Terapia a Laser , Papiloma Invertido/diagnóstico , Hiperplasia Prostática/cirurgia , Ressecção Transuretral da Próstata , Neoplasias Uretrais/diagnóstico , Idoso , Cistoscopia , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Lasers de Estado Sólido , Masculino , Papiloma Invertido/complicações , Papiloma Invertido/patologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Hiperplasia Prostática/complicações , Ressecção Transuretral da Próstata/métodos , Neoplasias Uretrais/complicações , Neoplasias Uretrais/patologia
13.
Urolithiasis ; 46(6): 559-566, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29224057

RESUMO

Maintenance of flexible ureteroscopes can involve high costs and administrative burden. Instrument fragility necessitates eventual repair, rendering scopes inaccessible during refurbishment. We conducted a multi-institutional prospective cohort study to identify perioperative factors influencing flexible ureteroscope durability. Patients undergoing flexible ureteroscopy (URS) at six United States endourology centers were enrolled between August 2014 and June 2015. Surgeon self-reported concern and satisfaction with scope performance as well as upward and downward angles of deflection for each scope tip were measured before and after each procedure. The need for scope repair was determined by the operating surgeon at the time of the procedure and recorded. 424 URS cases using 74 flexible ureteroscopes were identified. Scope repair was required in 28 cases (6.6%) involving 26 scopes (35.1%). Upon univariate analysis, shorter patient height, absence of guidewire use, presence of a ureteral access sheath (UAS), longer procedure time, larger stone size, lithotrite type, surgeon training level, and self-reported concern were associated with scope repair. Upon multivariate analysis, UAS use (OR = 2.53, p = 0.005) and degree loss of scope upward flexion during a case (OR = 1.02, p = 0.03) increased the odds of a scope needing repair while the use of safety guidewire decreased the odds of a scope repair (OR = 0.50, p = 0.045). Lithotrite use and surgeon concern were associated with degree loss of scope upward flexion. The use of a UAS, absence of a safety guidewire, and the loss of upward ureteroscope flexion should be considered when evaluating means of optimizing reusable ureteroscope durability.


Assuntos
Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Litotripsia/instrumentação , Ureteroscópios , Ureteroscopia/instrumentação , Urolitíase/cirurgia , Adulto , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Litotripsia/métodos , Masculino , Período Perioperatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos , Ureter/diagnóstico por imagem , Ureteroscopia/métodos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Urology ; 111: 59-64, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29032235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the measured stone burden recorded between urologists and radiologists, and examine how these differences could potentially impact stone management. As current urologic stone surgery guideline recommendations are based on stone size, accurate stone measurements are crucial to direct appropriate treatment. This study investigated the discrepant interpretation that often exists between urologic surgeons and radiologists' estimation of patient urinary stone burden. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From November 2015 through August 2016, new patients prospectively enrolled into the Registry for Stones of the Kidney and Ureter (ReSKU) were included if they had computed tomography images available and an accompanying official radiologic report at the time of their urologist provider visit. Stone number and aggregate stone size were compared between the urologic interpretation and the corresponding radiologic reports. RESULTS: Of 219 patients who met the inclusion criteria, concordance between urologic and radiologic assessment of aggregate stone size was higher for single stone sizing (63%) compared with multiple stones (32%). Statistical significance was found in comparing the mean difference in aggregate stone size for single and multiple stones (P <.01). Over 33% of stone-containing renal units had a radiologic report with an unclear size estimation or size discrepancy that could lead to non-guideline-driven surgical management. CONCLUSION: Significant variation exists between urologic and radiologic computed tomography interpretations of stone burden. Urologists should personally review patient imaging when considering stone surgical management. A standardized method for measuring and reporting stone parameters is needed among urologists and radiologists.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Cálculos Ureterais/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Urológico , Feminino , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Cálculos Ureterais/epidemiologia
15.
J Endourol ; 32(2): 148-153, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29179563

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cystinuria is a genetic disorder marked by elevated urinary cystine excretion and recurrent cystine nephrolithiasis. Interestingly, despite seemingly similar contralateral renal anatomy, a subset of cystinuric patients consistently form stones in only one kidney. The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical outcomes in unilateral vs bilateral cystine stone formers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective case-control study of cystinuric patients evaluated and treated at the University of California, San Francisco between 1994 and 2015 and categorized patients as either unilateral or bilateral stone formers. Clinical presentation, baseline patient demographics, stone procedures, medical therapy regimens, and long-term renal function were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: A total of 42 cystine stone patients (22 female, 20 male) were included in the analysis. The median age at first presentation was 18.5 years and median age at study conclusion was 45.5 years. Two-thirds of patients (n = 28) had a history of bilateral stones, whereas one-third (n = 14) had unilateral stones. Medical therapy regimens were similar between groups. Despite an increased average number of lifetime surgeries (7.5 sessions for bilateral vs 3.7 sessions for unilateral, p < 0.05), there was no significant difference in medians of the most recent glomerular filtration rate when compared with unilateral stone formers (81.5 vs 95 mL/min, respectively; p = 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of cystinuric patients within our cohort form stones bilaterally during their lifetime, and require more surgical interventions than unilateral stone formers. Despite this, overall renal function is well preserved in unilateral and bilateral cystinuric stone formers treated with minimally invasive stone extraction procedures.


Assuntos
Cistinúria , Cálculos Renais , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cistina/metabolismo , Cistinúria/complicações , Cistinúria/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Humanos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Cálculos Renais/etiologia , Cálculos Renais/patologia , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , São Francisco
16.
J Endourol ; 32(4): 267-273, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29239227

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Reusable ureteroscope durability and need for repair are significant sources of expense and inefficiency for patients and urologists. Utilization of LithoVue™, a disposable flexible digital ureteroscope, may address some of these concerns. To identify its economic impact on clinical care, we performed a micro-cost comparison between flexible reusable fiberoptic ureteroscopes (URF-P6™) and LithoVue. PATIENTS AND METHODS: For this prospective, single-center micro-costing study, all consecutive ureteroscopies performed during 1 week each in July and August 2016 utilized either URF-P6 or LithoVue ureteroscopes respectively. Workflow data were collected, including intraoperative events, postoperative reprocessing cycle timing, consumables usage, and ureteroscope cost data. RESULTS: Intraoperative data analysis showed mean total operating room time for URF-P6 and LithoVue cases were 93.4 ± 32.3 and 73.6 ± 17.4 minutes, respectively (p = 0.093). Mean cost of operating room usage per case was calculated at $1618.72 ± 441.39 for URF-P6 and $1348.64 ± 237.40 for LithoVue based on institutional cost rates exclusive of disposables. Postoperative data analysis revealed costs of $107.27 for labor and consumables during reprocessing for URF-P6 cases. The costs of ureteroscope repair and capital acquisition for each URF-P6 case were $957.71 and $116.02, respectively. The total ureteroscope cost per case for URF-P6 and LithoVue were $2799.72 and $2852.29, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Micro-cost analysis revealed that the cost of LithoVue acquisition is higher per case compared to reusable fiberoptic ureteroscopes, but savings are realized in labor, consumables, and repair. When accounting for these factors, the total cost per case utilizing these two ureteroscopes were comparable.


Assuntos
Custos e Análise de Custo , Equipamentos Descartáveis/economia , Reutilização de Equipamento/economia , Ureteroscópios/economia , Ureteroscopia/economia , Desenho de Equipamento , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica/economia , Humanos , Salas Cirúrgicas , Estudos Prospectivos , Urologistas
17.
J Endourol ; 31(10): 1026-1031, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28830223

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Careful decontamination and sterilization of reusable flexible ureteroscopes used in ureterorenoscopy cases prevent the spread of infectious pathogens to patients and technicians. However, inefficient reprocessing and unavailability of ureteroscopes sent out for repair can contribute to expensive operating room (OR) delays. Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) was applied to describe the time and costs involved in reprocessing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Direct observation and timing were performed for all steps in reprocessing of reusable flexible ureteroscopes following operative procedures. Estimated times needed for each step by which damaged ureteroscopes identified during reprocessing are sent for repair were characterized through interviews with purchasing analyst staff. Process maps were created for reprocessing and repair detailing individual step times and their variances. Cost data for labor and disposables used were applied to calculate per minute and average step costs. RESULTS: Ten ureteroscopes were followed through reprocessing. Process mapping for ureteroscope reprocessing averaged 229.0 ± 74.4 minutes, whereas sending a ureteroscope for repair required an estimated 143 minutes per repair. Most steps demonstrated low variance between timed observations. Ureteroscope drying was the longest and highest variance step at 126.5 ± 55.7 minutes and was highly dependent on manual air flushing through the ureteroscope working channel and ureteroscope positioning in the drying cabinet. Total costs for reprocessing totaled $96.13 per episode, including the cost of labor and disposable items. CONCLUSIONS: Utilizing TDABC delineates the full spectrum of costs associated with ureteroscope reprocessing and identifies areas for process improvement to drive value-based care. At our institution, ureteroscope drying was one clearly identified target area. Implementing training in ureteroscope drying technique could save up to 2 hours per reprocessing event, potentially preventing expensive OR delays.


Assuntos
Reutilização de Equipamento/economia , Ureteroscópios/economia , Ureteroscopia/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Falha de Equipamento/economia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/economia , Salas Cirúrgicas/economia , Esterilização/economia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Ureteroscopia/métodos
18.
J Endourol ; 31(9): 922-929, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28719978

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic tools have provided versatile examination and treatment for kidney stone procedures. Despite endourologists researching urinary stone disease using endoscopes to collect tissue, this tissue collection method is limited. Endoscopically removed tissues are small in size, restricting the types of genome-based examination possible. We investigated a new method of renal papilla biopsy and RNA extraction to establish a genomic research methodology for kidney stone disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective multi-institutional study and collected renal papilla specimens from consecutive percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureteroscopy (URS) cases performed for removal of upper urinary tract stones. Renal papilla tissue was extracted using ureteroscopic biopsy forceps after stone removal. RNA was extracted using two different extraction kits, and their quantity and quality were examined. Additionally, the impact of biopsy on surgical complications was compared between cases performed with and without biopsy by matched case-control analysis adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, bilaterality, and stone burden. RESULTS: A total of 90 biopsies from 49 patients were performed, and the median duration between specimen collection and RNA extraction was 61 days. Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed BIGopsy® forceps usage significantly increased the total yield (p = 0.004) and quality (p = 0.001 for A260/280, p = 0.004 for A260/A230) of extracted RNA. Extraction using the RNeasy Micro Kit® also improved A260/A230, whereas reduced RNA integrity number of extracted RNA by univariate and multivariate analyses (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively). Moreover, matched case-control study demonstrated that endoscopic renal papilla biopsy caused no significant surgical complications, including bleeding, decreased stone clearance and hematocrit, and renal dysfunction. Biopsies during URS imparted an average of 20 minutes of procedure time over nonbiopsy cases. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate a safe methodology for optimal RNA extraction of renal papilla tissue. This technique will accelerate advanced genomic studies for kidney stone formers by facilitating larger tissue yields.


Assuntos
Biópsia/métodos , Cálculos Renais/genética , Medula Renal/metabolismo , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/métodos , RNA/metabolismo , Ureteroscopia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genômica , Hematócrito , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Medula Renal/patologia , Medula Renal/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
J Urol ; 198(6): 1367-1373, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28743528

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We compared contrast enhanced ultrasound and fluoroscopic nephrostography in the evaluation of ureteral patency following percutaneous nephrolithotomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort, noninferiority study was performed after obtaining institutional review board approval. We enrolled eligible patients with kidney and proximal ureteral stones who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy at our center. On postoperative day 1 patients received contrast enhanced ultrasound and fluoroscopic nephrostogram within 2 hours of each other to evaluate ureteral patency, which was the primary outcome of this study. RESULTS: A total of 92 pairs of imaging studies were performed in 82 patients during the study period. Five study pairs were excluded due to technical errors that prevented imaging interpretation. Females slightly predominated over males with a mean ± SD age of 50.5 ± 15.9 years and a mean body mass index of 29.6 ± 8.6 kg/m2. Of the remaining 87 sets of studies 69 (79.3%) demonstrated concordant findings regarding ureteral patency for the 2 imaging techniques and 18 (20.7%) were discordant. The nephrostomy tube was removed on the same day in 15 of the 17 patients who demonstrated antegrade urine flow only on contrast enhanced ultrasound and they had no subsequent adverse events. No adverse events were noted related to ultrasound contrast injection. While contrast enhanced ultrasound used no ionizing radiation, fluoroscopic nephrostograms provided a mean radiation exposure dose of 2.8 ± 3.7 mGy. CONCLUSIONS: A contrast enhanced ultrasound nephrostogram can be safely performed to evaluate for ureteral patency following percutaneous nephrolithotomy. This imaging technique was mostly concordant with fluoroscopic findings. Most discordance was likely attributable to the higher sensitivity for patency of contrast enhanced ultrasound compared to fluoroscopy.


Assuntos
Fluoroscopia , Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Ureter/diagnóstico por imagem , Ureter/fisiologia , Cálculos Ureterais/diagnóstico por imagem , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Cálculos Ureterais/cirurgia
20.
J Endourol ; 31(5): 468-475, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28287823

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: LithoVue™ is a novel, single-use, digital flexible ureteroscope that was released to the US market in January 2016. There are scant data regarding its performance in humans. Procedural outcomes comparing LithoVue with reusable ureteroscopes are presented in patients undergoing ureteroscopy for upper urinary tract pathology. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical outcomes between two groups of patients undergoing flexible ureteroscopy for upper urinary tract pathology were analyzed. The first group underwent surgery utilizing LithoVue, and the second group used reusable fiber-optic flexible ureteroscopes. Differences in procedural outcomes, operative times, and time spent in hospital were analyzed using two-tailed t-tests and chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS: One hundred fifteen cases utilizing LithoVue and 65 cases utilizing reusable ureteroscopes were included in this study. Demographics, surgical indications, stone size, location, total stone burden, composition, procedural outcomes, and complications were comparable between groups. For all cases, LithoVue procedures lasted 54.1 ± 25.7 minutes compared with 64.5 ± 37.0 minutes for reusable scope procedures (p < 0.05) and for stone removal cases, 57.3 ± 25.1 vs 70.3 ± 36.9 minutes, respectively (p < 0.05). Scope failure occurred in 4.4% of LithoVue cases and 7.7% of reusable cases (p = 0.27). CONCLUSIONS: LithoVue represents a feasible alternative to reusable ureteroscopes with a low rate of scope failure comparable with reusable ureteroscopes. Its use shortens procedure duration, a finding that warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Ureteroscópios , Ureteroscopia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Segurança do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Cálculos Urinários/cirurgia , Urotélio/cirurgia
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