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1.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(5): 484-490, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276868

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to report a multicenter series of left-sided catheter ablations performed by using intravenous direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) as an alternative to heparin. BACKGROUND: Amidst a looming worldwide shortage of heparin, there are insufficient data to guide nonheparin-based peri-procedural anticoagulation in patients undergoing catheter ablation. METHODS: This study reviewed all catheter ablations at 6 institutions between 2006 and 2019 to assess the safety and efficacy of DTIs for left-sided radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. RESULTS: In total, 53 patients (age 63.0 ± 9.3 years, 68% male, CHA2DS2-VASc [congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, stroke/transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65 to 74 years, sex category] score 2.8 ± 1.6, left ventricular ejection fraction 46 ± 15%) underwent ablation with DTIs (75% bivalirudin, 25% argatroban) due to heparin contraindication(s) (72% heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, 21% heparin allergy, 4% protamine reaction, and 4% religious reasons). The patient's usual oral anticoagulant was continued without interruption in 69%. Procedures were performed for atrial fibrillation (64%) or ventricular tachycardia/premature ventricular contractions (36%). Transseptal puncture was undertaken in 81%, and a contact force-sensing catheter was used in 70%. Vascular ultrasound was used in 71%, and femoral arterial access was gained in 36%. A bolus followed by infusion was used in all but 4 cases, and activated clotting time was monitored peri-procedurally in 72%, with 32% receiving additional boluses. Procedure duration was 216 ± 116 min, and ablation time was 51 ± 22 min. No major bleeding or embolic complications were observed. Four patients had minor self-limiting bleeding complications, including a small pericardial effusion (<1 cm), a small groin hematoma, and hematuria. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter series, intravenous DTIs were safely used as an alternative to heparin for left-sided catheter ablation.

3.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 31(5): 1114-1124, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epicardial adipose (EA) tissue may limit effective radiofrequency ablation (RFA). OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate the lesion formation of different ablation strategies on ventricular myocardium with overlying EA. METHODS: Bovine myocardium with EA was placed in a circulating saline bath in an ex vivo model. Open-irrigated (OI) RFA was performed, parallel to the myocardium, over fat at 50 W for variable RF durations, variable contact force, catheter configurations (unipolar RF vs bipolar RF), and catheter irrigants (normal saline vs half-normal saline). Ablation was also performed with a needle-tipped ablation catheter (NTAC), perpendicular to the myocardium. RESULTS: Increasingly thick EA attenuated lesion size regardless of ablation strategy. RF applied with longer durations and increasing CF produced larger lesion volumes and deeper lesions with ablation over EA more than 3 mm but was unable to produce measurable lesions when EA less than 3 mm. Similarly, ablation with half normal saline irrigant created slightly deeper lesions than bipolar RF and unipolar RF with normal saline as EA thickness increased, but was unable to produce measurable lesions when EA more than 3 mm. Of all ablation strategies, only NTAC produced effective lesion volumes when ablating over thick (>3 mm) EA. CONCLUSIONS: While EA attenuates lesion depth and size, relatively larger, and deeper lesions can be achieved with longer RFA duration, higher CF, half normal saline irrigant, and, to a greater extent, by utilizing bipolar RF or NTAC, but only over thin adipose (<3 mm). Of those catheters/strategies tested, only NTAC was able to effectively deliver RF over thick (>3 mm) EA with this model.

4.
Europace ; 22(3): 450-495, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995197

RESUMO

Ventricular arrhythmias are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and come in a variety of forms, from single premature ventricular complexes to sustained ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Rapid developments have taken place over the past decade in our understanding of these arrhythmias and in our ability to diagnose and treat them. The field of catheter ablation has progressed with the development of new methods and tools, and with the publication of large clinical trials. Therefore, global cardiac electrophysiology professional societies undertook to outline recommendations and best practices for these procedures in a document that will update and replace the 2009 EHRA/HRS Expert Consensus on Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias. An expert writing group, after reviewing and discussing the literature, including a systematic review and meta-analysis published in conjunction with this document, and drawing on their own experience, drafted and voted on recommendations and summarized current knowledge and practice in the field. Each recommendation is presented in knowledge byte format and is accompanied by supportive text and references. Further sections provide a practical synopsis of the various techniques and of the specific ventricular arrhythmia sites and substrates encountered in the electrophysiology lab. The purpose of this document is to help electrophysiologists around the world to appropriately select patients for catheter ablation, to perform procedures in a safe and efficacious manner, and to provide follow-up and adjunctive care in order to obtain the best possible outcomes for patients with ventricular arrhythmias.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984466

RESUMO

Ventricular arrhythmias are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and come in a variety of forms, from single premature ventricular complexes to sustained ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Rapid developments have taken place over the past decade in our understanding of these arrhythmias and in our ability to diagnose and treat them. The field of catheter ablation has progressed with the development of new methods and tools, and with the publication of large clinical trials. Therefore, global cardiac electrophysiology professional societies undertook to outline recommendations and best practices for these procedures in a document that will update and replace the 2009 EHRA/HRS Expert Consensus on Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias. An expert writing group, after reviewing and discussing the literature, including a systematic review and meta-analysis published in conjunction with this document, and drawing on their own experience, drafted and voted on recommendations and summarized current knowledge and practice in the field. Each recommendation is presented in knowledge byte format and is accompanied by supportive text and references. Further sections provide a practical synopsis of the various techniques and of the specific ventricular arrhythmia sites and substrates encountered in the electrophysiology lab. The purpose of this document is to help electrophysiologists around the world to appropriately select patients for catheter ablation, to perform procedures in a safe and efficacious manner, and to provide follow-up and adjunctive care in order to obtain the best possible outcomes for patients with ventricular arrhythmias.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960344

RESUMO

Ventricular arrhythmias are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and come in a variety of forms, from single premature ventricular complexes to sustained ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Rapid developments have taken place over the past decade in our understanding of these arrhythmias and in our ability to diagnose and treat them. The field of catheter ablation has progressed with the development of new methods and tools, and with the publication of large clinical trials. Therefore, global cardiac electrophysiology professional societies undertook to outline recommendations and best practices for these procedures in a document that will update and replace the 2009 EHRA/HRS Expert Consensus on Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias. An expert writing group, after reviewing and discussing the literature, including a systematic review and meta-analysis published in conjunction with this document, and drawing on their own experience, drafted and voted on recommendations and summarized current knowledge and practice in the field. Each recommendation is presented in knowledge byte format and is accompanied by supportive text and references. Further sections provide a practical synopsis of the various techniques and of the specific ventricular arrhythmia sites and substrates encountered in the electrophysiology lab. The purpose of this document is to help electrophysiologists around the world to appropriately select patients for catheter ablation, to perform procedures in a safe and efficacious manner, and to provide follow-up and adjunctive care in order to obtain the best possible outcomes for patients with ventricular arrhythmias.

7.
Heart Rhythm ; 17(1): e2-e154, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085023

RESUMO

Ventricular arrhythmias are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and come in a variety of forms, from single premature ventricular complexes to sustained ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Rapid developments have taken place over the past decade in our understanding of these arrhythmias and in our ability to diagnose and treat them. The field of catheter ablation has progressed with the development of new methods and tools, and with the publication of large clinical trials. Therefore, global cardiac electrophysiology professional societies undertook to outline recommendations and best practices for these procedures in a document that will update and replace the 2009 EHRA/HRS Expert Consensus on Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias. An expert writing group, after reviewing and discussing the literature, including a systematic review and meta-analysis published in conjunction with this document, and drawing on their own experience, drafted and voted on recommendations and summarized current knowledge and practice in the field. Each recommendation is presented in knowledge byte format and is accompanied by supportive text and references. Further sections provide a practical synopsis of the various techniques and of the specific ventricular arrhythmia sites and substrates encountered in the electrophysiology lab. The purpose of this document is to help electrophysiologists around the world to appropriately select patients for catheter ablation, to perform procedures in a safe and efficacious manner, and to provide follow-up and adjunctive care in order to obtain the best possible outcomes for patients with ventricular arrhythmias.

8.
Heart Rhythm ; 17(1): e155-e205, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102616

RESUMO

Ventricular arrhythmias are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and come in a variety of forms, from single premature ventricular complexes to sustained ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Rapid developments have taken place over the past decade in our understanding of these arrhythmias and in our ability to diagnose and treat them. The field of catheter ablation has progressed with the development of new methods and tools, and with the publication of large clinical trials. Therefore, global cardiac electrophysiology professional societies undertook to outline recommendations and best practices for these procedures in a document that will update and replace the 2009 EHRA/HRS Expert Consensus on Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias. An expert writing group, after reviewing and discussing the literature, including a systematic review and meta-analysis published in conjunction with this document, and drawing on their own experience, drafted and voted on recommendations and summarized current knowledge and practice in the field. Each recommendation is presented in knowledge byte format and is accompanied by supportive text and references. Further sections provide a practical synopsis of the various techniques and of the specific ventricular arrhythmia sites and substrates encountered in the electrophysiology lab. The purpose of this document is to help electrophysiologists around the world to appropriately select patients for catheter ablation, to perform procedures in a safe and efficacious manner, and to provide follow-up and adjunctive care in order to obtain the best possible outcomes for patients with ventricular arrhythmias.

9.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(12): 2960-2967, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588608

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Both bipolar and simultaneous radiofrequency ablation (bRFA, simRFA) have been used to treat thick midmyocardial substrate as well as during circular, multipolar ablation between shorter distances. OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate the biophysical parameters of simRFA, sequential unipolar RFA (seqRFA), and bRFA. METHODS: Bovine myocardium was placed in a circulating saline bath. To simulate thick substrate conditions, two open irrigated ablation catheters were oriented across from each other, with myocardium in between. Thermocouples were placed in the center, ±2 mm, of the myocardium. Unipolar ablations were performed sequentially or simultaneously at 50 W for 60 seconds and compared to bRFA using the same settings. In addition, to simulate multipolar ablation, two open irrigated ablation catheters were oriented on the same side and perpendicular to myocardium at 1, 2, and 4 mm spacing. SimRFA were performed at 15 and 25 W for 60 seconds and compared to bRFA. RESULTS: For thicker tissue, simRFA produced similar lesion volume and depth compared to bRFA but with a lesion geometry similar to seqRFA. Unlike seqRFA and simRFA, bRFA had a necrotic core spanning the myocardium. Core depths, volumes, and temperatures were significantly greater for bRFA lesions compared to simRFA or seqRFA (Figure, P < .001). Similar results were consistent for bRFA and simRFA at shorter spacings. CONCLUSIONS: BRFA has greater core lesion temperatures, corresponding to a denser and larger necrotic core, than either simRFA or seqRFA. This may have implications for considering the optimal strategy for deep midmyocardial substrates or during multipolar ablation.

11.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(10): 1185-1196, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648744

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of catheter ablation in the region of papillary muscles (PMs) and valvular cusps (VC) on mitral, tricuspid, or aortic valve function. BACKGROUND: Ventricular arrhythmias arising from PMs and VCs often require extensive catheter ablation. Little is known regarding the risk of valve dysfunction after radiofrequency catheter ablation of such arrhythmias. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was completed for 149 PM and VC VT/premature ventricular contraction (PVC) ablations from 2008 to 2018 at our institution. Patient and procedural details were collected for VT and PVC ablation cases involving PMs and VCs with available echocardiographic data pre-ablation and post-ablation (within 6 months). Degree of valvular regurgitation (VR) was graded from 0 (none) to 4 (severe), and significant valvular dysfunction was defined as a 2+ change in VR. RESULTS: Of 149 radiofrequency catheter ablation cases, there were 84 (56%) aortic valve cusp ablations, 60 (40%) left ventricular PM ablations, and 5 (3%) right ventricular PM ablations. There were no statistically significant differences between pre-ablation and post-ablation VR severity (p = 0.33). No patients had a 2+ grade change in VR severity when pre-ablation and post-ablation echocardiograms were compared. There were no significant sequelae requiring intervention in the post-ablation period. On follow-up of 36 ± 9 months, for those with a change in VR, the severity had improved to baseline or remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: Despite often-times extensive ablation on and around valvular networks, risk of longstanding or permanent valvular dysfunction after VT/PVC ablation is rare.

12.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(10): 1939-1948, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257683

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) carries a risk of ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) and sudden cardiac death (SCD), risk stratification of patients with CS and preserved left ventricular/right ventricular (LV/RV) systolic function remains challenging. We sought to evaluate the role of electrophysiologic testing and programmed electrical stimulation of the ventricle (EPS) in patients with suspected CS with preserved ventricular function. METHODS: One hundred twenty consecutive patients with biopsy-proven extracardiac sarcoidosis and preserved LV/RV systolic function underwent EPS. All patients had either probable CS defined by an abnormal cardiac positron emission tomography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, or possible CS with normal advanced imaging but abnormal echocardiogram (ECG), SAECG, Holter, or clinical factors. Patients were followed for 4.5 ± 2.6 years for SCD and VAs. RESULTS: Seven of 120 patients (6%) had inducible ventricular tachycardia (VT) with EPS and received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Three patients (43%) with positive EPS later had ICD therapies for VAs. Kaplan-Meier analysis stratified by EPS demonstrated a significant difference in freedom from VAs and SCD (P = 0.009), though this finding was driven entirely by patients within the cohort with probable CS (P = 0.018, n = 69). One patient with possible CS and negative EPS had unrecognized progression of the disease and unexplained death with evidence of CS at autopsy. CONCLUSIONS: EPS is useful in the risk stratification of patients with probable CS with preserved LV and RV function. A positive EPS was associated with VAs. While a negative EPS appeared to confer low risk, close follow-up is needed as EPS cannot predict fatal VAs related to new cardiac involvement or disease progression.

13.
J Arrhythm ; 35(3): 323-484, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293696

RESUMO

Ventricular arrhythmias are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and come in a variety of forms, from single premature ventricular complexes to sustained ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Rapid developments have taken place over the past decade in our understanding of these arrhythmias and in our ability to diagnose and treat them. The field of catheter ablation has progressed with the development of new methods and tools, and with the publication of large clinical trials. Therefore, global cardiac electrophysiology professional societies undertook to outline recommendations and best practices for these procedures in a document that will update and replace the 2009 EHRA/HRS Expert Consensus on Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias. An expert writing group, after reviewing and discussing the literature, including a systematic review and meta-analysis published in conjunction with this document, and drawing on their own experience, drafted and voted on recommendations and summarized current knowledge and practice in the field. Each recommendation is presented in knowledge byte format and is accompanied by supportive text and references. Further sections provide a practical synopsis of the various techniques and of the specific ventricular arrhythmia sites and substrates encountered in the electrophysiology lab. The purpose of this document is to help electrophysiologists around the world to appropriately select patients for catheter ablation, to perform procedures in a safe and efficacious manner, and to provide follow-up and adjunctive care in order to obtain the best possible outcomes for patients with ventricular arrhythmias.

15.
Europace ; 21(8): 1143-1144, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075787

RESUMO

Ventricular arrhythmias are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and come in a variety of forms, from single premature ventricular complexes to sustained ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Rapid developments have taken place over the past decade in our understanding of these arrhythmias and in our ability to diagnose and treat them. The field of catheter ablation has progressed with the development of new methods and tools, and with the publication of large clinical trials. Therefore, global cardiac electrophysiology professional societies undertook to outline recommendations and best practices for these procedures in a document that will update and replace the 2009 EHRA/HRS Expert Consensus on Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias. An expert writing group, after reviewing and discussing the literature, including a systematic review and meta-analysis published in conjunction with this document, and drawing on their own experience, drafted and voted on recommendations and summarized current knowledge and practice in the field. Each recommendation is presented in knowledge byte format and is accompanied by supportive text and references. Further sections provide a practical synopsis of the various techniques and of the specific ventricular arrhythmia sites and substrates encountered in the electrophysiology lab. The purpose of this document is to help electrophysiologists around the world to appropriately select patients for catheter ablation, to perform procedures in a safe and efficacious manner, and to provide follow-up and adjunctive care in order to obtain the best possible outcomes for patients with ventricular arrhythmias.

16.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(9): 1560-1568, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is frequently encountered in patients with repaired and unrepaired congenital heart disease (CHD), causing significant morbidity and sudden cardiac death. Data regarding underlying VT mechanisms and optimal ablation strategies in these patients remain limited. OBJECTIVE: To describe the electrophysiologic mechanisms, ablation strategies, and long-term outcomes in patients with CHD undergoing VT ablation. METHODS: Forty-eight patients (mean age 41.3 ± 13.3 years, 77.1% male) with CHD underwent a total of 57 VT ablation procedures at two centers from 2000 to 2017. Electrophysiologic and follow-up data were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 77 different VTs induced at initial or repeat ablation, the underlying mechanism in 62 (81.0%) was due to scar-related re-entry; the remaining included four His-Purkinje system-related macrore-entry VTs and focal VTs mainly originating from the outflow tract region (8 of 11, 72.7%). VT-free survival after a single procedure was 72.9% (35 of 48) at a median follow-up of 53 months. VT-free survival after multiple procedures was 85.4% (41 of 48) at a median follow-up of 52 months. There were no major complications. Three patients died during the follow-up period from nonarrhythmic causes, including heart failure and cardiac surgery complication. CONCLUSION: While scar-related re-entry is the most common VT mechanism in patients with CHD, importantly, nonscar-related VT may also be present. In experienced tertiary care centers, ablation of both scar-related and nonscar-related VT in patients with CHD is safe, feasible, and effective over long-term follow-up.

17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(20): 2538-2547, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-grade atrioventricular block (H-AVB) is a well-described in-hospital complication of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Delayed high-grade atrioventricular block (DH-AVB) has not been systematically studied among outpatients post-TAVR, using latest-generation TAVR technology and in the early post-TAVR discharge era. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess utility of ambulatory event monitoring (AEM) in identifying post-TAVR DH-AVB and associated risk factors. METHODS: Patients without pre-existing pacing device undergoing TAVR at the University of Colorado Hospital from October 2016 to March 2018, and who did not require permanent pacemaker implantation pre-discharge, were discharged with 30-day AEM to assess for DH-AVB (≥2 days post-TAVR). Clinical and follow-up data were collected and compared among those without incident H-AVB. RESULTS: Among 150 consecutive TAVR patients without a prior pacing device, 18 (12%) developed H-AVB necessitating permanent pacemaker <2 days post-TAVR, 1 died pre-discharge, and 13 declined AEM; 118 had 30-day AEM data. DH-AVB occurred in 12 (10% of AEM patients, 8% of total cohort) a median of 6 days (range 3 to 24 days) post-TAVR. DH-AVB versus non-AVB patients were more likely to have hypertension and right bundle branch block (RBBB). Sensitivity and specificity of RBBB in predicting DH-AVB was 27% and 94%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: DH-AVB is an underappreciated complication of TAVR among patients without pre-procedure pacing devices, occurring at rates similar to in-hospital, acute post-TAVR H-AVB. RBBB is a risk factor for DH-AVB but has poor sensitivity, and other predictors remain unclear. In this single-center analysis, AEM was helpful in expeditious identification and treatment of 10% of post-TAVR outpatients. Prospective study is needed to clarify incidence, risk factors, and patient selection for outpatient monitoring.

20.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 32(5): 553-579, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744922

RESUMO

This document is the second of 2 companion appropriate use criteria (AUC) documents developed by the American College of Cardiology, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. The first document1 addresses the evaluation and use of multimodality imaging in the diagnosis and management of valvular heart disease, whereas this document addresses this topic with regard to structural (nonvalvular) heart disease. While dealing with different subjects, the 2 documents do share a common structure and feature some clinical overlap. The goal of the companion AUC documents is to provide a comprehensive resource for multimodality imaging in the context of structural and valvular heart disease, encompassing multiple imaging modalities. Using standardized methodology, the clinical scenarios (indications) were developed by a diverse writing group to represent patient presentations encountered in everyday practice and included common applications and anticipated uses. Where appropriate, the scenarios were developed on the basis of the most current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Clinical Practice Guidelines. A separate, independent rating panel scored the 102 clinical scenarios in this document on a scale of 1 to 9. Scores of 7 to 9 indicate that a modality is considered appropriate for the clinical scenario presented. Midrange scores of 4 to 6 indicate that a modality may be appropriate for the clinical scenario, and scores of 1 to 3 indicate that a modality is considered rarely appropriate for the clinical scenario. The primary objective of the AUC is to provide a framework for the assessment of these scenarios by practices that will improve and standardize physician decision making. AUC publications reflect an ongoing effort by the American College of Cardiology to critically and systematically create, review, and categorize clinical situations in which diagnostic tests and procedures are utilized by physicians caring for patients with cardiovascular diseases. The process is based on the current understanding of the technical capabilities of the imaging modalities examined.

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