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1.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684367

RESUMO

The Mediterranean diet is commonly proposed as a major modifiable protective factor that may delay cognitive impairment in the elderly. The aim of the study was to investigate the cross-sectional association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with cognitive abilities in a younger Greek population. A total of 1201 healthy adults aged 21-77 years (mean: 47.8) from the Epirus Health Study cohort were included in the analysis. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was measured using the 14-point Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) and cognition was measured using the Trail Making Test, the Verbal Fluency test and the Logical Memory test. Statistical analysis was performed using multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity. Overall, no association was found between the MEDAS score and cognitive tests, which could be explained by the young mean age and high level of education of the participants. Future studies should target young and middle-aged individuals to gain further understanding of the association between Mediterranean diet and cognition in this age group.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445018

RESUMO

We describe the profile of dietary supplement use and its correlates in the Epirus Health Study cohort, which consists of 1237 adults (60.5% women) residing in urban north-west Greece. The association between dietary supplement use and demographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviors, personal medical history and clinical measurements was assessed using logistic regression models, separately for women and men. The overall prevalence of dietary supplement use was 31.4%, and it was higher in women (37.3%) compared to men (22.4%; p-value = 4.2-08). Based on multivariable logistic regression models, dietary supplement use in women was associated with age (positively until middle-age and slightly negatively afterwards), the presence of a chronic health condition (OR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.18-2.46), lost/removed teeth (OR = 0.52; 95% CI, 0.35-0.78) and diastolic blood pressure (OR per 5 mmHg increase =0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.96); body mass index and worse general health status were borderline inversely associated. In men, dietary supplement use was positively associated with being employed (OR = 2.53; 95% CI, 1.21-5.29). A considerable proportion of our sample used dietary supplements, and the associated factors differed between women and men.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Feminino , Grécia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
3.
Environ Pollut ; 285: 117376, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380208

RESUMO

Despite the abundance of epidemiological evidence concerning the association between pesticide exposure and adverse health outcomes including acute childhood leukemia (AL), evidence remains inconclusive, and is inherently limited by heterogeneous exposure assessment and multiple statistical testing. We performed a literature search of peer-reviewed studies, published until January 2021, without language restrictions. Summary odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived from stratified random-effects meta-analyses by type of exposure and outcome, exposed populations and window of exposure to address the large heterogeneity of existing literature. Heterogeneity and small-study effects were also assessed. We identified 55 eligible studies (n = 48 case-control and n = 7 cohorts) from over 30 countries assessing >200 different exposures of pesticides (n = 160,924 participants). The summary OR for maternal environmental exposure to pesticides (broad term) during pregnancy and AL was 1.88 (95%CI: 1.15-3.08), reaching 2.51 for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; 95%CI: 1.39-4.55). Analysis by pesticide subtype yielded an increased risk for maternal herbicide (OR: 1.41, 95%CI: 1.00-1.99) and insecticide (OR: 1.60, 95%CI: 1.11-2.29) exposure during pregnancy and AL without heterogeneity (p = 0.12-0.34). Meta-analyses of infant leukemia were only feasible for maternal exposure to pesticides during pregnancy. Higher magnitude risks were observed for maternal pesticide exposure and infant ALL (OR: 2.18, 95%CI: 1.44-3.29), and the highest for infant acute myeloid leukemia (OR: 3.42, 95%CI: 1.98-5.91). Overall, the associations were stronger for maternal exposure during pregnancy compared to childhood exposure. For occupational or mixed exposures, parental, and specifically paternal, pesticide exposure was significantly associated with increased risk of AL (ORparental: 1.75, 95%CI: 1.08-2.85; ORpaternal: 1.20, 95%CI: 1.07-1.35). The epidemiological evidence, supported by mechanistic studies, suggests that pesticide exposure, mainly during pregnancy, increases the risk of childhood leukemia, particularly among infants. Sufficiently powered studies using repeated biomarker analyses are needed to confirm whether there is public health merit in reducing prenatal pesticide exposure.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Praguicidas , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Exposição Paterna , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/induzido quimicamente , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
4.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 157, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The validity of observational studies and their meta-analyses is contested. Here, we aimed to appraise thousands of meta-analyses of observational studies using a pre-specified set of quantitative criteria that assess the significance, amount, consistency, and bias of the evidence. We also aimed to compare results from meta-analyses of observational studies against meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and Mendelian randomization (MR) studies. METHODS: We retrieved from PubMed (last update, November 19, 2020) umbrella reviews including meta-analyses of observational studies assessing putative risk or protective factors, regardless of the nature of the exposure and health outcome. We extracted information on 7 quantitative criteria that reflect the level of statistical support, the amount of data, the consistency across different studies, and hints pointing to potential bias. These criteria were level of statistical significance (pre-categorized according to 10-6, 0.001, and 0.05 p-value thresholds), sample size, statistical significance for the largest study, 95% prediction intervals, between-study heterogeneity, and the results of tests for small study effects and for excess significance. RESULTS: 3744 associations (in 57 umbrella reviews) assessed by a median number of 7 (interquartile range 4 to 11) observational studies were eligible. Most associations were statistically significant at P < 0.05 (61.1%, 2289/3744). Only 2.6% of associations had P < 10-6, ≥1000 cases (or ≥20,000 participants for continuous factors), P < 0.05 in the largest study, 95% prediction interval excluding the null, and no large between-study heterogeneity, small study effects, or excess significance. Across the 57 topics, large heterogeneity was observed in the proportion of associations fulfilling various quantitative criteria. The quantitative criteria were mostly independent from one another. Across 62 associations assessed in both RCTs and in observational studies, 37.1% had effect estimates in opposite directions and 43.5% had effect estimates differing beyond chance in the two designs. Across 94 comparisons assessed in both MR and observational studies, such discrepancies occurred in 30.8% and 54.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Acknowledging that no gold-standard exists to judge whether an observational association is genuine, statistically significant results are common in observational studies, but they are rarely convincing or corroborated by randomized evidence.


Assuntos
Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Humanos , Fatores de Proteção
5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1125, 2021 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the level of knowledge and trust in the policy decisions taken regarding the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic among Epirus Health Study (EHS) participants. METHODS: The EHS is an ongoing and deeply-phenotyped prospective cohort study that has recruited 667 participants in northwest Greece until August 31st, 2020. Level of knowledge on coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) transmission and COVID-19 severity was labeled as poor, moderate or good. Variables assessing knowledge and beliefs towards the pandemic were summarized overall and by sex, age group (25-39, 40-49, 50-59, ≥60 years) and period of report (before the lifting of lockdown measures in Greece: March 30th to May 3rd, and two post-lockdown time periods: May 4th to June 31st, July 1st to August 31st). A hypothesis generating exposure-wide association analysis was conducted to evaluate the associations between 153 agnostically-selected explanatory variables and participants' knowledge. Correction for multiple comparisons was applied using a false discovery rate (FDR) threshold of 5%. RESULTS: A total of 563 participants (49 years mean age; 60% women) had available information on the standard EHS questionnaire, the clinical and biochemical measurements, and the COVID-19-related questionnaire. Percentages of poor, moderate and good knowledge status regarding COVID-19 were 4.5, 10.0 and 85.6%, respectively. The majority of participants showed absolute or moderate trust in the Greek health authorities for the management of the epidemic (90.1%), as well as in the Greek Government (84.7%) and the official national sources of information (87.4%). Trust in the authorities was weaker in younger participants and those who joined the study after the lifting of lockdown measures (p-value≤0.001). None of the factors examined was associated with participants' level of knowledge after correction for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: High level of knowledge about the COVID-19 pandemic and trust in the Greek authorities was observed, possibly due to the plethora of good quality publicly available information and the timely management of the pandemic at its early stages in Greece. Information campaigns for the COVID-19 pandemic should be encouraged even after the lifting of lockdown measures to increase public awareness.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Estudos de Coortes , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Confiança
6.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172467

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The individual prognostic factors for COVID-19 are unclear. For this reason, we aimed to present a state-of-the-art systematic review and meta-analysis on the prognostic factors for adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We systematically reviewed PubMed from January 1, 2020 to July 26, 2020 to identify non-overlapping studies examining the association of any prognostic factor with any adverse outcome in patients with COVID-19. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed, and between-study heterogeneity was quantified using I2 metric. Presence of small-study effects was assessed by applying the Egger's regression test. RESULTS: We identified 428 eligible articles, which were used in a total of 263 meta-analyses examining the association of 91 unique prognostic factors with 11 outcomes. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, obstructive sleep apnea, pharyngalgia, history of venous thromboembolism, sex, coronary heart disease, cancer, chronic liver disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dementia, any immunosuppressive medication, peripheral arterial disease, rheumatological disease and smoking were associated with at least one outcome and had >1000 events, p-value <0.005, I2 <50%, 95% prediction interval excluding the null value, and absence of small-study effects in the respective meta-analysis. The risk of bias assessment using the Quality In Prognosis Studies tool indicated high risk of bias in 302 of 428 articles for study participation, 389 articles for adjustment for other prognostic factors, and 396 articles for statistical analysis and reporting. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings could be used for prognostic model building and guide patients' selection for randomised clinical trials.

7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(3): 893-906, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Choline is an essential nutrient; however, the associations of choline and its related metabolites with cardiometabolic risk remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of circulating choline, betaine, carnitine, and dimethylglycine (DMG) with cardiometabolic biomarkers and their potential dietary and nondietary determinants. METHODS: The cross-sectional analyses included 32,853 participants from 17 studies, who were free of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney diseases, and inflammatory bowel disease. In each study, metabolites and biomarkers were log-transformed and standardized by means and SDs, and linear regression coefficients (ß) and 95% CIs were estimated with adjustments for potential confounders. Study-specific results were combined by random-effects meta-analyses. A false discovery rate <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: We observed moderate positive associations of circulating choline, carnitine, and DMG with creatinine [ß (95% CI): 0.136 (0.084, 0.188), 0.106 (0.045, 0.168), and 0.128 (0.087, 0.169), respectively, for each SD increase in biomarkers on the log scale], carnitine with triglycerides (ß = 0.076; 95% CI: 0.042, 0.109), homocysteine (ß = 0.064; 95% CI: 0.033, 0.095), and LDL cholesterol (ß = 0.055; 95% CI: 0.013, 0.096), DMG with homocysteine (ß = 0.068; 95% CI: 0.023, 0.114), insulin (ß = 0.068; 95% CI: 0.043, 0.093), and IL-6 (ß = 0.060; 95% CI: 0.027, 0.094), but moderate inverse associations of betaine with triglycerides (ß = -0.146; 95% CI: -0.188, -0.104), insulin (ß = -0.106; 95% CI: -0.130, -0.082), homocysteine (ß = -0.097; 95% CI: -0.149, -0.045), and total cholesterol (ß = -0.074; 95% CI: -0.102, -0.047). In the whole pooled population, no dietary factor was associated with circulating choline; red meat intake was associated with circulating carnitine [ß = 0.092 (0.042, 0.142) for a 1 serving/d increase], whereas plant protein was associated with circulating betaine [ß = 0.249 (0.110, 0.388) for a 5% energy increase]. Demographics, lifestyle, and metabolic disease history showed differential associations with these metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating choline, carnitine, and DMG were associated with unfavorable cardiometabolic risk profiles, whereas circulating betaine was associated with a favorable cardiometabolic risk profile. Future prospective studies are needed to examine the associations of these metabolites with incident cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Betaína/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Carnitina/sangue , Colina/sangue , Sarcosina/análogos & derivados , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Humanos , Sarcosina/sangue
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2579, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972514

RESUMO

Serum concentration of hepatic enzymes are linked to liver dysfunction, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We perform genetic analysis on serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) using data on 437,438 UK Biobank participants. Replication in 315,572 individuals from European descent from the Million Veteran Program, Rotterdam Study and Lifeline study confirms 517 liver enzyme SNPs. Genetic risk score analysis using the identified SNPs is strongly associated with serum activity of liver enzymes in two independent European descent studies (The Airwave Health Monitoring study and the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966). Gene-set enrichment analysis using the identified SNPs highlights involvement in liver development and function, lipid metabolism, insulin resistance, and vascular formation. Mendelian randomization analysis shows association of liver enzyme variants with coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke. Genetic risk score for elevated serum activity of liver enzymes is associated with higher fat percentage of body, trunk, and liver and body mass index. Our study highlights the role of molecular pathways regulated by the liver in metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Fígado/enzimologia , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , gama-Glutamiltransferase/genética , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/enzimologia , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Doenças Metabólicas/enzimologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue
9.
Diabetes Care ; 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035076

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes is an established risk factor for dementia. However, the roles of glycemic control and diabetic complications in the development of dementia have been less well substantiated. This large-scale cohort study aims to examine associations of longitudinal HbA1c levels and diabetic complications with the risk of dementia incidence among patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data of eligible patients with diabetes, aged ≥50 years in the U.K. Clinical Practice Research Datalink from 1987 to 2018, were analyzed. Time-varying Cox regressions were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for dementia risk. RESULTS: Among 457,902 patients with diabetes, 28,627 (6.3%) incident dementia cases were observed during a median of 6 years' follow-up. Patients with recorded hypoglycemic events or microvascular complications were at higher risk of dementia incidence compared with those without such complications (HR 1.30 [95% CI 1.22-1.39] and 1.10 [1.06-1.14], respectively). The HbA1c level, modeled as a time-varying exposure, was associated with increased dementia risk (HR 1.08 [95% CI 1.07-1.09] per 1% HbA1c increment) among 372,287 patients with diabetes with postdiagnosis HbA1c records. Similarly, a higher coefficient of variation of HbA1c during the initial 3 years of follow-up was associated with higher subsequent dementia risk (HR 1.03 [95% CI 1.01-1.04] per 1-SD increment). CONCLUSIONS: Higher or unstable HbA1c levels and the presence of diabetic complications in patients with type 2 diabetes are associated with increased dementia risk. Effective management of glycemia might have a significant role in maintaining cognitive health among older adults with diabetes.

10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(5): 1145-1156, 2021 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a diet-derived, gut microbial-host cometabolite, has been linked to cardiometabolic diseases. However, the relations remain unclear between diet, TMAO, and cardiometabolic health in general populations from different regions and ethnicities. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of circulating TMAO with dietary and cardiometabolic factors in a pooled analysis of 16 population-based studies from the United States, Europe, and Asia. METHODS: Included were 32,166 adults (16,269 white, 13,293 Asian, 1247 Hispanic/Latino, 1236 black, and 121 others) without cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic kidney disease, or inflammatory bowel disease. Linear regression coefficients (ß) were computed for standardized TMAO with harmonized variables. Study-specific results were combined by random-effects meta-analysis. A false discovery rate <0.10 was considered significant. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, circulating TMAO was associated with intakes of animal protein and saturated fat (ß = 0.124 and 0.058, respectively, for a 5% energy increase) and with shellfish, total fish, eggs, and red meat (ß = 0.370, 0.151, 0.081, and 0.056, respectively, for a 1 serving/d increase). Plant protein and nuts showed inverse associations (ß = -0.126 for a 5% energy increase from plant protein and -0.123 for a 1 serving/d increase of nuts). Although the animal protein-TMAO association was consistent across populations, fish and shellfish associations were stronger in Asians (ß = 0.285 and 0.578), and egg and red meat associations were more prominent in Americans (ß = 0.153 and 0.093). Besides, circulating TMAO was positively associated with creatinine (ß = 0.131 SD increase in log-TMAO), homocysteine (ß = 0.065), insulin (ß = 0.048), glycated hemoglobin (ß = 0.048), and glucose (ß = 0.023), whereas it was inversely associated with HDL cholesterol (ß = -0.047) and blood pressure (ß = -0.030). Each TMAO-biomarker association remained significant after further adjusting for creatinine and was robust in subgroup/sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In an international, consortium-based study, animal protein was consistently associated with increased circulating TMAO, whereas TMAO associations with fish, shellfish, eggs, and red meat varied among populations. The adverse associations of TMAO with certain cardiometabolic biomarkers, independent of renal function, warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Dieta , Metabolismo Energético , Metilaminas/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Saúde Global , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Oxidantes/sangue
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Evidence regarding the association of dietary exposures with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is not consistent with a few exceptions. Therefore, we conducted a diet-wide association study (DWAS) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate the associations between several dietary exposures with CRC risk. METHODS: The association of 92 food and nutrient intakes with CRC risk was assessed in 386,792 participants, 5069 of whom developed incident CRC. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using the false discovery rate, and emerging associations were examined in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). Multiplicative gene-nutrient interactions were also tested in EPIC based on known CRC-associated loci. RESULTS: In EPIC, alcohol, liquor/spirits, wine, beer/cider, soft drinks, and pork were positively associated with CRC, whereas milk, cheese, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, vitamin B6, beta carotene, fruit, fiber, nonwhite bread, banana, and total protein intakes were inversely associated. Of these 20 associations, 13 were replicated in the NLCS, for which a meta-analysis was performed, namely alcohol (summary hazard ratio [HR] per 1-SD increment in intake: 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.09), liquor/spirits (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06), wine (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.07), beer/cider (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.08), milk (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), cheese (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), calcium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.95), phosphorus (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.90-0.95), magnesium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.98), potassium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), riboflavin (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97), beta carotene (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), and total protein (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97). None of the gene-nutrient interactions were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm a positive association for alcohol and an inverse association for dairy products and calcium with CRC risk, and also suggest a lower risk at higher dietary intakes of phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, beta carotene, and total protein.

12.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(10): 2679-2688, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no published data on Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) incidence in people over 65 years of age in Greece, relevant literature is scarce for Southern Europe, and reported rates worldwide show great variability. AIMS: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of MCI and its subtypes in the elderly population in Greece. METHODS: The incidence cohort of the HELIAD study (Hellenic Epidemiological Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet) comprised 955 individuals who received full neurological and neuropsychological evaluation on two separate occasions about three years apart. RESULTS: The MCI incidence rate in our cohort is 54.07 new cases per 1000 person-years, standardized by age and sex to 59.99. Each additional year of age over 65 raises the probability of novel MCI by 6.2%, while lower educational attainment more than doubles the risk for incident MCI. Apolipoprotein E-ε4 (APOE-ε4) carriage results in increased risk for MCI by more than 1.7 times. Incidence rates for amnestic MCI are slightly higher than for the non-amnestic subtype, and AD is the most common potential underlying etiology. DISCUSSION: The MCI incidence rate in the Greek population over 65 years of age is 54/1000 person-years. Advanced age and APOE-ε4 carriage are predisposing factors, while higher educational attainment was found to exert a protective effect. CONCLUSIONS: MCI incidence in people over 65 years-old in Greece is consistent with reported rates around the world. Larger studies encompassing neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers will hopefully shed more light on MCI epidemiology in Greece in the future.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Idoso , Apolipoproteína E4 , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Testes Neuropsicológicos
13.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(7): e13536, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective was to capture the breadth of outcomes that have been associated with metformin use and to systematically assess the quality, strength and credibility of these associations using the umbrella review methodology. METHODS: Four major databases were searched until 31 May 2020. Meta-analyses of observational studies and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (including active and placebo control arms) were included. RESULTS: From 175 eligible publications, we identified 427 different meta-analyses, including 167 meta-analyses of observational studies, 147 meta-analyses of RCTs for metformin vs placebo/no treatment and 113 meta-analyses of RCTs for metformin vs active medications. There was no association classified as convincing or highly suggestive from meta-analyses of observational studies, but some suggestive/weak associations of metformin use with a lower mortality risk of CVD and cancer. In meta-analyses of RCTs, metformin was associated with a lower incidence of diabetes in people with prediabetes or no diabetes at baseline; lower ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome incidence (in women in controlled ovarian stimulation); higher success for clinical pregnancy rate in poly-cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS); and significant reduction in body mass index in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus, in women who have obesity/overweight with PCOS and in obese/overweight women. Of 175 publications, 166 scored as low or critically low quality per AMSTAR 2 criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Observational evidence on metformin seems largely unreliable. Randomized evidence shows benefits for preventing diabetes and in some gynaecological and obstetrical settings. However, almost all meta-analyses are of low or critically low quality according to AMSTAR 2 criteria.

14.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(3): 299-309, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587202

RESUMO

Most studies of severe/fatal COVID-19 risk have used routine/hospitalisation data without detailed pre-morbid characterisation. Using the community-based UK Biobank cohort, we investigate risk factors for COVID-19 mortality in comparison with non-COVID-19 mortality. We investigated demographic, social (education, income, housing, employment), lifestyle (smoking, drinking, body mass index), biological (lipids, cystatin C, vitamin D), medical (comorbidities, medications) and environmental (air pollution) data from UK Biobank (N = 473,550) in relation to 459 COVID-19 and 2626 non-COVID-19 deaths to 21 September 2020. We used univariate, multivariable and penalised regression models. Age (OR = 2.76 [2.18-3.49] per S.D. [8.1 years], p = 2.6 × 10-17), male sex (OR = 1.47 [1.26-1.73], p = 1.3 × 10-6) and Black versus White ethnicity (OR = 1.21 [1.12-1.29], p = 3.0 × 10-7) were independently associated with and jointly explanatory of (area under receiver operating characteristic curve, AUC = 0.79) increased risk of COVID-19 mortality. In multivariable regression, alongside demographic covariates, being a healthcare worker, current smoker, having cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, autoimmune disease, and oral steroid use at enrolment were independently associated with COVID-19 mortality. Penalised regression models selected income, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cystatin C, and oral steroid use as jointly contributing to COVID-19 mortality risk; Black ethnicity, hypertension and oral steroid use contributed to COVID-19 but not non-COVID-19 mortality. Age, male sex and Black ethnicity, as well as comorbidities and oral steroid use at enrolment were associated with increased risk of COVID-19 death. Our results suggest that previously reported associations of COVID-19 mortality with body mass index, low vitamin D, air pollutants, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors may be explained by the aforementioned factors.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , COVID-19/mortalidade , Comorbidade , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
15.
Diabetes Care ; 44(4): 935-943, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563654

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish a polyexposure score (PXS) for type 2 diabetes (T2D) incorporating 12 nongenetic exposures and examine whether a PXS and/or a polygenic risk score (PGS) improves diabetes prediction beyond traditional clinical risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We identified 356,621 unrelated individuals from the UK Biobank of White British ancestry with no prior diagnosis of T2D and normal HbA1c levels. Using self-reported and hospital admission information, we deployed a machine learning procedure to select the most predictive and robust factors out of 111 nongenetically ascertained exposure and lifestyle variables for the PXS in prospective T2D. We computed the clinical risk score (CRS) and PGS by taking a weighted sum of eight established clinical risk factors and >6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms, respectively. RESULTS: In the study population, 7,513 had incident T2D. The C-statistics for the PGS, PXS, and CRS models were 0.709, 0.762, and 0.839, respectively. Individuals in the top 10% of PGS, PXS, and CRS had 2.00-, 5.90-, and 9.97-fold greater risk, respectively, compared to the remaining population. Addition of PGS and PXS to CRS improved T2D classification accuracy, with a continuous net reclassification index of 15.2% and 30.1% for cases, respectively, and 7.3% and 16.9% for controls, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: For T2D, the PXS provides modest incremental predictive value over established clinical risk factors. However, the concept of PXS merits further consideration in T2D risk stratification and is likely to be useful in other chronic disease risk prediction models.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Heart ; 107(14): 1123-1129, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608305

RESUMO

Metabolomics, the comprehensive measurement of low-molecular-weight molecules in biological fluids used for metabolic phenotyping, has emerged as a promising tool to better understand pathways underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to improve cardiovascular risk stratification. Here, we present the main methodologies for metabolic phenotyping, the methodological steps to analyse these data in epidemiological settings and the associated challenges. We discuss evidence from epidemiological studies linking metabolites to coronary heart disease and stroke. These studies indicate the systemic nature of CVD and identify associated metabolic pathways such as gut microbial cometabolism, branched-chain amino acids, glycerophospholipid and cholesterol metabolism, as well as activation of inflammatory processes. Integration of metabolomic with genomic data can provide new evidence for involved biochemical pathways and potential for causality using Mendelian randomisation. The clinical utility of metabolic biomarkers for cardiovascular risk stratification in healthy individuals has not yet been established. As sample sizes with high-dimensional molecular data increase in epidemiological settings, integration of metabolomic data across studies and platforms with other molecular data will lead to new understanding of the metabolic processes underlying CVD and contribute to identification of potentially novel preventive and pharmacological targets. Metabolic phenotyping offers a powerful tool in the characterisation of the molecular signatures of CVD, paving the way to new mechanistic understanding and therapies, as well as improving risk prediction of CVD patients. However, there are still challenges to face in order to contribute to clinically important improvements in CVD.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 148(3): 646-653, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761610

RESUMO

The epidemiological literature reports inconsistent associations between consumption or circulating concentrations of micronutrients and breast cancer risk. We investigated associations between genetically predicted concentrations of 11 micronutrients (beta-carotene, calcium, copper, folate, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, vitamin B6 , vitamin B12 and zinc) and breast cancer risk using Mendelian randomization (MR). A two-sample MR study was conducted using 122 977 women with breast cancer and 105 974 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. MR analyses were conducted using the inverse variance-weighted approach, and sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the impact of potential violations of MR assumptions. A value of 1 SD (SD: 0.08 mmol/L) higher genetically predicted concentration of magnesium was associated with a 17% (odds ratio [OR]: 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-1.25, P value = 9.1 × 10-7 ) and 20% (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.08-1.34, P value = 3.2 × 10-6 ) higher risk of overall and ER+ve breast cancer, respectively. An inverse association was observed for a SD (0.5 mg/dL) higher genetically predicted phosphorus concentration and ER-ve breast cancer (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.72-0.98, P value = .03). There was little evidence that any other nutrient was associated with breast cancer. The results for magnesium were robust under all sensitivity analyses and survived correction for multiple comparisons. Higher circulating concentrations of magnesium and potentially phosphorus may affect breast cancer risk. Further work is required to replicate these findings and investigate underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Micronutrientes/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Magnésio/sangue , Epidemiologia Molecular , Fósforo/sangue , Receptores de Estrogênio/genética
18.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(1): 11-36, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978716

RESUMO

C-reactive protein (CRP) has been studied extensively for association with a large number of non-infectious diseases and outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the breadth and validity of associations between CRP and non-infectious, chronic health outcomes and biomarkers. We conducted an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses and a systematic review of Mendelian randomization (MR) studies. PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were systematically searched from inception up to March 2019. Meta-analyses of observational studies and MR studies examining associations between CRP and health outcomes were identified, excluding studies on the diagnostic value of CRP for infections. We found 113 meta-analytic comparisons of observational studies and 196 MR analyses, covering a wide range of outcomes. The overwhelming majority of the meta-analyses of observational studies reported a nominally statistically significant result (95/113, 84.1%); however, the majority of the meta-analyses displayed substantial heterogeneity (47.8%), small study effects (39.8%) or excess significance (41.6%). Only two outcomes, cardiovascular mortality and venous thromboembolism, showed convincing evidence of association with CRP levels. When examining the MR literature, we found MR studies for 53/113 outcomes examined in the observational study meta-analyses but substantial support for a causal association with CRP was not observed for any phenotype. Despite the striking amount of research on CRP, convincing evidence for associations and causal effects is remarkably limited.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Metanálise como Assunto , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
19.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord ; 35(1): 48-54, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009037

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recently a declining trend in dementia incidence rates has been reported in high-income countries. We investigated dementia incidence in a representative sample of the Greek population in the age group of 65 years and above. METHODS: This research is part of the Hellenic Epidemiological Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet (HELIAD). The incidence cohort consisted of 1072 participants who were reevaluated after a mean period of 3.09 years. RESULTS: The incidence rate of dementia was 19.0 cases per 1000 person-years (age-standardized and sex-standardized incidence: 25.4/1000 person-years), of which 16.3 per 1000 person-years were attributable to Alzheimer disease. Each additional year of age increased dementia risk by 19.3% and each additional year of education decreased dementia risk by 12.1%. Apolipoprotein E (APOE)-ε4 homozygous participants were 18 times more likely to be diagnosed with dementia. A baseline diagnosis of mild cognitive decline (MCI) resulted in a risk for dementia increased by 3.7 times compared with the cognitively normal; in participants with MCI at baseline, APOE-ε4 carriage increased dementia risk by 4.5 times. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate of dementia in people 65 years and above in Greece is generally consistent with recently published rates in Europe and North America. Advancing age, baseline MCI, and APOE-ε4 homozygosity are risk factors, while higher educational attainment seems protective.

20.
Int J Cancer ; 148(7): 1637-1651, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038275

RESUMO

Obesity is a risk factor for several major cancers. Associations of weight change in middle adulthood with cancer risk, however, are less clear. We examined the association of change in weight and body mass index (BMI) category during middle adulthood with 42 cancers, using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Of 241 323 participants (31% men), 20% lost and 32% gained weight (>0.4 to 5.0 kg/year) during 6.9 years (average). During 8.0 years of follow-up after the second weight assessment, 20 960 incident cancers were ascertained. Independent of baseline BMI, weight gain (per one kg/year increment) was positively associated with cancer of the corpus uteri (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.14; 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.23). Compared to stable weight (±0.4 kg/year), weight gain (>0.4 to 5.0 kg/year) was positively associated with cancers of the gallbladder and bile ducts (HR = 1.41; 1.01-1.96), postmenopausal breast (HR = 1.08; 1.00-1.16) and thyroid (HR = 1.40; 1.04-1.90). Compared to maintaining normal weight, maintaining overweight or obese BMI (World Health Organisation categories) was positively associated with most obesity-related cancers. Compared to maintaining the baseline BMI category, weight gain to a higher BMI category was positively associated with cancers of the postmenopausal breast (HR = 1.19; 1.06-1.33), ovary (HR = 1.40; 1.04-1.91), corpus uteri (HR = 1.42; 1.06-1.91), kidney (HR = 1.80; 1.20-2.68) and pancreas in men (HR = 1.81; 1.11-2.95). Losing weight to a lower BMI category, however, was inversely associated with cancers of the corpus uteri (HR = 0.40; 0.23-0.69) and colon (HR = 0.69; 0.52-0.92). Our findings support avoiding weight gain and encouraging weight loss in middle adulthood.

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