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1.
Microorganisms ; 9(2)2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670245

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of different levels of soil- and plant-associated bacterial diversity on the rates of litter decomposition, and bacterial community dynamics during its early phases. We performed an incubation experiment where soil bacterial diversity (but not abundance) was manipulated by autoclaving and reinoculation. Natural or autoclaved maize leaves were applied to the soils and incubated for 6 weeks. Bacterial diversity was assessed before and during litter decomposition using 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding. We found a positive correlation between litter decomposition rates and soil bacterial diversity. The soil with the highest bacterial diversity was dominated by oligotrophic bacteria including Acidobacteria, Nitrospiraceae, and Gaiellaceae, and its community composition did not change during the incubation. In the less diverse soils, those taxa were absent but were replaced by copiotrophic bacteria, such as Caulobacteraceae and Beijerinckiaceae, until the end of the incubation period. SourceTracker analysis revealed that litter-associated bacteria, such as Beijerinckiaceae, only became part of the bacterial communities in the less diverse soils. This suggests a pivotal role of oligotrophic bacteria during the early phases of litter decomposition and the predominance of copiotrophic bacteria at low diversity.

2.
Arerugi ; 70(1): 33-38, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597344

RESUMO

Although an important cause of vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is psychogenic reaction, VCD may be associated with severe asthma and must be distinguished from the disease. A 30-years-old woman was admitted to our hospital with dyspnea despite treatment for asthma. Inspiratory stridor and expiratory wheezes were noted, and neck and chest computed tomography showed normal airways and lungs. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels were also normal. Pulmonary function test with a flow-volume loop curve showed normal expiratory loop with flattening of the inspiratory loop after methacholine inhalation. During the attack, bronchoscopy revealed the vocal cord closing with stridor during the inspiratory phase. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with VCD. The dyspnea improved with respiratory rehabilitation and pursed-lip breathing. VCD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intractable severe asthma. In this case, bronchoscopy and bronchial inhalation challenge with methacholine helped in the diagnosis.


Assuntos
Asma , Disfunção da Prega Vocal , Adulto , Asma/diagnóstico , Testes de Provocação Brônquica , Broncoscopia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Disfunção da Prega Vocal/diagnóstico , Disfunção da Prega Vocal/etiologia , Prega Vocal
3.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245927, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493229

RESUMO

Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) with bilateral opacities causes fatalities in the intensive care unit (ICU). It is often difficult to identify the causes of AHRF at the time of admission. The SpO2 to FiO2 (S/F) ratio has been recently used as a non-invasive and alternative marker of the PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) ratio in acute respiratory failure. This retrospective cohort study was conducted from October 2010 to March 2019 at the Showa University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. We enrolled 94 AHRF patients who had bilateral opacities and received mechanical ventilation in ICU to investigate their prognostic markers including S/F ratio. Significant differences were observed for APACHE II, S/F ratio, PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) ratio, and ventilator-free-days at day 28 for ICU mortality, and for age, S/F ratio, P/F ratio, duration of mechanical ventilation, and ventilator-free days at day 28 for hospital mortality. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the S/F ratio was significantly and independently associated with the risk of death during in ICU (p = 0.003) and hospitalization (p = 0.002). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) based on the S/F ratio were significantly greater than those based on simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) for ICU mortality (0.785 in S/F ratio vs. 0.575 in SAPS II, p = 0.012; 0.785 in S/F ratio vs 0.594 in SOFA, p = 0.021) and for hospital mortality (0.701 in S/F ratio vs. 0.502 in SAPS II, p = 0.012; 0.701 in S/F ratio vs. 0.503 in SOFA, p = 0.005). In the subanalysis for bacterial pneumonia and interstitial lung disease groups, the AUC based on the S/F ratio was the greatest among all prognostic markers, including APACHE II, SAPS II, and SOFA. The S/F ratio may be a useful and noninvasive predictive prognostic marker for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure with bilateral opacities in the ICU.

4.
COPD ; 18(1): 83-90, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504227

RESUMO

The current chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management aims to improve the patients' quality of life and healthy life expectancy; however, few studies have evaluated the level of satisfaction with the patients' current respiratory status in COPD patients and their families. This study aimed to examine the level of patient and family satisfaction with the patients' current respiratory status and to identify the clinical factors closely linked to dissatisfaction.This multicenter, cross-sectional study included 454 outpatients with COPD and 296 family members. Patients and families were allocated to the satisfied and dissatisfied groups based on their satisfaction with the patients' current respiratory status. Patients' health status, dyspnoea, appetite, respiratory function, and mood disorders were assessed.Among the participants of this study, 67% of patients and 60% of their families were dissatisfied with the patients' current respiratory status. The COPD assessment test (CAT) was the most sensitive marker of dissatisfaction compared to other clinical factors (p < 0.01). The statistical cut-off value of CAT for predicting patient dissatisfaction was 11. CAT reflected patient dissatisfaction independent of age, sex, dyspnoea, appetite, mood disorders, body mass index, and respiratory function (odds ratio: CAT; 1.12 (1.07-1.19): p < 0.01).Many patients and families are dissatisfied with the patients' respiratory status, and the patients' CAT score is useful to predict dissatisfaction. Our findings are consistent with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease indicating that treatment should be enhanced in patients with a CAT score ≥10. Furthermore, treatment strategies targeting CAT may contribute to an improved patient satisfaction.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291546

RESUMO

Health risks due to heavy metal (HM) contamination is of global concern. Despite concerns of high levels of HMs in soils near Kabwe mine in Zambia, edible crop production is common, posing potential health risks. This study assessed the potential of chicken manure (CM), triple superphosphate (TSP) and a blended fertilizer (BF; consisting of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium (NPK) fertilizer and composted chicken manure) to reduce lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in soils and their accumulation in maize grown near the Kabwe mine. Maize was grown to maturity and its HM concentrations and associated health risk indices were calculated. All soil amendments decreased bioavailable soil Pb concentrations by 29-36%, but only CM decreased Zn, while the amendments increased or had no effect on Cd concentrations compared to the control. The amendments reduced Pb (>25%) and Zn concentrations (>18%) in the maize stover and grain. However, Cd concentrations in maize grain increased in the BF and TSP treatments. Bioaccumulation factors showed that Cd had the highest mobility from the soil into maize stover and grain, indicating the need for greater attention on Cd in Kabwe despite its apparently lower soil concentration compared to Pb and Zn. The hazard quotients for Pb and Cd were much greater than one, indicating a high risk of possible exposure to toxic levels by people consuming maize grain grown in this area. This study demonstrated the significant potential of manure and phosphate-based amendments to reduce Pb and Zn, and to some extent Cd, uptake in maize grain and consequently reduce associated health risks.

6.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(10)2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023085

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Incidence rates of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease have been increasing, especially in the elderly population. Given the limited evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of NTM treatment, this study aimed to evaluate the same among elderly patients. Material and methods: Patients diagnosed with NTM disease at a tertiary hospital from January 2007 to December 2017 were enrolled and data were then retrospectively collected. Data of elderly patients who received antimycobacterial treatment were then analyzed. Results: A total of 161 patients satisfied the diagnostic criteria for NTM disease. There were 40 elderly patients who received treatments. Of the patients, 60% received the guideline oriented standard regimens. Single drug regimens were administered to 22.5% of patients. Only 55.0% of the patients were able to continue any treatment. Treatment-related discontinuation was observed in 44.4% of discontinued or changed patients. There were no significant differences in the characteristics of patients with or without adverse events. Patients who were able to continue the treatment for >12 months had a lower proportion of activities of daily living (ADL) disability (nine in 18, 50.0% vs. three in 22, 13.6%, p = 0.018) and heart disease (six in 18, 33.3% vs. 1/22, 4.6%, p = 0.033). Sputum culture conversion was achieved in 28 out of 40 (70.0%) elderly patients treated, and those who achieved sputum culture conversion had more standard regimens prescribed than those who failed sputum culture conversion (21 in 28, 75% vs. 3 in 12, 25%; p = 0.005). Conclusion: Age may not be an obstacle for receiving the benefits of the treatment of NTM disease with a precise evaluation of patient's comorbidities. Furthermore, elderly patients without heart disease and ADL disability may have better rate of continuing the NTM treatment. The current study suggested that selecting standard regimens to treat pulmonary NTM is important for elderly patients.

7.
Arerugi ; 69(8): 683-688, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963192

RESUMO

The case involved a man in his forties. While working at the restaurant that the patient runs, the patient experienced a stab-like pain on the left shoulder and developed systemic pruritic eruptions. He was diagnosed with anaphylaxis upon visiting our emergency department. Conjunctival hyperemia, lip swelling, cold sweats, and nausea presented later. A cap fluorescence enzyme immunoassay using the serum of the patient showed specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) positivity for wasps; therefore, we hypothesized that he had anaphylaxis caused by the insect's sting. Insects of the same species as that by which the patient had been stung were collected and finally identified as the Asian needle ant (Brachyponera chinensis). The freeze-dried insects' bodies were sonicated into powders and stored for following examinations. Next, a basophil activation test was performed using the patient's whole blood treated with the reagent above, which showed positivity. Furthermore, a skin prick test using the same reagent showed a positive result, and the reaction increased in a concentrationdependent manner. Based on these results, the patient was diagnosed with anaphylaxis after a sting by the ant. Based on the results of the allergen component specific IgE test, we speculated that the pathogens in this case was group5 allergen of the Asian needle ant. Anaphylaxis following insect stings by this ant has been reported frequently in South Korea. However, it is quite rare in Japan, although the ant is native to Japan. Clinicians should consider that this allergy can occur indoors, unlike allergies to other types of venom.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Formigas , Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações , Adulto , Anafilaxia/etiologia , Animais , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Japão , Masculino , Dor
9.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878165

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory illness characterized by airflow limitation and chronic respiratory symptoms with a global prevalence estimated to be more than 10% in 2010 and still on the rise. Furthermore, hypercapnic subject COPD leads to an increased risk of mortality, morbidity, and poor QoL (quality of life) than normocapnic subjects. Series of studies showed the usefulness of the forced oscillation technique (FOT) to measure small airway closure. Traditional findings suggested that hypercapnia may not be the main treating targets, but recent findings suggested that blood stream CO2 may lead to a worse outcome. This study aimed to seek the relationship between CO2 and small airway closure by using FOT. Subjects with COPD (n = 124; hypercapnia 22 and normocapnia 102) were analyzed for all pulmonary function values, FOT values, and arterial blood gas analysis. Student's t-test, Spearman rank correlation, and multi linear regression analysis were used to analyze the data. COPD subjects with hypercapnia showed a significant increase in R5, R20, Fres, and ALX values, and a greater decrease in X5 value than normocapnic patients. Also, multiple linear regression analysis showed R5 was associated with hypercapnia. Hypercapnia may account for airway closure among subjects with COPD and this result suggests treating hypercapnia may lead to better outcomes for such a subject group.

10.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 31: 101200, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868989

RESUMO

Use of systemic corticosteroids for the treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is not well described. A 58-year-old man with fever and progressive dyspnea was admitted to the Showa University Hospital, and showed severe respiratory failure which needed mechanical ventilation. His chest computed tomography scanning showed emphysema and bilateral ground-glass opacity caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. He received 30 mg prednisolone for five days with antiviral drug of favipiravir, and was successfully extubated on day five. A SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test became negative on day 15. He was discharged on day 21. Serum IgM and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 converted to positive on day 7 and they kept positive on day 54 for both IgM and IgG. Combination treatment of short-course systemic corticosteroid and favipiravir might improve the prognosis for critically ill COVID-19 pneumonia with COPD without negative influence on viral clearance or antibody production.

11.
Allergol Int ; 69(4): 594-600, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Condition of asthma in patients with asthma and concomitant seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) deteriorates during the Japanese cedar pollen (JCP) season. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: We analyzed seasonal variations in eicosanoid levels in the airways of patients with asthma and concomitant SAR sensitized to JCP (N = 29, BA-SAR-JCP group) and those not sensitized (N = 13, BA-AR-non-JCP group) during the JCP season. The association between changes in eicosanoid concentrations and pulmonary function was assessed. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was collected, and pulmonary function tests were performed during the JCP and non-JCP seasons. The cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT), thromboxane B2 (TXB2), prostaglandin D2-methoxime (PGD2-MOX), and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) levels in the collected EBC were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent immunoassays. RESULTS: The log CysLT levels significantly increased in the BA-SAR-JCP group during the JCP season compared with the non-JCP season (1.78 ± 0.55, 1.39 ± 0.63 pg/mL, mean ± standard deviation, respectively, p = 0.01) and those in the BA-AR-non-JCP group during the JCP season (1.39 ± 0.38 pg/mL, p = 0.04). Moreover, the log TXB2 levels seemed to increase. However, the log LTB4 and log PGD2-MOX levels did not increase. The changes in the log CysLT levels during the two seasons were negatively correlated to forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in the BA-SAR-JCP group (r = -0.52, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In the BA-SAR-JCP group, seasonal increases in eicosanoid levels in the airway likely promoted deterioration in pulmonary function despite optimal maintenance treatment.

12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(22): 14474-14481, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490671

RESUMO

We investigated the potential effects of different land use and other environmental factors on animals living in a contaminated environment. The study site in Kabwe, Zambia, is currently undergoing urban expansion, while lead contamination from former mining activities is still prevalent. We focused on a habitat generalist lizards (Trachylepis wahlbergii). The livers, lungs, blood, and stomach contents of 224 lizards were analyzed for their lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, nickel, and arsenic concentrations. Habitat types were categorized based on vegetation data obtained from satellite images. Multiple regression analysis revealed that land use categories of habitats and three other factors significantly affected lead concentrations in the lizards. Further investigation suggested that the lead concentrations in lizards living in bare fields were higher than expected based on the distance from the contaminant source, while those in lizards living in green fields were lower than expected. In addition, the lead concentration of lungs was higher than that of the liver in 19% of the lizards, implying direct exposure to lead via dust inhalation besides digestive exposure. Since vegetation reduces the production of dust from surface soil, it is plausible that dust from the mine is one of the contamination sources and that vegetation can reduce exposure to this.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 740: 140006, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563873

RESUMO

Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soils applied with livestock excreta have been widely reported previously. The highest N2O emissions from soils are also often reported during thawing periods in cold regions where soil freezing is common. However, the combined effects of cow urine application and freeze-thaw events on N2O emissions and the related enzyme activities are still not clear. Thus, we simulated a freeze-thaw event at -3 °C for 7 days, and then increased to 3 °C for 46 days using intact soil cores with cow urine (392 kg N ha-1). We compared the factors influencing the magnitudes of N2O emissions through soil microbial processes with and without the freeze-thaw event. Dicyandiamide (DCD), an inhibitor of nitrification, was added to investigate the significance of nitrification on N2O emissions. The N2O emission rates from the urine-applied soils peaked to approximately 1000 µg N2O-N m-2 h-1 immediately after the soils thawed. Soil freezing with urine application was significantly higher cumulative N2O emissions (537 mg N2O-N m-2), compared to non-frozen soils with urine (247 mg N2O-N m-2) during the incubation period (54 days). The effect of DCD application on N2O emissions was not clear during the freeze-thaw event, although nitrate production rates were reduced. After the freezing event, soil moisture (water-filled pore space) was significantly higher in the non-frozen soils compared to the frozen soils, due to a 9% decline in bulk density of frozen soils. Additionally, the impact of thawing on urease and denitrification enzyme activities was influenced by the urine application. Urine application increased the urease activity, while the freezing event decreased the magnitudes. The physical changes in the soils were also important controlling factors of the N2O emissions from cow urine-applied soils in cold regions.


Assuntos
Óxido Nitroso/análise , Solo , Agricultura , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Congelamento , Nitrificação
14.
Asia Pac Allergy ; 10(2): e17, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32411582

RESUMO

Background: The prevalence of asthma in elderly population has been increasing. Previous studies have demonstrated clinical characteristics of elderly asthmatics (EA). However, little is known regarding the influence of immunological change on the physiological status of EA. Objective: We investigated the relationship between inflammatory mediators and the pulmonary function (PF) of EA. Methods: Eligible adult asthmatics recruited from the Allergy Center of Saitama Medical University Hospital were classified into a non-EA group (<40 years old, n = 15) and an EA group (≥60 years old, n = 43). Sputum induction and PF tests were performed. Concentrations of an eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) and neutrophil elastase (NE) in sputum supernatants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a fluorometric assay using a commercial assay kit, respectively. Cell counts and EDN and NE concentrations in sputum were compared between the 2 groups. The association among those parameters and PF were analyzed in each group. Results: The EA group had a significantly higher severe asthmatics proportion (p = 0.01), a lower current smokers proportion (p = 0.002), lower sensitization rate to aeroallergens (p = 0.012), several PFs deterioration (p < 0.0001) and lower total IgE levels (p = 0.001) than the non-EA group. Sputum neutrophil counts and NE concentrations were significantly higher in the EA group than those in the non-EA group (median neutrophil: 4.11 vs. 2.74 ×105/mL, p = 0.03; NE: 2.0 vs.1.6 µg/mL, p < 0.05, respectively), whereas sputum eosinophil counts and EDN concentrations were not. Sputum EDN concentrations were significantly positively correlated with sputum neutrophil counts (r = 0.39, p = 0.031) and NE concentrations (r = 0.57, p < 0.0001) only in the EA group. Eosinophil-related parameters were negatively correlated with several PFs in the 2 groups. Neutrophil-related parameters were negatively correlated with PFs only in the non-EA group. Conclusion: This study determines that in EA, persistent active eosinophilic airway inflammation is accompanied by advanced neutrophilic inflammation, which may contribute to deteriorated PF. This distinct airway inflammation may increase the severity of asthma in EA.

15.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(3)2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral infection is the main cause of asthma and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) exacerbation and accumulate inflammatory cells to airway tissue. We have reported poly I:C, a mimic product of the virus and ligand of toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), induced inflammatory chemokines from airway epithelial cells and found prior incubation with corticosteroids diminishes the effect of TLR3 activation. In clinical practice, mild asthma is recommended as-needed budesonide (BUD) when symptoms occur following a viral infection, etc. However, many questions still surround BUD's usefulness if taken after a virus has already infected airway tissue. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of BUD on inflammatory cytokines induced by viral infection. Methods: Normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were stimulated with poly I:C or infected with human rhinovirus-16 (HRV16) and BUD was added after the initial stimulation. Expression of both thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and CCL26/eotaxin-3 was quantified by real-time RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Knockdown study was performed. Results: Pre-or post-incubation with BUD inhibited both poly I:C- and HRV16-induced mRNAs and proteins of both thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and CCL26 with significance. Knockdown of the glucocorticoid receptor diminished these effects of BUD. Under the same conditions of BUD's experiment, post-incubation with neither fluticasone propionate nor dexamethasone suppressed expression of both TSLP and CCL26, which induced by poly I:C. CONCLUSION: Post-addition of BUD inhibited the virus-induced TSLP and CCL26 from the airway epithelial cells. These results suggest that inhalation of BUD after viral infection has beneficial effects on asthma. CONCLUSION: Late addition of BUD may benefit among patient with viral infection and type 2 allergic airway disease such as asthma.


Assuntos
Broncodilatadores/farmacologia , Budesonida/farmacologia , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Picornaviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Rhinovirus , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Quimiocina CCL26/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Humanos , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Mucosa Respiratória/citologia , Mucosa Respiratória/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 713: 136677, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019033

RESUMO

Crop residues are produced from agriculture in large amounts globally. Crop residues are known to be a source of nitrous oxide (N2O); however, contrasting results have been reported. Furthermore, the effect of crop residues on nitric oxide (NO) and methane (CH4) fluxes has not been well studied. We investigated N2O, NO, and CH4 fluxes after low C/N crop residue (cabbages and potatoes) inputs to lysimeter fields for two years using with automated flux monitoring system. Lysimeters were filled with two contrasting soil types, Andosol (total C: 33.1 g kg-1; clay: 18%) and Fluvisol (17.7 g kg-1; 36%). Nitrogen application rates were 250 kg N ha-1 of synthetic fertilizer and 272 kg N ha-1 of cow manure compost for cabbage, and 120 kg N ha-1 of synthetic fertilizer and 136 kg N ha-1 of cow manure compost for potato, respectively. Large N2O peaks were observed after crop residues were left on the surface of the soil for 1 to 2 weeks in summer, but not in winter. The annual N2O emission factors (EFs) for cabbage residues were 3.02% and 5.37% for Andosol and Fluvisol, respectively. Those for potatoes were 7.51% and 5.10% for Andosol and Fluvisol, respectively. The EFs were much higher than the mean EFs of synthetic fertilizers from Japan's agricultural fields (0.62%). Moreover, the EFs were much higher than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) default N2O EFs for synthetic fertilizers and crop residues (1%). The annual NO EFs for potatoes were 1.35% and 2.44% for Andosol and Fluvisol, respectively, while no emission was observed after cabbage residue input. Crop residues did not affect CH4 uptake by soil. Our results suggest that low C/N crop residue input to soils can create a hotspot of N2O emission, when temperature and water conditions are not limiting factors for microbial activity.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Agricultura , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Fertilizantes , Japão , Metano , Óxido Nítrico , Nitrogênio , Óxido Nitroso , Solo
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) often has low adherence rates. OBJECTIVE: To provide effective support for SLIT continuation, we investigated potential predictors of SLIT adherence through a prospective analysis of patient characteristics. We excluded evaluation of treatment effect and symptoms during treatment, aiming instead to identify predictors of later dropout or insufficient adherence due to indolence or forgetfulness using only information obtained at initial examination. METHODS: We provided patients with a questionnaire and monitored self-reported adherence once every 6 months. Cases of dropout for clear reasons were excluded, but cases of dropout or insufficient adherence to SLIT for indolence or forgetfulness were included. RESULTS: Fifty-three patients receiving SLIT were assessed. Nine patients dropped out after providing a clear reason. Thirty-four patients maintained good adherence. Seven patients continued SLIT but with insufficient adherence, while three patients discontinued SLIT for unclear reasons (indolence or forgetfulness) and these ten individuals were classified as the poor-adherence group. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis of the good-adherence and poor-adherence groups showed age to be a significant predictor of SLIT adherence. Based on analysis of a receiver operating characteristic curve, age < 40.5 years was selected as the optimal cutoff value for predicting poor adherence to SLIT. CONCLUSION: To prevent treatment SLIT discontinuation on account of indolence or forgetfulness, the necessity of longterm treatment continuity should be communicated clearly prior to commencing treatment, especially for patients under 40 years of age.

20.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 123(1): 81-88.e1, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various inflammatory eicosanoid levels in biomaterials from airways of asthma and their associations with clinical parameters remain uncertain. We hypothesized that prostaglandin and leukotriene levels differ between in exhaled breath condensates (EBCs) and in sputum in mild, moderate, and severe levels of asthma and that EBC and sputum eicosanoid levels are associated with indexes of pulmonary function and inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To determine the differences between EBC and sputum eicosanoid levels in healthy participants and patients with asthma with different asthma severity levels. METHODS: Collected EBC and sputum, as well as pulmonary function, were examined in adult patients with asthma and healthy participants. Exhaled breath condensate prostaglandin D2-methoxime (PGD2-MOX), cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and thromboxane B2 levels, and some sputum eicosanoid and tryptase levels were measured. Differences in eicosanoid levels among participants and their associations with pulmonary function and tryptase and granulocyte levels in sputum were then evaluated. RESULTS: Analysis of 94 EBCs and 43 sputa revealed that EBC and sputum PGD2-MOX and CysLT levels were significantly higher in patients with asthma than in healthy participants. Exhaled breath condensate PGD2-MOX, CysLT, and LTB4 levels were significantly higher in patients with severe asthma. Exhaled breath condensate PGD2-MOX level was also significantly correlated with sputum tryptase levels and lower pulmonary function in patients with asthma. Sputum PGD2-MOX and CysLT levels were significantly correlated with the proportion of eosinophils among all cells in sputum in patients with asthma. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that EBC PGD2 levels are associated with impairment of pulmonary function in adults with asthma who have undergone guideline treatment. Exhaled breath condensate or sputum PGD2 and CysLTs may represent severity or airway inflammation in asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/metabolismo , Leucotrienos/metabolismo , Prostaglandina D2/metabolismo , Adulto , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Cisteína/metabolismo , Eicosanoides/metabolismo , Feminino , Granulócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Leucotrieno B4/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escarro/metabolismo , Tromboxano B2/metabolismo , Triptases/metabolismo
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