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1.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 306, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously reported on the trends in the etiologies of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosed in patients between 1995 and 2009. The aims of our updated study were to evaluate the incidence, nonhepatitis B and nonhepatitis C viral (NBNC) etiologies, and clinical characteristics of HCCs occurring in patients between 1992 and 2018. METHODS: The study enrolled 2171 consecutive patients with HCC between 1992 and 2018. Their medical records were reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups, patients with early diagnoses from 1992 to 2009 and those with late diagnoses from 2010 to 2018. RESULTS: NBNC-HCC occurred in 514 patients (23.6%). The percentage of patients with HCC who had NBNC-HCC increased from 26.5% in 2009 to 46.3% in 2018. Patients with NBNC-HCC were older (median ages from 67 to 73 years). Type 2 diabetes mellitus (48.5-60.3%: P = 0.008), hypertension (48.5-57.4%: P = 0.047), and hyperlipidemia (39.2-53.8%: P = 0.001) increased significantly in recent years. The median FIB-4 index decreased (4.37-3.61: P = 0.026) and the median platelet count increased (15.1-17.9 × 104/µL: P = 0.013). Among the 514 patients with NBNC-HCC, 194 underwent hepatic resection for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (15%), alcoholic liver disease (ALD) (29%), and cryptogenic hepatitis (56%). Cirrhosis was detected in 72%, 39%, and 16% of patients with NASH, ALD, and cryptogenic hepatitis, respectively. The prevalence of cirrhosis in patients with NASH was significantly higher than the prevalence of cirrhosis in the other groups (P < 0.001). Overall, 70% of the non-malignant liver tissue of patients with NBNC-HCC was not involved with cirrhosis. On the other hand, the median FIB-4 index in patients with cryptogenic HCC was 2.56, which was a significantly lower value than those values in the other groups of patients. The FIB-4 index considered as one of useful screening of HCC. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of NBNC-HCC has increased rapidly even in a regional university hospital. Metabolic syndrome may be an important risk factor for HCC. HCC was also found in patients with non-cirrhotic livers. The FIB-4 index may be a useful screening method for HCC in patients with NBNC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia
2.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 14(5): 1517-1524, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291386

RESUMO

The overall survival of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with tumor thrombosis of the main trunk or bilobar branches of the portal vein is extremely poor. Moreover, there is no standard treatment established for the condition. Herein, we present the case of a 65-year-old man who were treated the patient with hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy, radiation therapy for tumor thrombosis, portal vein stent placement, lenvatinib administration, and renal venous shunt embolization. A complete response was observed according to mRECIST and the patient has been alive for 14 months since treatment initiation with no tumor recurrence.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Trombose , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Humanos , Infusões Intra-Arteriais , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Veia Porta , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/terapia
3.
Intern Med ; 60(13): 2047-2053, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193774

RESUMO

A 68-year-old man with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) visited his previous hospital due to abdominal pain and was diagnosed with ruptured HCC. Before visiting our hospital, he underwent HCC treatment at his previous hospital, but his tumors did not improve. Although he started treatment with sorafenib, the tumors rapidly grew. Subsequently, regorafenib was given, and the tumors shrank. After 22 months being treated with regorafenib, HCC reoccurred, with a new lung metastasis and a contrast-enhanced nodule on the peritoneal dissemination appearing. He underwent conversion surgery and survived for 4.5 years after his HCC was diagnosed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Piridinas , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico
4.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 40(1): 215, 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been a recent surge in interest in predicting biological effects associated with genomic alterations in order to implement personalized cancer treatment strategies. However, no reports have yet evaluated the utility of profiling blood-based circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated with lenvatinib (LEN). METHOD: We retrospectively performed ctDNA next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis in 24 patients with advanced HCC at baseline and 4 weeks after initiation of LEN. Association of the changes in variant allele frequencies (VAFs) during treatment and clinical outcome were evaluated. RESULTS: In total, 131 single nucleotide variants, 17 indels, and 23 copy number variations were detected as somatic alterations in 28, 6, and 12 genes, respectively in 23 of 24 patients. The most frequently altered genes were TP53 (54%), CTNNB1 (42%), TERT (42%), ATM (25%), and ARID1A (13%). The reduction in the mean frequency of variants (VAFmean) following 4 weeks of LEN treatment was associated with longer progression-free survival. The specificity and sensitivity of the reduction of VAFmean for predicting partial response were 0.67 and 1.0, respectively, which were higher than those of serum α-fetoprotein level (0.10 and 0.93, respectively). No association between the mutation status at baseline and the effectiveness of LEN was observed. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that somatic alterations could be detected in the majority of advanced HCC patients by ctDNA profiling and that ctDNA-kinetics during LEN treatment was a useful marker of disease progression. These results suggest that ctDNA profiling is a promising method that provides valuable information in clinical practice.

5.
Oncology ; 99(8): 507-517, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946070

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of lenvatinib-transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (LEN-TACE) sequential therapy for patients (n = 88) with intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Eighty-eight patients who obtained tumor control by LEN treatment were analyzed; 30 received LEN followed by TACE (LEN-TACE sequential therapy), and 58 received LEN monotherapy. Propensity score matching was performed, and the outcomes of 19 patients in the LEN-TACE group and 19 patients in the LEN-alone group were compared. Objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), incidence of adverse events (AEs), and change in albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) score were evaluated. RESULTS: After matching, baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. The ORR was 63.2% with LEN-TACE group and 63.2% with the LEN-alone group. Multivariate analysis showed that addition of TACE during LEN treatment (hazard ratio [HR] 0.264, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.087-0.802, p = 0.019) and Child-Pugh score 5 (HR 0.223, 95% CI 0.070-0.704, p = 0.011) were the significant factors for PFS. Median PFS was 11.6 months with LEN-TACE and 10.1 months with LEN-alone. The survival rate of the LEN-TACE group was significantly higher than that of the LEN-alone group (median survival time; not reached vs. 16.9 months, p = 0.007). The incidence of common LEN-associated AEs was similar between groups. Although elevated aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase and fever were more frequent with LEN-TACE group, these events were manageable. CONCLUSION: For patients with intermediate-stage HCC, LEN-TACE sequential therapy may provide a deep response and favorable prognosis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Pontuação de Propensão , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
6.
Oncology ; 99(8): 491-498, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000725

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study compared clinical outcomes of 2nd- and 3rd-line regorafenib in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, 48 patients were treated with regorafenib for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Thirty-five and 13 patients were initiated on 2nd- and 3rd-line therapy, respectively. We assessed the responses to and safety of the therapy. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in clinical characteristics at the start of 2nd- or 3rd-line regorafenib therapy. The overall response rate of 2nd- and 3rd-line regorafenib was 20 and 8%, respectively. The disease control rate was 57 and 54%, respectively. Median overall survival (mOS) from the start of 2nd-line regorafenib was 17.5 months. mOS from the start of 3rd-line regorafenib was not obtained. Median progression-free survival of 2nd- and 3rd-line regorafenib was 4.9 and 2.3 months, respectively. mOS from 1st-line therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitor plus sorafenib-regorafenib-lenvatinib was 29.5 months; that with lenvatinib-sorafenib-regorafenib was not obtained. Patients on 3rd-line therapy tended to have better Child-Pugh scores and tumor factors at the start of 1st-line therapy than other patients. CONCLUSION: Patients on 2nd- and 3rd-line regorafenib showed favorable responses. Good Child-Pugh scores and tumor factors may be associated with a better response rate and OS.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sorafenibe/administração & dosagem , Sorafenibe/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Oncology ; 99(5): 327-335, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677453

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The clinical outcome of ramucirumab in multi-molecular targeted agent (MTA) sequential therapy for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (u-HCC) was assessed in comparison with that of prior tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. METHODS: Sixteen patients who received ramucirumab as part of multi-MTA sequential therapy for u-HCC were enrolled in a retrospective, cohort study. Ramucirumab was started as 2nd line in 7 patients, 3rd line in 5 patients, and 4th line in 4 patients. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 6.3%, the disease control rate (DCR) was 50.0%, median progression-free survival was 2.0 months (evaluated by mRECIST), median overall survival (OS) with ramucirumab was 7.9 months, and the median OS from 1st-line therapy was 28.1 months. One month after the start of ramucirumab, α-fetoprotein (AFP) decreased in 6 of 12 cases (50.0%), and the DCR in AFP-decreased cases was 83.3%. The DCR of ramucirumab was 66.7% in cases in which disease control was obtained by prior TKI therapy, whereas it was 0.0% in the cases in which disease control was not obtained by prior TKI therapy. Examining the adverse events, no new safety concerns were confirmed. CONCLUSION: The AFP response to ramucirumab and the treatment response to prior TKI therapy are associated with treatment response to ramucirumab.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sorafenibe/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Sobrevida
8.
Intern Med ; 60(6): 829-837, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087674

RESUMO

Objective Lusutrombopag is a thrombopoietin receptor agonist that improves thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic liver disease scheduled to undergo invasive procedures. However, information on the efficacy of repeated lusutrombopag treatment and factors associated with the treatment is scarce. We analyzed the efficacy of repeated lusutrombopag treatment and the factors associated with a response to lusutrombopag. Methods Thirty-nine patients with chronic liver disease who received lusutrombopag treatment before undergoing invasive procedures were enrolled in this retrospective study. Of the 39 patients, 10 received lusutrombopag treatment multiple times for a total of 53 regimens of lusutrombopag treatment. Changes in platelet counts, the effects of repeated lusutrombopag treatment, and factors associated with response to lusutrombopag were analyzed. Results The median platelet count increased significantly from 4.5×104/µL before lusutrombopag treatment to 7.2×104/µL before the invasive procedure (p<0.01), and patients undergoing 49 of the 53 (92%) treatment regimens succeeded in undergoing invasive procedures without needing platelet transfusions. In patients who received lusutrombopag treatment repeatedly, the median platelet count significantly increased following the second administration of lusutrombopag, and the effects of lusutrombopag were similar between the first and second administration. A multivariate analysis identified the absence of diabetes mellitus (odds ratio, 5.56 for presence; p=0.04) as a significant and independent predictor of a response to lusutrombopag. Conclusion Lusutrombopag treatment significantly increased platelet counts in patients with chronic liver disease, making it possible to receive invasive procedures. The treatment produced identical effects when it was repeated. The efficacy of lusutrombopag might be decreased in patients with diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias , Trombocitopenia , Doença Crônica , Cinamatos , Humanos , Hepatopatias/complicações , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Trombopoetina , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tiazóis , Trombocitopenia/tratamento farmacológico
9.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(6): 1685-1693, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of this study was to identify the factors that contribute to the maintenance of relative dose intensity (RDI) of lenvatinib in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with advanced HCC treated with lenvatinib were enrolled. We evaluated the relationship between maintenance of RDI and various clinical data, parameters obtained by body composition measurements with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and grip strength at the start of lenvatinib treatment. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that only the extracellular water to total body water ratio (ECW/TBW) ≤ 0.400 at initiation of treatment was associated with RDI ≥ 50% (odds ratio, 6.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-48.00; P = 0.049). When the RDI was compared between ECW/TBW ≤ 0.400 group and ECW/TBW > 0.400 group, the RDI was significantly higher in the ECW/TBW ≤ 0.400 group at each of 0-4W, 4-6W, and 6-8W points. The P value at each point was 0.003, 0.003, and 0.005, respectively. On the other hand, multivariate analysis showed that only the ECW/TBW ≤ 0.400 at initiation of treatment was associated with the extension of duration until reduction or withdrawal of lenvatinib (hazard ratio, 4.86; 95% CI, 1.52-15.50; P = 0.007). CONCLUSION: The extracellular water to total body water ratio, a parameter of body composition measurement by BIA, was significantly associated with the maintenance of RDI and the duration until reduction or withdrawal of lenvatinib in HCC patients. In addition to standard predictors such as Child-Pugh score and modified albumin-bilirubin grade that have been used to date, ECW/TBW might be a new predictor of RDI in HCC patients treated with lenvatinib.

11.
Oncology ; 98(11): 787-797, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although a strong antitumor effect of lenvatinib (LEN) has been noted for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), there are still no reports on the prognosis for patients with disease progression after first-line LEN therapy. METHODS: Patients (n = 141) with unresectable HCC, Child-Pugh class A liver function, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG-PS) of 0 or 1 who were treated with LEN from March 2018 to December 2019 were enrolled. RESULTS: One hundred and five patients were treated with LEN as first-line therapy, 53 of whom had progressive disease (PD) at the radiological evaluation. Among the 53 patients with PD, there were 27 candidates for second-line therapy, who had Child-Pugh class A liver function and an ECOG-PS of 0 or 1 at progression. After progression on first-line LEN, 28 patients were treated with a molecular targeted agent (MTA) as second-line therapy (sorafenib: n = 26; ramucirumab: n = 2). Multivariate analysis identified modified albumin-bilirubin grade 1 or 2a at LEN initiation (odds ratio 5.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.465-18.31, p = 0.011) as a significant and independent factor for candidates. The median post-progression survival after PD on first-line LEN was 8.3 months. Cox hazard multivariate analysis showed that a low alpha-fetoprotein level (<400 ng/mL; hazard ratio [HR] 0.297, 95% CI 0.099-0.886, p = 0.003), a relative tumor volume <50% at the time of progression (HR 0.204, 95% CI 0.07-0.592, p = 0.03), and switching to MTAs as second-line treatment after LEN (HR 0.299, 95% CI 0.12-0.746, p = 0.01) were significant prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: Among patients with PD on first-line LEN, good liver function at introduction of LEN was an important and favorable factor related to eligibility for second-line therapy. In addition, post-progression treatment with MTAs could improve the prognosis for patients who had been treated with first-line LEN.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 11(5): e00179, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Biomarkers for optimizing the outcome of treatment with lenvatinib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma remain to be established despite intensive and comprehensive genomic research. Lenvatinib is characterized by its prominent inhibitory potency for fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 4 compared with earlier tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Thus, in this study, we focused on simplified quantification of FGFR4 in tumors as a potential predictive indicator. METHODS: According to The Cancer Genome Atlas data set curation, FGFR4 messenger RNA is broadly overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma in the absence of gene alteration. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that the aggressiveness of the tumor was closely related to the FGFR4 level. To confirm the relationship between the benefits of lenvatinib and tumor addiction to the FGFR4 pathway, we analyzed protein levels in tumors and peripheral blood obtained from 57 prospectively registered patients treated with lenvatinib. RESULTS: Positive immunohistochemistry (>10% of tumor cells) for FGFR4 in biopsy samples before treatment was associated with a longer progression-free survival (2.5 vs 5.5 months, P = 0.01) and a favorable objective response rate (31% vs 81%, P = 0.006). By contrast, the concentration of soluble FGFR4 in peripheral blood as measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was not associated with survival outcomes, because its fluctuations reflect hepatic fibrosis. Additional RNA sequencing analysis using archival surgical specimens (n = 90) suggested that alternative RNA splicing of FGFR4 in cancer may also explain this discrepancy. DISCUSSION: The tumor FGFR4 level was an independent predictor of response to lenvatinib.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Receptor Tipo 4 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/análise , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Processamento Alternativo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Biópsia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hepatectomia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Receptor Tipo 4 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Receptor Tipo 4 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos
13.
Oncology ; 98(10): 727-733, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712613

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Functional hepatic reserve is important when considering sequential tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We assessed albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) score and Child-Pugh class as indices of liver function during sorafenib and lenvatinib treatment. METHODS: A total of 212 patients with advanced HCC and Child-Pugh class A status who initiated TKI treatment at our hospital were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. A total of 74 of the 212 patients underwent blood testing before starting sorafenib treatment and every 2 months after treatment initiation. RESULTS: In 74 patients, the median ALBI score before TKI treatment was -2.53, and after 2, 4, and 6 months it was -2.45, -2.44, and -2.36, respectively. ALBI scores tended to increase during TKI therapy. Among patients who experienced a time to progression ≤3.8 months, ALBI scores had increased 2 months after treatment initiation, and at 4 and 6 months, significant differences were observed (p < 0.01). In all 212 patients, during first-line TKI treatment, the Child-Pugh class deteriorated to B or C in 72.2% of the patients, and the median time to deterioration was 3.9 months. The factors in hepatic reserve deterioration were serum albumin ≤3.8 g/dL and the presence of macroscopic vascular invasion. The hepatic reserve of 68.0% of the patients with deterioration of liver function recovered to Child-Pugh class A following dose reduction, drug withdrawal, or treatment intended for recovery of liver function. CONCLUSION: ALBI scores deteriorate in patients treated with TKIs, suggesting that tumor progression induces these changes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/fisiopatologia , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
14.
Liver Cancer ; 9(2): 148-155, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399429

RESUMO

Introduction: The measurement of body composition such as the skeletal muscle index (SMI) has been reported to be useful for predicting prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we analyzed skeletal muscle change during sorafenib and lenvatinib therapy and the association between SMI and prognosis. Methods: A total of 67 patients with advanced HCC and Child-Pugh grade A status treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) at Hiroshima University between September 2009 and December 2018 were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. Patients underwent computed tomography (CT) imaging before starting sorafenib treatment and 1-3 months after treatment initiation. Results: In all patients, the median SMI was 45.3 cm2/m2 before TKI treatment and 42.1 cm2/m2 after treatment; 54 of 67 (80.6%) patients experienced SMI loss. The median ΔSMI was -1.5 cm2/m2/months, and no difference in ΔSMI was observed between patients receiving sorafenib and lenvatinib. No significant differences were observed in median ΔSMI between patients with and without progressive disease (-2.35 and -1.1 cm2/m2/months, respectively), albumin-bilirubin grade 1 and 2 group disease (-1.7 and -1.5 cm2/m2/months, respectively), and relative dose intensity ≤80 and >80 (-1.8 and -1.2 cm2/m2/months, respectively). Conclusion: This report demonstrated that patients receiving TKI treatment experienced a significant loss of skeletal muscle mass regardless of disease progression, hepatic reserve, or which TKI (sorafenib or lenvatinib) they received.

15.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 13(5): 867-872, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020539

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has limited systemic treatment options and a poor prognosis. The immune checkpoint inhibitor pembrolizumab was recently approved for the treatment of solid tumors with microsatellite instability (MSI). However, its clinical utility for the management of HCC remains to be clarified. Here, we present a case of unresectable HCC with MSI that showed an impressive response to pembrolizumab treatment. A 64-year-old man with chronic HCV infection was diagnosed with a large HCC. His severe liver dysfunction and poor performance status prevented any treatment option other than sorafenib. However, sorafenib failed after a few days due to the rapid progression of the tumor. Based on the finding of MSI in a biopsy specimen, immunotherapy using pembrolizumab was initiated. A dramatic improvement in his general condition and a reduction in tumor size were observed after the initiation of pembrolizumab treatment. Among a cohort of 50 consecutive patients with advanced HCC who were refractory to standard systemic therapy, MSI was found only in the present case. Immune checkpoint blockade therapy induced prominent anti-tumor effects in HCC with MSI. Screening for defects in DNA mismatch repair function may be warranted in HCC patients despite the low frequency of MSI.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Hepatol Res ; 50(7): 885-888, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088930

RESUMO

AIM: Pembrolizumab has been quickly approved in many countries for the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic, microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) solid tumors, which have progressed following previous treatment and who have no satisfactory alternative treatment options. We aimed to determine the incidence of MSI-H tumors in Japanese patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: We investigated the incidence of MSI-H tumors in 82 consecutive Japanese patients with unresectable HCC that had progressed after standard of care treatment. Using a companion diagnostic sequencing kit (polymerase chain reaction analysis of five microsatellite markers: BAT25, BAT26, NR21, NR24 and MONO27), we analyzed 49 biopsy specimens and 33 resection specimens. Responses to pembrolizumab were assessed with the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. RESULTS: MSI-H tumors were found in only two patients (2.4%), in whom all five markers showed slight shortening. One patient had a complete response to pembrolizumab for over 10 months, and the other was a non-responder. CONCLUSIONS: MSI-H tumor status was found in only two of 82 (2.4%) Japanese patients with advanced HCC, one of whom had a complete response to pembrolizumab. Thus, MSI status should be assessed in patients with HCC who progress after standard of care treatment.

17.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 13(5): 839-843, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974811

RESUMO

We report a 46-year-old male patient with functional liver damage due to hepatitis B virus infection. A 12 cm hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the left lobe and portal venous tumor thrombosis (PVTT) with vp4 (portal vein tumor thrombosis in the main trunk) were detected by computed tomography (CT). He underwent hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) with cisplatin 100 mg for HCC and received radiation therapy (39 Gy/13 Fr) for PVTT with vp4. Follow-up CT showed reduction of HCC and reduced PVTT volume after 1 month of treatment. He then initiated lenvatinib therapy at 12 mg/day. One month later, follow-up CT showed no change in HCC size and a reduction in PVTT volume. Two months after initiating lenvatinib, follow-up CT showed no change in HCC, but further reduction in contrast effect and volume of PVTT. Three months after HAIC, he underwent drug-eluting-bead transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (DEB-TACE) with 100 mg of cisplatin (CDDP) for the HCC. After DEB-TACE, he received 12 mg/day with 5-days-on/2-days-off due to vomiting. One month after DEB-TACE, blood evaluation showed decreased tumor markers, and CT revealed that the HCC had grown slightly with no change in PVTT. Five months after HAIC, he underwent DEB-TACE with 100 mg of cisplatin for the HCC. A total of 150 days have passed since the start of lenvatinib treatment, and his Child-Pugh A status has been maintained.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Quimioembolização Terapêutica , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Trombose , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos de Fenilureia , Veia Porta , Quinolinas , Trombose/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Eur J Radiol ; 124: 108828, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955034

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In recent years, it has been reported that use of 18F-FDG PET-CT can reveal the degree of hepatocellular carcinoma malignancy. We evaluate the ability of a preoperative 18F-FDG PET-CT to predict the recurrence of extrahepatic metastasis of HCC after surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively examined 67 patients who received 18F-FDG PET-CT prior to curative hepatic resection for HCC between April 2010 and March 2016. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to identify the factors associated with recurrence of extrahepatic metastasis of HCC after surgery. We also evaluated the sensitivity, specifity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of diagnosis of 18F-FDG PET-CT for recurrent extrahepatic metastasis of HCC after surgery. RESULTS: The multivariate analysis identified a tumor-to-normal liver standardized uptake value ratio (TNR) ≥ 1.53 (hazard ratio [HR], 0.037; P = 0.003), multiple tumor nodules (HR, 0.121; P = 0.007), and presence of microvascular invasion (HR, 0.094; P = 0.003) as independent predictors of distant metastasis recurrence. A TNR ≥ 1.53 showed a sensitivity of 91.7 %, specificity of 76.4 %, positive predictive value of 45.8 %, negative predictive value of 97.7 %, and accuracy of 79.1 % for diagnosing distant metastasis recurrence of HCC. In a binomial logistic regression analysis of tumor factors associated with a TNR ≥ 1.53, poor tumor differentiation and large tumor size were significant factors. CONCLUSION: 18F-FDG PET-CT and microvascular invasion may be useful for predicting the recurrence of extrahepatic metastasis of HCC after surgery.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 35(8): 1412-1419, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The most important prognostic factor for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is liver fibrosis. The aim of this study is to examine clinical parameters involved in pathological progression in NASH patients who underwent repeated liver biopsy and to analyze the response to treatment with respect to NASH-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We performed longitudinal analysis of genetic and clinical factors associated with progression of NASH. METHODS: Eighty NASH patients who had undergone serial liver biopsies were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. Histological exacerbation was determined based on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score (NAS) and liver fibrosis. RESULTS: About 22.5% had progression of fibrosis, 22.5% had improvement of fibrosis, and 55.0% had no change. NAS increased in 12.5%, decreased in 61.3%, and remained stable in the remaining 26.3%. We examined factors associated with histological progression versus non-progression. Poor response of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, increase in HbA1c levels, and presence of the tumor necrosis factor risk allele in the rs1799964 SNP were identified as independent risk factors contributing to histological progression in NASH patients. In addition, we found that the histological progression rate varies with ALT response, HbA1c levels, and rs1799964 genotype. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we clarified the serum ALT level and the clinical significance of HbA1c to evaluate the progression of fibrosis in Japanese NASH patients. Furthermore, the tumor necrosis factor SNP was more likely to be involved in the response than PNPLA3 SNP. By simultaneously evaluating three factors, it is possible to estimate the risk of histological progression more accurately.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Biópsia , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Fibrose , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Lipase/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
20.
J Gastroenterol ; 55(2): 217-226, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated time-course changes in skeletal muscle volume per year with tolvaptan in patients with refractory ascites that was unresponsive to loop diuretics and aldosterone antagonists. METHODS: This retrospective study included 42 patients who received tolvaptan for refractory ascites and/or hepatic edema and underwent computed tomography (CT) before and ≥ 3 months after initiating tolvaptan. The time-course changes in skeletal muscle index per year [ΔSMI (%)] was calculated as follows: ΔSMI (%) = (SMI at final CT scan - SMI at initial CT scan)/SMI at initial CT scan × 100/years between CT scans. RESULTS: Eligible patients were 23 men and 19 women of median age of 71 years (range 21-94 years). The median follow-up period was 22.7 (range 3.5-54.6) months. ΔSMI (%) was significantly higher in the responders group than in the nonresponder group. Multivariate analysis showed the response to tolvaptan was an independent and significant factor associated with an increase in muscle mass [odds ratio (OR) 20.364; 95% CI 2.327-178.97; P = 0.006]. Overall survival with tolvaptan was significantly higher in the responder group than in the nonresponder group. Multivariate analysis showed that the response to tolvaptan treatment was a significant contributor to good prognosis (OR 3.884; 95% CI 1.264-11.931; P = 0.018). A significant negative correlation was observed between the dosage of furosemide and ΔSMI (%) (P = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of refractory ascites with tolvaptan may attenuate the progression of sarcopenia and improve the prognosis in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Antagonistas dos Receptores de Hormônios Antidiuréticos/uso terapêutico , Ascite/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Sarcopenia/patologia , Tolvaptan/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ascite/etiologia , Diuréticos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Furosemida/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Prognóstico , Retratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
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