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1.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495913

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death globally, with marked differences in prognosis by disease stage at diagnosis. We studied circulating metabolites in relation to disease stage to improve the understanding of metabolic pathways related to colorectal cancer progression. We investigated plasma concentrations of 130 metabolites among 744 stage I-IV colorectal cancer patients from ongoing cohort studies. Plasma samples, collected at diagnosis, were analysed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ™ p180 kit. We assessed associations between metabolite concentrations and stage using multinomial and multivariable logistic regression models. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders as well as multiple testing using false discovery rate (FDR) correction. Patients presented with 23%, 28%, 39% and 10% of stage I-IV disease, respectively. Concentrations of sphingomyelin C26:0 were lower in stage III patients compared to stage I patients (pFDR  < 0.05). Concentrations of sphingomyelin C18:0 and phosphatidylcholine (diacyl) C32:0 were statistically significantly higher, while citrulline, histidine, phosphatidylcholine (diacyl) C34:4, phosphatidylcholine (acyl-alkyl) C40:1 and lysophosphatidylcholines (acyl) C16:0 and C17:0 concentrations were lower in stage IV compared to stage I patients (pFDR  < 0.05). Our results suggest that metabolic pathways involving amongst others citrulline and histidine, implicated previously in colorectal cancer development, may also be linked to colorectal cancer progression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502058

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We hypothesized that biomarkers and dietary factors related to cardiovascular disease risk were associated with serum retinol and evaluated these potential associations in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from 4116 patients hospitalised for suspected CAD. Dietary data were obtained from a subgroup of 1962 patients using a food frequency questionnaire. Potential biomarkers and dietary factors were explored using linear regression modelling adjusted for age and sex. Regression coefficients and corresponding confidence intervals (CI) are given as  % change in serum retinol per unit change in the predictors. Analyses were performed in the total population and in strata of serum retinol tertiles. RESULTS: In age- and sex-adjusted models, serum creatinine (standardized ß: 0.38, 95% CI [0.35, 0.42]), plasma total cysteine (0.26, [0.23, 0.29]), serum uric acid (0.30, [0.26, 0.33]) and plasma neopterin (0.22, [0.18, 0.25]) were positively associated, whereas plasma serine (- 0.15, [- 0.18, - 0.12]) and serum C-reactive protein (- 0.15, [- 0.18, - 0.12]) were inversely associated with serum retinol. When we included the significant biomarkers in a multivariate model, the model explained 33% of the variability (R2 = 0.33) in serum retinol. The results were similar in the lower and upper tertiles of serum retinol. Weak or no associations were observed for dietary factors. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with suspected CAD, concentrations of creatinine, cysteine and uric acid were positively associated with serum retinol. Future studies should assess whether retinol concentrations are influenced by metabolic alterations in patients at risk of cardiovascular disease.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276202

RESUMO

Cell-mediated immune suppression may play an important role in lung carcinogenesis. We investigated the associations for circulating levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (KTR), quinolinic acid (QA) and neopterin as markers of immune regulation and inflammation with lung cancer risk in 5,364 smoking-matched case-control pairs from 20 prospective cohorts included in the international Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. All biomarkers were quantified by mass spectrometry-based methods in serum/plasma samples collected on average 6 years before lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung cancer associated with individual biomarkers were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for circulating cotinine. Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintiles of kynurenine, KTR, QA and neopterin were associated with a 20-30% higher risk, and tryptophan with a 15% lower risk of lung cancer (all ptrend < 0.05). The strongest associations were seen for current smokers, where the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of lung cancer for the highest quintile of KTR, QA and neopterin were 1.42 (1.15-1.75), 1.42 (1.14-1.76) and 1.45 (1.13-1.86), respectively. A stronger association was also seen for KTR and QA with risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma followed by adenocarcinoma, and for lung cancer diagnosed within the first 2 years after blood draw. This study demonstrated that components of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway with immunomodulatory effects are associated with risk of lung cancer overall, especially for current smokers. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of these biomarkers in lung carcinogenesis and progression.

4.
J Nutr ; 149(5): 770-775, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A frequent observation in inflammatory conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), is low circulating amounts of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the metabolically active form of vitamin B-6. Recently, a functional marker of vitamin B-6 status, the ratio of 3-hydroxykynurenine (HK): xanthurenic acid (XA) in plasma (HK: XA), was proposed. OBJECTIVE: We investigated vitamin B-6 status in patients with RA before and after established treatment with TNFα inhibitors. METHODS: We performed a longitudinal study of RA patients (n = 106, 36% men, median age 54 y) starting first treatment with a TNFα inhibitor (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab, or certolizumab). Clinical assessment (Disease Activity Score for 28 standard joints, DAS28), joint ultrasonography, and blood draw were performed at baseline and after 3 mo treatment. Plasma concentrations of PLP, HK, and XA were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Associations of changes in vitamin B-6 markers with change in DAS28 were assessed by generalized additive models regression and with European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response categories by linear regression. RESULTS: At baseline PLP was inversely correlated with CRP (ρ = -0.27, P = 0.007), whereas HK: XA correlated with DAS28 (ρ = 0.46, P < 0.001), CRP (ρ = 0.36, P < 0.001), and ultrasonography scores (ρ = 0.29-0.35, P ≤ 0.003). After 3 mo treatment, the change (a 33% overall reduction) in DAS28 was related to changes in both PLP (ß = -0.28, P = 0.01) and HK: XA (ß = 0.33, P < 0.001). Good responders (45%) according to EULAR criteria experienced a 31% increase in PLP (P = 0.003) and an 11% decrease in HK: XA (P = 0.1), whereas nonresponders (24%) experienced a 25% increase in HK: XA (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Two independent measures of vitamin B-6 status confirm an association with disease activity in RA patients. The association of HK: XA with disease activity may also imply perturbations in kynurenine metabolism in RA. This trial was registered at helseforskning.etikkom.no as 2011/490.

5.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(7): 637-649, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037572

RESUMO

Ecological observations suggest an inverse relationship between smoking in pregnancy and celiac disease (CD) in offspring. While individual-level analyses have been inconsistent, they have mostly lacked statistical power or refined assessments of exposure. To examine the association between pregnancy-related smoking and CD in the offspring, as well as its consistency across data sets, we analyzed: (1) The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa) of 94,019 children, followed from birth (2000-2009) through 2016, with 1035 developing CD; (2) a subsample from MoBa (381 with CD and 529 controls) with biomarkers; and (3) a register-based cohort of 536,861 Norwegian children, followed from birth (2004-2012) through 2014, with 1919 developing CD. Smoking behaviors were obtained from pregnancy questionnaires and antenatal visits, or, in the MoBa-subsample, defined by measurement of cord blood cotinine. CD and potential confounders were identified through nationwide registers and comprehensive parental questionnaires. Sustained smoking during pregnancy, both self-reported and cotinine-determined, was inversely associated with CD in MoBa (multivariable-adjusted [a] OR = 0.61 [95%CI, 0.46-0.82] and aOR = 0.55 [95%CI, 0.31-0.98], respectively); an inverse association was also found with the intensity of smoking. These findings differed from those of our register-based cohort, which revealed no association with sustained smoking during pregnancy (aOR = 0.97 [95%CI, 0.80-1.18]). In MoBa, neither maternal smoking before or after pregnancy, nor maternal or paternal smoking in only early pregnancy predicted CD. In a carefully followed pregnancy cohort, a more-detailed smoking assessment than oft-used register-based data, revealed that sustained smoking during pregnancy, rather than any smoking exposure, predicts decreased likelihood of childhood-diagnosed CD.

6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(6): 1546-1554, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated circulating cystathionine levels are related to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of death globally. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether plasma cystathionine was associated with mortality in patients with suspected or established coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Data from 2 independent cohorts of patients with suspected stable angina pectoris (SAP) (3033 patients; median 10.7 y follow-up; 648 deaths) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (3670 patients; median 7.0 y follow-up; 758 deaths) were included. Hazard ratios with 95% CIs per SD increment of log-transformed cystathionine were calculated using Cox regression modeling. Endpoint data was obtained from a national health registry. RESULTS: Among patients with SAP, there was a positive association between plasma cystathionine and death (age- and sex-adjusted HRs [95% CI] per SD: 1.23 [1.14, 1.32], 1.29 [1.16, 1.44], and 1.17 [1.05, 1.29] for total, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality, respectively). Corresponding risk estimates were 1.28 (1.19, 1.37) for all-cause, 1.33 (1.22, 1.45) for cardiovascular, and 1.19 (1.06, 1.34) for noncardiovascular death among AMI patients. In both cohorts, estimates were slightly attenuated after multivariate adjustments for established CHD risk factors. Subgroup analyses showed that the relation between cystathionine and all-cause mortality in SAP patients was stronger among nonsmokers and those with lower plasma concentration of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (P-interaction ≤ 0.01 for both). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated plasma cystathionine is associated with both cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality among patients with suspected or established CHD. The joint risk associations of high plasma cystathionine with lifestyle factors and impaired vitamin B-6 status on mortality need further investigation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00354081 and NCT00266487.

7.
BMJ ; 364: k4981, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To conduct a comprehensive analysis of prospectively measured circulating high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration and risk of lung cancer overall, by smoking status (never, former, and current smokers), and histological sub-type. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. SETTING: 20 population based cohort studies in Asia, Europe, Australia, and the United States. PARTICIPANTS: 5299 patients with incident lung cancer, with individually incidence density matched controls. EXPOSURE: Circulating hsCRP concentrations in prediagnostic serum or plasma samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident lung cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: A positive association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer for current (odds ratio associated with a doubling in hsCRP concentration 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.13) and former smokers (1.09, 1.04 to 1.14) was observed, but not for never smokers (P<0.01 for interaction). This association was strong and consistent across all histological subtypes, except for adenocarcinoma, which was not strongly associated with hsCRP concentration regardless of smoking status (odds ratio for adenocarcinoma overall 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.01). The association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer was strongest in the first two years of follow-up for former and current smokers. Including hsCRP concentration in a risk model, in addition to smoking based variables, did not improve risk discrimination overall, but slightly improved discrimination for cancers diagnosed in the first two years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Former and current smokers with higher circulating hsCRP concentrations had a higher risk of lung cancer overall. Circulating hsCRP concentration was not associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma. Circulating hsCRP concentration could be a prediagnostic marker of lung cancer rather than a causal risk factor.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Fumar/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ex-Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30318764

RESUMO

B-group vitamins, as components of the one carbon metabolism pathway, are involved in DNA synthesis, repair and methylation. Our aim was to investigate associations between circulating plasma levels of B vitamins and urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC). We conducted a nested case-control study of UCC within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. B vitamins were measured in pre-diagnostic plasma samples. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) for UCC risk associated with circulating B vitamins in 363 matched cases and controls. In a case-only analysis (N = 390), hazard ratios (HR) for overall survival associated with plasma B vitamins were estimated using Cox regression. There were no strong associations between UCC risk and pre-diagnostic levels of plasma B vitamins. No heterogeneity in UCC risk was observed by subtype (invasive or superficial), sex, smoking status or alcohol intake. There was no heterogeneity by country of birth for most B vitamins, except for folate (p-homogeneity = 0.03). In UCC cases, there were no strong associations between plasma B vitamins and overall survival. We found no associations between pre-diagnostic plasma concentrations of B-group vitamins and UCC risk or survival.

9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(17): e008824, 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371177

RESUMO

Background Cystathionine is an intermediate product in the transsulfuration pathway and formed during the B6-dependent conversion of methionine to cysteine. Elevated plasma cystathionine has been related to atherosclerosis, which is a major etiological factor for ischemic stroke. However, the role of cystathionine in stroke development is unknown. Therefore, we prospectively assessed the association of circulating levels of cystathionine with risk of total and ischemic stroke. Methods and Results Two-thousand thirty-six patients (64% men; median age, 62 years) undergoing coronary angiography for suspected stable angina pectoris were included. Stroke cases were identified by linkage to the CVDNOR (Cardiovascular Disease in Norway) project. Hazard ratios with confidence intervals (95% confidence interval) were estimated by using Cox-regression analyses. During 7.3 years of median follow-up, 124 (6.1%) incident strokes were ascertained, which comprised 100 cases of ischemic stroke. There was a positive association of plasma cystathionine with risk of total stroke and ischemic stroke. Comparing the fourth versus the first cystathionine quartiles, age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) were 2.11 (1.19-3.75) and 2.56 (1.31-4.99) for total and ischemic stroke, respectively. Additional adjustment for major stroke risk factors only slightly attenuated the associations, which tended to be stronger in patients without previous or existing atrial fibrillation at baseline (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 2.43 [1.27-4.65] and 2.88 [1.39-5.98] for total and ischemic stroke, respectively). Conclusions In patients with suspected stable angina pectoris, plasma cystathionine was independently related to increased risk of total stroke and, in particular, ischemic stroke. Clinical Trial Registration URL : http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT 00354081.

10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339177

RESUMO

Background: Genetic polymorphisms can explain some of the population- and individual-based variations in nutritional status biomarkers. Objective: We sought to screen the entire human genome for common genetic polymorphisms that influence folate-status biomarkers in healthy individuals. Design: We carried out candidate gene analyses and genome-wide association scans in 2232 young, healthy Irish subjects to evaluate which common genetic polymorphisms influence red blood cell folate, serum folate, and plasma total homocysteine. Results: The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C→T (rs1801133) variant was the major genetic modifier of all 3 folate-related biomarkers in this Irish population and reached genome-wide significance for red blood cell folate (P = 1.37 × 10-17), serum folate (P = 2.82 × 10-11), and plasma total homocysteine (P = 1.26 × 10-19) concentrations. A second polymorphism in the MTHFR gene (rs3753584, P = 1.09 × 10-11) was the only additional MTHFR variant to exhibit any significant independent effect on red blood cell folate. Other MTHFR variants, including the 1298A→C variant (rs1801131), appeared to reach genome-wide significance, but these variants shared linkage disequilibrium with MTHFR 677C→T and were not significant when analyzed in MTHFR 677CC homozygotes. No additional non-MTHFR modifiers of red blood cell or plasma folate were detected. Two additional genome-wide significant modifiers of plasma homocysteine were found in the region of the dipeptidase 1 (DPEP1) gene on chromosome 16 and the Twist neighbor B (TWISTNB) gene on chromosome 7. Conclusions: The MTHFR 677C→T variant is the predominant genetic modifier of folate status biomarkers in this healthy Irish population. It is not necessary to determine MTHFR 677C→T genotype to evaluate folate status because its effect is reflected in concentrations of standard folate biomarkers. The MTHFR 1298A→C variant had no independent effect on folate status biomarkers. To our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide association study report on red blood cell folate and the first report of an association between homocysteine and TWISTNB.

11.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; : 1-6, 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30261756

RESUMO

Plasma concentrations of metabolites along the choline oxidation and tryptophan degradation pathways have been linked to lifestyle diseases and dietary habits. This study aimed to investigate how krill oil, a source of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with a high phosphatidylcholine content, affected these parameters. The pilot study was conducted as a 28 days intervention in 17 healthy volunteers (18-36 years), who received a supplement of 4.5 g krill oil per day, providing 833 mg ω-3 PUFAs, and 1750 mg phosphatidylcholine. Krill oil supplementation increased fasting plasma choline (+28.4%, p < .001), betaine (+26.6%, p < .001), dimethylglycine (+33.7%, p < .001) and sarcosine (+16.8%, p < .001), whereas no statistically significant changes were seen for plasma glycine, serine, methionine, total homocysteine, cysteine, cystathionine, methionine sulfoxide, folate, cobalamin, B2-, B3-, and B6 vitamers, tryptophan, kynurenines, nicotinamide, vitamin A and vitamin E. In summary, krill oil supplementation influenced choline metabolite levels, but not plasma metabolites of the tryptophan-kynurenine-nicotinamide pathways and vitamins. These observations should be confirmed in a placebo-controlled trial, including an ω-3 PUFA supplement without phospholipids to explore the potential additive effects of the different active ingredients.

12.
Epidemiology ; 29(6): 848-856, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30074542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A few prospective studies suggest an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and lower risk of type 1 diabetes. However, the role of unmeasured confounding and misclassification remains unclear. METHODS: We comprehensively evaluated whether maternal smoking in pregnancy predicts lower risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes in two Scandinavian pregnancy cohorts (185,076 children; 689 cases) and a Norwegian register-based cohort (434,627 children; 692 cases). We measured cord blood cotinine as an objective marker of nicotine exposure during late pregnancy in 154 cases and 476 controls. We also examined paternal smoking during pregnancy, in addition to environmental tobacco smoke exposure the first 6 months of life, to clarify the role of characteristics of smokers in general. RESULTS: In the pregnancy cohorts, maternal smoking beyond gestational week 12 was inversely associated with type 1 diabetes, pooled adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.66 (95% CI = 0.51, 0.85). Similarly, in the Norwegian register-based cohort, children of mothers who still smoked at the end of pregnancy had lower risk of type 1 diabetes, aHR 0.65 (95% CI = 0.47, 0.89). Cord blood cotinine ≥30 nmol/L was also associated with reduced risk of type 1 diabetes, adjusted odds ratio 0.42 (95% CI = 0.17, 1.0). We observed no associations of paternal smoking during pregnancy, or environmental tobacco smoke exposure, with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. CONCLUSION: Maternal sustained smoking during pregnancy is associated with lower risk of type 1 diabetes in children. This sheds new light on the potential intrauterine environmental origins of the disease.

13.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 25(15): 1612-1620, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30014716

RESUMO

Background Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) has been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Vitamin A (Vit-A) is involved in homocysteine metabolism and we therefore explored the potential interaction between plasma tHcy and serum Vit-A in relation to incident acute myocardial infarction. Methods Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the prospective relationships between tHcy and acute myocardial infarction in 2205 patients from Western Norway undergoing elective coronary angiography for suspected stable angina pectoris. Results are reported as hazard ratio per standard deviation increase in log-transformed tHcy. An interaction term for tHcy × Vit-A was added to multivariate models including age, sex, smoking, apolipoprotein B fasting, statin and aspirin prescription and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Results Geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) age of the participants (64.3% men) was 62.3 (1.24) years. Plasma tHcy was higher among participants in the upper versus lower Vit-A tertile. During 7 (2.4) years of follow-up, 15.1% suffered an AMI. A significant association of plasma tHcy with AMI in the total study population was observed. When we stratified the population according to Vit-A tertiles, plasma tHcy was associated with acute myocardial infarction only in the upper Vit-A tertile (hazard ratio per SD: 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.53, pinteraction = 0.03). Conclusions The risk relationship between plasma tHcy and acute myocardial infarction was modified by serum concentrations of Vit-A in patients with suspected stable angina pectoris. This finding may clarify the relationship between tHcy and cardiovascular disease.

14.
Mol Genet Metab Rep ; 16: 20-22, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988937

RESUMO

The glycine cleavage system (GCS) is a complex of four enzymes enabling glycine to serve as a source of one-carbon units to the cell. We asked whether concentrations of glycine, dimethylglycine, formate, and serine in blood are influenced by variation within GCS genes in a sample of young, healthy individuals. Fifty-two variants tagging (r2 < 0.9) the four GCS genes were tested; one variant, GLDC rs2297442-G, was significantly associated (p = .0007) with decreased glycine concentrations in serum.

15.
Pediatr Res ; 2018 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many children worldwide have poor vitamin B12 status. The objective of this study was to estimate association between maternal and infant vitamin B12 status and long-term growth. METHODS: We randomly selected 500 Nepali mother-infant pairs and measured maternal intake and infant and maternal vitamin B12 status using plasma cobalamin, total plasma homocysteine, and methylmalonic acid concentrations. We revisited available children when they were 5 years old and measured growth. The associations between intake and maternal and infant markers of vitamin B12 and growth were estimated in multiple linear regression models adjusting for relevant confounders (n = 331). RESULTS: Maternal vitamin B12 intake and status and vitamin B12 status in infancy predicted linear growth at 5 years of age, but not during infancy. Each microgram increase in the vitamin B12 intake of the mother during infancy was associated with an increase in height of 0.4 (0.2, 0.6) height-for-age z-scores and 1.7 (0.7, 2.7) cm around the child's fifth birthday. CONCLUSION: Vitamin B12 status and intake in early life is an important determinant for linear growth at school age. Our findings should be verified in randomized, placebo controlled trials before translated into public health recommendations.

16.
J Nutr ; 148(5): 738-745, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29947806

RESUMO

Background: An adequate maternal cobalamin status is crucial for fetal and infant neurodevelopment. Pregnancy-induced physiologic changes make evaluation of maternal cobalamin status in pregnancy difficult. Objective: We have investigated maternal cobalamin status during pregnancy in order to establish a maternal cobalamin concentration which secures an optimal infant cobalamin status during the first 6 mo of life. Methods: In an observational, prospective study, markers of cobalamin status including serum cobalamin, plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), and plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA) were assessed in healthy pregnant women (n = 114) from week 18 of pregnancy through 6 mo postpartum and related to infant cobalamin status at 6 mo. Healthy, never-pregnant women aged 18-40 y (n = 123) were included as controls. Results: Compared to controls, all markers of cobalamin status were lower in pregnant women. Median serum cobalamin concentration progressively decreased from week 18 to week 36 of pregnancy (356 to 302 pmol/L, P < 0.001) and increased by >40% by 6 wk postpartum (518 pmol/L). The metabolic markers increased from week 18 of pregnancy to 6 wk postpartum: median plasma tHcy 3.9 to 7.7 µmol/L (P < 0.001), and MMA 0.13 to 0.17 µmol/L (P < 0.001). The serum cobalamin concentration of infants at age 6 mo correlated with maternal serum cobalamin concentration during pregnancy and postpartum (rho = 0.36-0.55, P < 0.001). A maternal serum cobalamin concentration <394 pmol/L during week 18 of pregnancy was associated with an increased risk (OR: 4.2; 95% CI: 1.5, 11.5) of infant biochemical cobalamin deficiency at 6 mo (defined as tHcy ≥6.5 µmol/L). Conclusions: The maternal serum cobalamin concentration in early pregnancy is a strong predictor for later maternal and infant cobalamin status. To secure an optimal infant cobalamin status during the first 6 mo of life, we recommend a maternal serum cobalamin concentration >394 pmol/L at week 18 of pregnancy. This should be confirmed in an intervention study. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03272022.

17.
Int J Cardiol ; 267: 100-106, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29957250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasma trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is associated with cardiovascular disease; however specific relationships with cardiac arrhythmias are unknown. We evaluated the association between plasma TMAO and incident atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: Risk associations were explored among 3797 patients with suspected stable angina in the Western Norway Coronary Angiography Cohort (WECAC) and verified in 3143 elderly participants in the community-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK). Information on endpoints was obtained from nationwide registries. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 7.3 and 10.8 years in the WECAC and HUSK cohorts, respectively, and 412 (10.9%) and 484 (15.4%) subjects were registered with incident AF. The age and gender adjusted HRs were 1.16, 95% CI 1.05-1.28 and 1.10, 95% CI 1.004-1.19 per 1 SD increase in log-transformed plasma TMAO. Adjusting for hypertension, BMI, smoking, diabetes, or intake of total choline, a TMAO precursor, did not materially influence the risk associations. Among patients in WECAC, further extensive adjustment for other AF risk factors yielded similar results. Adding TMAO to traditional AF risk factors (age, gender, hypertension, BMI, smoking and diabetes) yielded a continuous net reclassification improvement of 0.108, 95% CI 0.015-0.202 and 0.139, 95% CI 0.042-0.235. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma TMAO was associated with and improved reclassification of incident AF in two independent Norwegian cohorts with long-term follow-up. The relationship was independent of traditional AF risk factors, as well as of dietary choline intake. Our findings motivate further studies to explore endogenous metabolic factors influencing the relationship between TMAO and cardiovascular disease.

18.
Int J Cardiol ; 266: 24-30, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystathionine is a thio-ether and a metabolite formed from homocysteine during transsulfuration. Elevated plasma cystathionine levels are reported in patients with cardiovascular disease; however prospective relationships with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are unknown. We investigated associations between plasma cystathionine and AMI among patients with suspected and/or verified coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Subjects from two independent cohort studies, the Western Norway Coronary Angiography Cohort (WECAC) (3033 patients with stable angina pectoris; 263 events within 4.8 years of median follow-up) and the Norwegian Vitamin Trial (NORVIT) (3670 patients with AMI; 683 events within 3.2 years of median follow-up) were included. RESULTS: In both cohorts, plasma cystathionine was associated with several traditional CHD risk factors (P < 0.001). Comparing the cystathionine quartile 4 to 1, age and gender adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for AMI were 2.08 (1.43-3.03) and 1.41 (1.12-1.76) in WECAC and NORVIT, respectively. Additional adjustment for traditional risk factors slightly attenuated the risk estimates, which were generally stronger in both cohorts among non-smokers, patients with higher age, and lower BMI or PLP status (P-interaction ≤ 0.04). Risk associations also tended to be stronger in patients not treated with B-vitamins. Additionally, in a subset of 80 WECAC patients, plasma cystathionine associated strongly negatively with glutathione, an important antioxidant and positively with lanthionine, a marker of H2S production (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Plasma cystathionine is associated with increased risk of AMI among patients with either suspected or verified coronary heart disease, and is possibly related to altered redox homeostasis.

19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 107(5): 789-798, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29722838

RESUMO

Background: Western diets may provide excess vitamin A, which is potentially toxic and could adversely affect respiratory health and counteract benefits from vitamin D. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine child asthma at age 7 y in relation to maternal intake of vitamins A and D during pregnancy, infant supplementation with these vitamins, and their potential interaction. Design: We studied 61,676 school-age children (born during 2002-2007) from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort with data on maternal total (food and supplement) nutrient intake in pregnancy (food-frequency questionnaire validated against biomarkers) and infant supplement use at age 6 mo (n = 54,142 children). Linkage with the Norwegian Prescription Database enabled near-complete follow-up (end of second quarter in 2015) for dispensed medications to classify asthma. We used log-binomial regression to calculate adjusted RRs (aRRs) for asthma with 95% CIs. Results: Asthma increased according to maternal intake of total vitamin A [retinol activity equivalents (RAEs)] in the highest (≥2031 RAEs/d) compared with the lowest (≤779 RAEs/d) quintile (aRR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.40) and decreased for total vitamin D in the highest (≥13.6 µg/d) compared with the lowest (≤3.5 µg/d) quintile (aRR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.97) during pregnancy. No association was observed for maternal intake in the highest quintiles of both nutrients (aRR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.18) and infant supplementation with vitamin D or cod liver oil. Conclusions: Excess vitamin A (≥2.5 times the recommended intake) during pregnancy was associated with increased risk, whereas vitamin D intake close to recommendations was associated with a reduced risk of asthma in school-age children. No association for high intakes of both nutrients suggests antagonistic effects of vitamins A and D. This trial was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03197233.

20.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0196465, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29734388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6, is associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Data on functional measures of vitamin B6 status and risk of pancreatic cancer is lacking. METHODS: A nested case-control study involving 187 incident cases of pancreatic cancer and 362 individually matched controls were conducted within two prospective cohorts to evaluate the associations between kynurenine metabolites in pre-diagnostic serum samples and risk of pancreatic cancer. RESULTS: Higher serum concentrations of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (HAA) and the HAA:3-hydroxykynurenine (HK) ratio (a measure for in vivo functional status of PLP) were significantly associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Compared with the lowest tertile, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of pancreatic cancer for the highest tertile was 0.62 (0.39, 1.01) for HAA, and 0.59 (0.35-0.98) for the HAA:HK ratio, after adjustment for potential confounders and serum PLP (both Ps for trend<0.05). The kynurenine:tryptophan ratio or neopterin was not significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: The inverse association between HAA or the HAA:HK ratio and risk of pancreatic cancer supports the notion that functional status of PLP may be a more important measure than circulating PLP alone for the development of pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Ácido 3-Hidroxiantranílico/análise , Cinurenina/análogos & derivados , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Feminino , Humanos , Cinurenina/análise , Cinurenina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Fosfato de Piridoxal/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina B 6/sangue
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