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1.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957568

RESUMO

Cysteine is a semi-essential amino acid that has been positively associated with growth in children. However, transgenerational effects remain unclear. The aim of this analysis was to assess whether maternal plasma total cysteine (tCys) concentration is associated with various growth indicators in infants living in peri-urban settings in Bhaktapur, Nepal. We used data from the 561 mothers enrolled in an ongoing randomized controlled trial. We built linear regression models to evaluate the associations between maternal tCys and birth weight, length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ) and weight-for-length Z-scores (WLZ) at birth and six months of age. Maternal tCys was inversely associated with birth weight among boys after adjusting for confounders (p < 0.05). In addition, there was a negative association between maternal tCys and LAZ at birth (p < 0.01). No associations between maternal tCys and the other anthropometric indicators were found significant, although there was a tendency for maternal tCys to be associated positively with WLZ at birth among girls (p < 0.10). This is a first study evaluating transgenerational relation of tCys on growth in infants. Further, larger and more comprehensive studies are needed to determine if and how maternal tCys alters child growth.

2.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(10): 817-828, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655010

RESUMO

Obesity and obesity-driven cancer rates are continuing to rise worldwide. We hypothesize that adipocyte-colonocyte interactions are a key driver of obesity-associated cancers. To understand the clinical relevance of visceral adipose tissue in advancing tumor growth, we analyzed paired tumor-adjacent visceral adipose, normal mucosa, and colorectal tumor tissues as well as presurgery blood samples from patients with sporadic colorectal cancer. We report that high peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) visceral adipose tissue expression is associated with glycoprotein VI (GPVI) signaling-the major signaling receptor for collagen-as well as fibrosis and adipogenesis pathway signaling in colorectal tumors. These associations were supported by correlations between PPARG visceral adipose tissue expression and circulating levels of plasma 4-hydroxyproline and serum intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), as well as gene set enrichment analysis and joint gene-metabolite pathway results integration that yielded significant enrichment of genes defining epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-as in fibrosis and metastasis-and genes involved in glycolytic metabolism, confirmed this association. We also reveal that elevated prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) colorectal tumor expression is associated with a fibrotic signature in adipose-tumor crosstalk via GPVI signaling and dendritic cell maturation in visceral adipose tissue. Systemic metabolite and biomarker profiling confirmed that high PTGS2 expression in colorectal tumors is significantly associated with higher concentrations of serum amyloid A and glycine, and lower concentrations of sphingomyelin, in patients with colorectal cancer. This multi-omics study suggests that adipose-tumor crosstalk in patients with colorectal cancer is a critical microenvironment interaction that could be therapeutically targeted.See related spotlight by Colacino et al., p. 803.

3.
Diabetes ; 69(9): 1903-1916, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586980

RESUMO

Circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) associate with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. 3-Hydroxyisobutyrate (3-HIB) is a catabolic intermediate of the BCAA valine. In this study, we show that in a cohort of 4,942 men and women, circulating 3-HIB is elevated according to levels of hyperglycemia and established type 2 diabetes. In complementary cohorts with measures of insulin resistance, we found positive correlates for circulating 3-HIB concentrations with HOMA2 of insulin resistance, as well as a transient increase in 3-HIB followed by a marked decrease after bariatric surgery and weight loss. During differentiation, both white and brown adipocytes upregulate BCAA utilization and release increasing amounts of 3-HIB. Knockdown of the 3-HIB-forming enzyme 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase decreases release of 3-HIB and lipid accumulation in both cell types. Conversely, addition of 3-HIB to white and brown adipocyte cultures increases fatty acid uptake and modulated insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in a time-dependent manner. Finally, 3-HIB treatment decreases mitochondrial oxygen consumption and generation of reactive oxygen species in white adipocytes, while increasing these measures in brown adipocytes. Our data establish 3-HIB as a novel adipocyte-derived regulator of adipocyte subtype-specific functions strongly linked to obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes.

4.
Int J Cardiol ; 317: 75-80, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is elevated in patients with persistent vs. paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF), and has been related to increased risk of new-onset AF. Homocysteine is degraded to cystathionine (Cysta) and cysteine (Cys). All three metabolites have been linked to potential proarrhythmic traits such as inflammation and atrial fibrosis. We evaluated the prospective association between these metabolites and new-onset AF among patients with suspected stable angina pectoris. METHODS: Information regarding AF was obtained by linking patient data to national health registries. Risk associations were explored by Cox regression and potential improvements in risk reclassification were calculated by the continuous net reclassification index (NRI > 0). RESULTS: At baseline, 3535 patients without any prior history of AF were included. During median follow-up of 7.4 years, 392 patients (10.2%) were registered with incident AF. Higher plasma tHcy and tCys were associated with increased risk of incident AF [age and gender adjusted HRs (95% CI) per 1 log transformed SD 1.23 (1.12-1.35) and 1.23 (1.11-1.38)]; multivariate adjustment yielded similar results. Plasma tHcy and tCys also improved reclassification of patients (NRI > 0 (95% CI)) for tHcy 0.118 (0.02-0.22) and tCys 0.107 (0.002-0.21). No association was seen between plasma Cysta and incident AF. CONCLUSION: Plasma tHcy and tCys, but not Cysta, were associated with, and improved risk classification of, new-onset AF among patients with stable angina pectoris. Our results motivate further studies to explore the relationship between homocysteine metabolism and cardiac arrhythmias.

6.
J Nutr ; 150(7): 1852-1858, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32338756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Folate and cobalamin (vitamin B-12) are essential for growth and development. However, few population-based studies have investigated B-vitamin status in children. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess biomarkers of folate and vitamin B-12 status and to explore their dietary determinants in healthy Norwegian children. METHODS: Using baseline data obtained from a randomized controlled trial on the effect of fish intake on neurodevelopment in children aged 4-6 y, we measured the plasma concentrations of folate, cobalamin, total plasma homocysteine (tHcy), and methylmalonic acid (MMA). Food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were used to assess dietary intake. We used unadjusted and multiple linear regression models to explore the determinants of biomarker concentrations. RESULTS: The median (IQR) of plasma folate (n = 197) and plasma cobalamin (n = 195) concentrations were 15.2 (12.2-21.1) nmol/L and 785 (632-905) pmol/L, respectively. Plasma folate concentrations of <10 nmol/L were observed in 13% of the children. No child had a cobalamin concentration <148 pmol/L. Two children were identified with elevated plasma MMA concentrations (>0.26 µmol/L) and 8 children had elevated tHcy concentrations (>6.5 µmol/L). Plasma folate concentration was inversely correlated with tHcy (ρ = -0.24, P < 0.001); we found no correlation between tHcy and cobalamin (ρ = -0.075, P = 0.30). Children who consumed vitamin supplements had 51% higher plasma folate concentrations (P < 0.0001) than those who did not. Consumption of red meat for dinner more than twice a week was associated with 23% lower plasma folate (P < 0.01). No other significant associations between dietary intake and the biomarkers were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The Norwegian preschool children from this cohort had adequate vitamin B-12 status. Poor folate status was common and associated with elevated tHcy. The implications of poor folate status during childhood should be a prioritized research question. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT02331667.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 147(7): 1917-1927, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222976

RESUMO

Deficiencies in methyl donor status may render DNA methylation changes and DNA damage, leading to carcinogenesis. Epidemiological studies reported that higher dietary intake of choline is associated with lower risk of pancreatic cancer, but no study has examined the association of serum choline and its metabolites with risk of pancreatic cancer. Two parallel case-control studies, one nested within the Shanghai Cohort Study (129 cases and 258 controls) and the other within the Singapore Chinese Health Study (58 cases and 104 controls), were conducted to evaluate the associations of baseline serum concentrations of choline, betaine, methionine, total methyl donors (i.e., sum of choline, betaine and methionine), dimethylglycine and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) with pancreatic cancer risk. In the Shanghai cohort, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of pancreatic cancer for the highest quartile of choline, betaine, methionine, total methyl donors and TMAO were 0.27 (0.11-0.69), 0.57 (0.31-1.05), 0.50 (0.26-0.96), 0.37 (0.19-0.73) and 2.81 (1.37-5.76), respectively, compared to the lowest quartile. The corresponding figures in the Singapore cohort were 0.85 (0.23-3.17), 0.50 (0.17-1.45), 0.17 (0.04-0.68), 0.33 (0.10-1.16) and 1.42 (0.50-4.04). The inverse associations of methionine and total methyl donors including choline, betaine and methionine with pancreatic cancer risk in both cohorts support that DNA repair and methylation play an important role against the development of pancreatic cancer. In the Shanghai cohort, TMAO, a gut microbiota-derived metabolite of dietary phosphatidylcholine, may contribute to higher risk of pancreatic cancer, suggesting a modifying role of gut microbiota in the dietary choline-pancreatic cancer risk association.

8.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-11, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127061

RESUMO

Evidence linking fasting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T genotype with hypertension is inconsistent. Differences in B vitamin status, other lifestyle factors or their consideration in analyses might explain this. We investigated these associations in the absence of mandatory fortification with folic acid and B vitamin supplement use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 788 adults, aged 18-75 years, randomly selected from three Catalonian town population registers. Fasting plasma folate, cobalamin, tHcy, erythrocyte folate, erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient (EGRAC, functional riboflavin status indicator; increasing EGRAC indicates worsening riboflavin status), MTHFR 677C>T and solute carrier family 1 (SLC19A1) 80 G>A genotypes were determined. Medical history and lifestyle habits were recorded. Principal tHcy determinants differed between women (age, plasma folate, plasma cobalamin, cigarettes/d) and men (MTHFR 677TT genotype, plasma folate, plasma cobalamin and CT genotype). The MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism-tHcy association (ß standardised regression coefficients) was stronger in male smokers (0·52, P < 0·001) compared with non-smokers (0·21, P = 0·001) and weaker in participants aged >50 years (0·19, P = 0·007) compared with ≤50 years (0·31, P < 0·001). Hypertension was more probable in the third tHcy tertile compared with other tertiles (OR 1·9; 95 % CI 1·2, 3·0), and in participants aged ≤50 years, for the MTHFR 677TT genotype compared with the CC genotype (OR 4·1; 95 % CI 1·0, 16·9). EGRAC was associated with increased probability of hypertension in participants aged >50 years (OR 6·2; 95 % CI 1·0, 38·7). In conclusion, moderately elevated tHcy and the MTHFR 677CT genotype were associated with hypertension. The MTHFR 677C>T genotype-hypertension association was confined to adults aged ≤50 years.

9.
Biochimie ; 173: 62-67, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962182

RESUMO

The association between elevated early pregnancy fasting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and miscarriage risk was investigated prospectively in participants (n = 544) from the Reus-Tarragona Birth Cohort study. Pregnancy was confirmed before 12 gestational weeks (GW) by ultrasound scan and a fasting blood sample collected. Pregnancies with complications other than miscarriages were excluded. Miscarriages were diagnosed by ultrasound scan and gestational age at the time of miscarriage estimated by embryo size, where possible. Cases in which blood samples were collected more than a week after the miscarriage, or the miscarriage was of known cause, were excluded. Fasting plasma folate, vitamin B12, tHcy, cotinine (biomarker of smoking), red blood cell (RBC) folate, MTHFR 677C > T (rs1801133) and SLC19A1 80G>A (rs1051266) genotypes were determined. The exposed group consisted of participants with first trimester tHcy ≥ P90 (7.1 µmol/L) (n = 57) and unexposed of those with tHcy < P90 (n = 487). Adherence to folic acid supplement recommendations, plasma folate, plasma vitamin B12, RBC folate and prevalence of optimal RBC folate status (≥ 906 µmol/L) were lower in the exposed compared to unexposed group. The prevalences of the MTHFR 677 TT genotype and miscarriage were higher in the exposed group. The relative risks (95% CI) of pregnancy ending in miscarriage were 2.5 (1.1, 5.7) and 2.1 (1.0, 4.5) for participants in the high tHcy and suboptimal RBC folate groups (compared to the reference groups) respectively. Adherence to folic acid supplement recommendations was positively associated, while the MTHFR 677 TT versus CC genotype and smoking versus non-smoking were negatively associated, with RBC folate status.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 146(9): 2394-2405, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276202

RESUMO

Cell-mediated immune suppression may play an important role in lung carcinogenesis. We investigated the associations for circulating levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (KTR), quinolinic acid (QA) and neopterin as markers of immune regulation and inflammation with lung cancer risk in 5,364 smoking-matched case-control pairs from 20 prospective cohorts included in the international Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. All biomarkers were quantified by mass spectrometry-based methods in serum/plasma samples collected on average 6 years before lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung cancer associated with individual biomarkers were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for circulating cotinine. Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintiles of kynurenine, KTR, QA and neopterin were associated with a 20-30% higher risk, and tryptophan with a 15% lower risk of lung cancer (all ptrend < 0.05). The strongest associations were seen for current smokers, where the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of lung cancer for the highest quintile of KTR, QA and neopterin were 1.42 (1.15-1.75), 1.42 (1.14-1.76) and 1.45 (1.13-1.86), respectively. A stronger association was also seen for KTR and QA with risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma followed by adenocarcinoma, and for lung cancer diagnosed within the first 2 years after blood draw. This study demonstrated that components of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway with immunomodulatory effects are associated with risk of lung cancer overall, especially for current smokers. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of these biomarkers in lung carcinogenesis and progression.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 146(12): 3256-3266, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495913

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death globally, with marked differences in prognosis by disease stage at diagnosis. We studied circulating metabolites in relation to disease stage to improve the understanding of metabolic pathways related to colorectal cancer progression. We investigated plasma concentrations of 130 metabolites among 744 Stages I-IV colorectal cancer patients from ongoing cohort studies. Plasma samples, collected at diagnosis, were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ™ p180 kit. We assessed associations between metabolite concentrations and stage using multinomial and multivariable logistic regression models. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders as well as multiple testing using false discovery rate (FDR) correction. Patients presented with 23, 28, 39 and 10% of Stages I-IV disease, respectively. Concentrations of sphingomyelin C26:0 were lower in Stage III patients compared to Stage I patients (pFDR < 0.05). Concentrations of sphingomyelin C18:0 and phosphatidylcholine (diacyl) C32:0 were statistically significantly higher, while citrulline, histidine, phosphatidylcholine (diacyl) C34:4, phosphatidylcholine (acyl-alkyl) C40:1 and lysophosphatidylcholines (acyl) C16:0 and C17:0 concentrations were lower in Stage IV compared to Stage I patients (pFDR < 0.05). Our results suggest that metabolic pathways involving among others citrulline and histidine, implicated previously in colorectal cancer development, may also be linked to colorectal cancer progression.

12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(1): 178-186, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin B-6 status is routinely measured as pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) in plasma. Low concentrations of PLP are associated with rheumatic, cardiovascular, and neoplastic diseases. We have previously shown that vitamin B-6 status affects the kynurenine (Kyn) pathway of tryptophan (Trp) catabolism. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate the use of Kyns as potential markers of functional vitamin B-6 status across 2 large cohorts. METHODS: We measured circulating concentrations of the first 6 metabolites in the Trp catabolic pathway by LC-MS-MS in the community-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK; n = 7017) and cardiovascular patient-based Western Norway Coronary Angiography Cohort (WECAC; n = 4161). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of plasma PLP with Kyns were estimated using linear and nonlinear regression-based methods. RESULTS: 3'-Hydroxykynurenine (HK), a substrate, and all 4 products formed directly by the PLP-dependent enzymes kynurenine transaminase and kynureninase contributed to the explanation of circulating PLP in multivariable-adjusted regression models. The construct HK:(kynurenic acid + xanthurenic acid + 3'-hydroxyanthranilic acid + anthranilic acid), termed HK ratio (HKr), was related to plasma PLP with standardized regression coefficients (95% CIs) of -0.47 (-0.49, -0.45) and -0.46 (-0.49, -0.43) in HUSK and WECAC, respectively. Across strata of cohort and sex, HKr was 1.3- to 2.7-fold more sensitive, but also 1.7- to 2.9-fold more specific to changes in PLP than a previously proposed marker, HK:xanthurenic acid. Notably, the association was strongest at PLP concentrations < âˆ¼20 nmol/L, a recognized threshold for vitamin B-6 deficiency. Finally, PLP and HKr demonstrated highly sex-specific and corroborating associations with age. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that by combining 5 metabolites in the Kyn pathway into a simple index, HKr, a sensitive and specific indicator of intracellular vitamin B-6 status is obtained. The data also underscore the merit of evaluating alterations in Kyn metabolism when investigating vitamin B-6 and health.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Triptofano/metabolismo , Vitamina B 6/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Cinurenina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfato de Piridoxal/sangue , Vitamina B 6/metabolismo
13.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502058

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We hypothesized that biomarkers and dietary factors related to cardiovascular disease risk were associated with serum retinol and evaluated these potential associations in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from 4116 patients hospitalised for suspected CAD. Dietary data were obtained from a subgroup of 1962 patients using a food frequency questionnaire. Potential biomarkers and dietary factors were explored using linear regression modelling adjusted for age and sex. Regression coefficients and corresponding confidence intervals (CI) are given as  % change in serum retinol per unit change in the predictors. Analyses were performed in the total population and in strata of serum retinol tertiles. RESULTS: In age- and sex-adjusted models, serum creatinine (standardized ß: 0.38, 95% CI [0.35, 0.42]), plasma total cysteine (0.26, [0.23, 0.29]), serum uric acid (0.30, [0.26, 0.33]) and plasma neopterin (0.22, [0.18, 0.25]) were positively associated, whereas plasma serine (- 0.15, [- 0.18, - 0.12]) and serum C-reactive protein (- 0.15, [- 0.18, - 0.12]) were inversely associated with serum retinol. When we included the significant biomarkers in a multivariate model, the model explained 33% of the variability (R2 = 0.33) in serum retinol. The results were similar in the lower and upper tertiles of serum retinol. Weak or no associations were observed for dietary factors. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with suspected CAD, concentrations of creatinine, cysteine and uric acid were positively associated with serum retinol. Future studies should assess whether retinol concentrations are influenced by metabolic alterations in patients at risk of cardiovascular disease.

14.
J Nutr ; 149(5): 770-775, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A frequent observation in inflammatory conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), is low circulating amounts of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the metabolically active form of vitamin B-6. Recently, a functional marker of vitamin B-6 status, the ratio of 3-hydroxykynurenine (HK): xanthurenic acid (XA) in plasma (HK: XA), was proposed. OBJECTIVE: We investigated vitamin B-6 status in patients with RA before and after established treatment with TNFα inhibitors. METHODS: We performed a longitudinal study of RA patients (n = 106, 36% men, median age 54 y) starting first treatment with a TNFα inhibitor (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab, or certolizumab). Clinical assessment (Disease Activity Score for 28 standard joints, DAS28), joint ultrasonography, and blood draw were performed at baseline and after 3 mo treatment. Plasma concentrations of PLP, HK, and XA were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Associations of changes in vitamin B-6 markers with change in DAS28 were assessed by generalized additive models regression and with European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response categories by linear regression. RESULTS: At baseline PLP was inversely correlated with CRP (ρ = -0.27, P = 0.007), whereas HK: XA correlated with DAS28 (ρ = 0.46, P < 0.001), CRP (ρ = 0.36, P < 0.001), and ultrasonography scores (ρ = 0.29-0.35, P ≤ 0.003). After 3 mo treatment, the change (a 33% overall reduction) in DAS28 was related to changes in both PLP (ß = -0.28, P = 0.01) and HK: XA (ß = 0.33, P < 0.001). Good responders (45%) according to EULAR criteria experienced a 31% increase in PLP (P = 0.003) and an 11% decrease in HK: XA (P = 0.1), whereas nonresponders (24%) experienced a 25% increase in HK: XA (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Two independent measures of vitamin B-6 status confirm an association with disease activity in RA patients. The association of HK: XA with disease activity may also imply perturbations in kynurenine metabolism in RA. This trial was registered at helseforskning.etikkom.no as 2011/490.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Nutricional , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Deficiência de Vitamina B 6/complicações , Vitamina B 6/sangue , Adulto , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Cinurenina/análogos & derivados , Cinurenina/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfato de Piridoxal/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina B 6/sangue , Xanturenatos/sangue
15.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(7): 637-649, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037572

RESUMO

Ecological observations suggest an inverse relationship between smoking in pregnancy and celiac disease (CD) in offspring. While individual-level analyses have been inconsistent, they have mostly lacked statistical power or refined assessments of exposure. To examine the association between pregnancy-related smoking and CD in the offspring, as well as its consistency across data sets, we analyzed: (1) The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa) of 94,019 children, followed from birth (2000-2009) through 2016, with 1035 developing CD; (2) a subsample from MoBa (381 with CD and 529 controls) with biomarkers; and (3) a register-based cohort of 536,861 Norwegian children, followed from birth (2004-2012) through 2014, with 1919 developing CD. Smoking behaviors were obtained from pregnancy questionnaires and antenatal visits, or, in the MoBa-subsample, defined by measurement of cord blood cotinine. CD and potential confounders were identified through nationwide registers and comprehensive parental questionnaires. Sustained smoking during pregnancy, both self-reported and cotinine-determined, was inversely associated with CD in MoBa (multivariable-adjusted [a] OR = 0.61 [95%CI, 0.46-0.82] and aOR = 0.55 [95%CI, 0.31-0.98], respectively); an inverse association was also found with the intensity of smoking. These findings differed from those of our register-based cohort, which revealed no association with sustained smoking during pregnancy (aOR = 0.97 [95%CI, 0.80-1.18]). In MoBa, neither maternal smoking before or after pregnancy, nor maternal or paternal smoking in only early pregnancy predicted CD. In a carefully followed pregnancy cohort, a more-detailed smoking assessment than oft-used register-based data, revealed that sustained smoking during pregnancy, rather than any smoking exposure, predicts decreased likelihood of childhood-diagnosed CD.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/epidemiologia , Cotinina/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Celíaca/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Antígenos HLA , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães , Noruega/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fumar/sangue , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar
16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(6): 1546-1554, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated circulating cystathionine levels are related to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of death globally. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether plasma cystathionine was associated with mortality in patients with suspected or established coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Data from 2 independent cohorts of patients with suspected stable angina pectoris (SAP) (3033 patients; median 10.7 y follow-up; 648 deaths) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (3670 patients; median 7.0 y follow-up; 758 deaths) were included. Hazard ratios with 95% CIs per SD increment of log-transformed cystathionine were calculated using Cox regression modeling. Endpoint data was obtained from a national health registry. RESULTS: Among patients with SAP, there was a positive association between plasma cystathionine and death (age- and sex-adjusted HRs [95% CI] per SD: 1.23 [1.14, 1.32], 1.29 [1.16, 1.44], and 1.17 [1.05, 1.29] for total, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality, respectively). Corresponding risk estimates were 1.28 (1.19, 1.37) for all-cause, 1.33 (1.22, 1.45) for cardiovascular, and 1.19 (1.06, 1.34) for noncardiovascular death among AMI patients. In both cohorts, estimates were slightly attenuated after multivariate adjustments for established CHD risk factors. Subgroup analyses showed that the relation between cystathionine and all-cause mortality in SAP patients was stronger among nonsmokers and those with lower plasma concentration of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (P-interaction ≤ 0.01 for both). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated plasma cystathionine is associated with both cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality among patients with suspected or established CHD. The joint risk associations of high plasma cystathionine with lifestyle factors and impaired vitamin B-6 status on mortality need further investigation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00354081 and NCT00266487.


Assuntos
Angina Estável/mortalidade , Cistationina/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Angina Estável/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina B 6/sangue
17.
BMJ ; 364: k4981, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To conduct a comprehensive analysis of prospectively measured circulating high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration and risk of lung cancer overall, by smoking status (never, former, and current smokers), and histological sub-type. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. SETTING: 20 population based cohort studies in Asia, Europe, Australia, and the United States. PARTICIPANTS: 5299 patients with incident lung cancer, with individually incidence density matched controls. EXPOSURE: Circulating hsCRP concentrations in prediagnostic serum or plasma samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident lung cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: A positive association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer for current (odds ratio associated with a doubling in hsCRP concentration 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.13) and former smokers (1.09, 1.04 to 1.14) was observed, but not for never smokers (P<0.01 for interaction). This association was strong and consistent across all histological subtypes, except for adenocarcinoma, which was not strongly associated with hsCRP concentration regardless of smoking status (odds ratio for adenocarcinoma overall 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.01). The association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer was strongest in the first two years of follow-up for former and current smokers. Including hsCRP concentration in a risk model, in addition to smoking based variables, did not improve risk discrimination overall, but slightly improved discrimination for cancers diagnosed in the first two years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Former and current smokers with higher circulating hsCRP concentrations had a higher risk of lung cancer overall. Circulating hsCRP concentration was not associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma. Circulating hsCRP concentration could be a prediagnostic marker of lung cancer rather than a causal risk factor.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Fumar/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ex-Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Cancer ; 145(6): 1499-1503, 2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499135

RESUMO

Vitamin B supplementation can have side effects for human health, including cancer risk. We aimed to elucidate the role of vitamin B12 in lung cancer etiology via direct measurements of pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin B12 concentrations in a nested case-control study, complemented with a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach in an independent case-control sample. We used pre-diagnostic biomarker data from 5183 case-control pairs nested within 20 prospective cohorts, and genetic data from 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls. Exposures included directly measured circulating vitamin B12 in pre-diagnostic blood samples from the nested case-control study, and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with vitamin B12 concentrations in the MR study. Our main outcome of interest was increased risk for lung cancer, overall and by histological subtype, per increase in circulating vitamin B12 concentrations. We found circulating vitamin B12 to be positively associated with overall lung cancer risk in a dose response fashion (odds ratio for a doubling in B12 [ORlog2B12 ] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.06-1.25). The MR analysis based on 8 genetic variants also indicated that genetically determined higher vitamin B12 concentrations were positively associated with overall lung cancer risk (OR per 150 pmol/L standard deviation increase in B12 [ORSD ] = 1.08, 95%CI = 1.00-1.16). Considering the consistency of these two independent and complementary analyses, these findings support the hypothesis that high vitamin B12 status increases the risk of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar
19.
Int J Cancer ; 144(8): 1909-1917, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30318764

RESUMO

B-group vitamins, as components of the one carbon metabolism pathway, are involved in DNA synthesis, repair and methylation. Our aim was to investigate associations between circulating plasma levels of B vitamins and urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC). We conducted a nested case-control study of UCC within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. B vitamins were measured in pre-diagnostic plasma samples. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) for UCC risk associated with circulating B vitamins in 363 matched cases and controls. In a case-only analysis (N = 390), hazard ratios (HR) for overall survival associated with plasma B vitamins were estimated using Cox regression. There were no strong associations between UCC risk and pre-diagnostic levels of plasma B vitamins. No heterogeneity in UCC risk was observed by subtype (invasive or superficial), sex, smoking status or alcohol intake. There was no heterogeneity by country of birth for most B vitamins, except for folate (p-homogeneity = 0.03). In UCC cases, there were no strong associations between plasma B vitamins and overall survival. We found no associations between pre-diagnostic plasma concentrations of B-group vitamins and UCC risk or survival.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Complexo Vitamínico B/sangue , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/sangue
20.
Int J Cancer ; 144(5): 947-956, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29786139

RESUMO

One-carbon metabolism biomarkers are easily measured in plasma, but analyzing them one at a time in relation to disease does not take into account the interdependence of the many factors involved. The relative dynamics of major one-carbon metabolism branches can be assessed by relating the functional B-vitamin marker total homocysteine (tHcy) to transsulfuration (total cysteine) and methylation (creatinine) outputs. We validated the ratios of tHcy to total cysteine (Hcy:Cys), tHcy to creatinine (Hcy:Cre) and tHcy to cysteine to creatinine (Hcy:Cys:Cre) as functional markers of B-vitamin status. We also calculated the associations of these ratios to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Furthermore, the relative contribution of potential confounders to the variance of the ratio-based B-vitamin markers was calculated by linear regression in a nested case-control study of 613 CRC cases and 1,190 matched controls. Total B-vitamin status was represented by a summary score comprising Z-standardized plasma concentrations of folate, cobalamin, betaine, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and riboflavin. Associations with CRC risk were estimated using conditional logistic regression. We found that the ratio-based B-vitamin markers all outperformed tHcy as markers of total B-vitamin status, in both CRC cases and controls. In addition, associations with CRC risk were similar for the ratio-based B-vitamin markers and total B-vitamin status (approximately 25% lower risk for high vs. low B-vitamin status). In conclusion, ratio-based B-vitamin markers were good predictors of total B-vitamin status and displayed similar associations as total B-vitamin status with CRC risk. Since tHcy and creatinine are routinely clinically analyzed, Hcy:Cre could be easily implemented in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Complexo Vitamínico B/metabolismo , Betaína/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Creatinina/metabolismo , Cisteína/metabolismo , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Homocisteína/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Fosfato de Piridoxal/metabolismo , Riboflavina/metabolismo , Vitamina B 12/metabolismo
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