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1.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 72(4): 244-253, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28492725

RESUMO

Developing countries have limited healthcare resources and use different strategies to diagnose breast cancer. Most of the population depends on the public healthcare system, which affects the diagnosis of the tumor. Thus, the indicators observed in developed countries cannot be directly compared with those observed in developing countries because the healthcare infrastructures in developing countries are deficient. The aim of this study was to evaluate breast cancer screening strategies and indicators in developing countries. A systematic review and the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes, Timing, and Setting methodology were performed to identify possible indicators of presentation at diagnosis and the methodologies used in developing countries. We searched PubMed for the terms "Breast Cancer" or "Breast Cancer Screening" and "Developing Country" or "Developing Countries". In all, 1,149 articles were identified. Of these articles, 45 full articles were selected, which allowed us to identify indicators related to epidemiology, diagnostic intervention (diagnostic strategy, diagnostic infrastructure, percentage of women undergoing mammography), quality of intervention (presentation of symptoms at diagnosis, time to diagnosis, early stage disease), comparisons (trend curves, subpopulations at risk) and survival among different countries. The identification of these indicators will improve the reporting of methodologies used in developing countries and will allow us to evaluate improvements in public health related to breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Taxa de Sobrevida
2.
Clinics ; 72(4): 244-253, Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-840063

RESUMO

Developing countries have limited healthcare resources and use different strategies to diagnose breast cancer. Most of the population depends on the public healthcare system, which affects the diagnosis of the tumor. Thus, the indicators observed in developed countries cannot be directly compared with those observed in developing countries because the healthcare infrastructures in developing countries are deficient. The aim of this study was to evaluate breast cancer screening strategies and indicators in developing countries. A systematic review and the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes, Timing, and Setting methodology were performed to identify possible indicators of presentation at diagnosis and the methodologies used in developing countries. We searched PubMed for the terms “Breast Cancer” or “Breast Cancer Screening” and “Developing Country” or “Developing Countries”. In all, 1,149 articles were identified. Of these articles, 45 full articles were selected, which allowed us to identify indicators related to epidemiology, diagnostic intervention (diagnostic strategy, diagnostic infrastructure, percentage of women undergoing mammography), quality of intervention (presentation of symptoms at diagnosis, time to diagnosis, early stage disease), comparisons (trend curves, subpopulations at risk) and survival among different countries. The identification of these indicators will improve the reporting of methodologies used in developing countries and will allow us to evaluate improvements in public health related to breast cancer.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Mamografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Taxa de Sobrevida
3.
Springerplus ; 5(1): 972, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27429882

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop and validate a new multimedia instrument to measure health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in Portuguese-speaking patients with cancer. METHODS: A mixed-methods study conducted in a large Brazilian Cancer Hospital. The instrument was developed along the following sequential phases: identification of HRQOL issues through qualitative content analysis of individual interviews, evaluation of the most important items according to the patients, review of the literature, evaluation by an expert committee, and pretesting. In sequence, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted (pilot testing, n = 149) to reduce the number of items and to define domains and scores. The psychometric properties of the IQualiV-OG-21 were measured in a large multicentre Brazilian study (n = 323). A software containing multimedia resources were developed to facilitate self-administration of IQualiV-OG-21; its feasibility and patients' preferences ("paper and pencil" vs. software) were further tested (n = 54). RESULTS: An exploratory factor analysis reduced the 30-item instrument to 21 items. The IQualiV-OG-21 was divided into 6 domains: emotional, physical, existential, interpersonal relationships, functional and financial. The multicentre study confirmed that it was valid and reliable. The electronic multimedia instrument was easy to complete and acceptable to patients. Regarding preferences, 61.1 % of them preferred the electronic format in comparison with the paper and pencil format. CONCLUSIONS: The IQualiV-OG-21 is a new valid and reliable multimedia HRQOL instrument that is well-understood, even by patients with low literacy skills, and can be answered quickly. It is a useful new tool that can be translated and tested in other cultures and languages.

5.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 37(1): 30-5, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25607127

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 115 breast cancer survivors, seeking healthcare at a University Hospital in Brazil, were evaluated. Eligibility criteria included women with amenorrhea ≥ 12 months and age ≥ 45 years, treated for breast cancer and metastasis-free for at least five years. BMD was measured by DEXA at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck. Low BMD was considered when total-spine and/or femoral-neck T-score values were <-1.0 Delphi Score (DP) (osteopenia and osteoporosis). The risk factors for low BMD were assessed by interview. Data were analyzed statistically by the χ(2) test and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: The mean age of breast cancer survivors was 61.6 ± 10.1 years and time since menopause was 14.2 ± 5.6 years, with a mean follow-up of 10.1 ± 3.9 years. Considering spine and femoral neck, 60% of breast cancer survivors had low BMD. By evaluating the risk factors for low BMD, a significant difference was found in the percent distribution for age (higher % of women >50 years with low BMD), personal history of previous fracture (11.6% with low BMD versus 0% with normal BMD) and BMI. A higher frequency of obesity was observed among women with normal BMD (63%) compared to those with low BMD (26.1%) (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Postmenopausal breast cancer survivors had a high prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Pós-Menopausa , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Densidade Óssea , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sobreviventes
6.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 37(1): 30-35, 01/2015. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-732873

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência da baixa densidade mineral óssea (DMO) em mulheres na pós-menopausa tratadas de câncer de mama. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal que incluiu 115 mulheres tratadas de câncer de mama atendidas em Hospital Universitário do Sudeste do Brasil. Foram incluídas mulheres com amenorreia há 12 meses ou mais e 45 anos ou mais de idade, tratadas de câncer de mama e livres de doença há pelo menos 5 anos. A DMO foi mensurada pelos raios-X de dupla energia em coluna lombar (L1 a L4) e colo de fêmur. Considerou-se baixa DMO quando valores de T-score de coluna total e/ou colo de fêmur <-1,0 Score de Delphi (DP) (osteopenia e osteoporose). Por meio de entrevista, foram avaliados fatores de risco para baixa DMO. Na análise estatística, empregaram-se os testes do χ2 ou Exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: A média de idade das pacientes foi 61,6±10,1 anos e o tempo de menopausa, 14,2±5,6 anos, com tempo médio de seguimento de 10,1±3,9 anos. Considerando coluna e colo de fêmur, 60% das mulheres tratadas de câncer de mama apresentavam baixa DMO. Avaliando os fatores de risco para baixa DMO, foi encontrada diferença significativa na distribuição percentual quanto à idade (maior porcentagem de mulheres com mais de 50 anos e baixa DMO), história pessoal de fratura prévia (11,6% com baixa DMO e nenhuma com DMO normal) e índice de massa corpórea. Maior frequência de obesidade foi observada entre mulheres com DMO normal (63%) quando comparadas àquelas com baixa DMO (26,1%; p<0,05). CONCLUSÃO: Mulheres na pós-menopausa tratadas de câncer de mama apresentaram elevada prevalência de baixa DMO (osteopenia e/ou osteoporose). .


PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 115 breast cancer survivors, seeking healthcare at a University Hospital in Brazil, were evaluated. Eligibility criteria included women with amenorrhea ≥12 months and age ≥45 years, treated for breast cancer and metastasis-free for at least five years. BMD was measured by DEXA at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck. Low BMD was considered when total-spine and/or femoral-neck T-score values were <-1.0 Delphi Score (DP) (osteopenia and osteoporosis). The risk factors for low BMD were assessed by interview. Data were analyzed statistically by the χ2 test and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: The mean age of breast cancer survivors was 61.6±10.1 years and time since menopause was 14.2±5.6 years, with a mean follow-up of 10.1±3.9 years. Considering spine and femoral neck, 60% of breast cancer survivors had low BMD. By evaluating the risk factors for low BMD, a significant difference was found in the percent distribution for age (higher % of women >50 years with low BMD), personal history of previous fracture (11.6% with low BMD versus 0% with normal BMD) and BMI. A higher frequency of obesity was observed among women with normal BMD (63%) compared to those with low BMD (26.1%) (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Postmenopausal breast cancer survivors had a high prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis. .


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Canalículos Biliares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases , Glicoproteínas de Membrana , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Células COS , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/biossíntese , Proteínas de Transporte/biossíntese , Primers do DNA , DNA Complementar , Íleo/metabolismo , Cinética , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Transfecção , Ácido Taurocólico/metabolismo
7.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 36(3): 118-23, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24728315

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of preoperative ultrasound combined with ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) cytology and clinical examination of axillary lymph node in patients with breast cancer. METHODS: In this prospective study, 171 axillae of patients with breast cancer were evaluated by clinical examination and ultrasonography (US) with and without fine needle aspiration (FNA). Lymph nodes with maximum ultrasonographic cortical thickness > 2.3 mm were considered suspicious and submitted to US-FNA. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis showed no statistically significant correlation between clinical examination and pathologically positive axillae. However, in axillae considered suspicious by ultrasonography, the risk of positive anatomopathological findings increased 12.6-fold. Cohen's Kappa value was 0.12 for clinical examination, 0.48 for US, and 0.80 for US-FNA. Accuracy was 61.4% for clinical examination, 73.1% for US and 90.1% for US-FA. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis demonstrated that a cortical thickness of 2.75 mm corresponded to the highest sensitivity and specificity in predicting axillary metastasis (82.7 and 82.2%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonography combined with fine-needle aspiration is more accurate than clinical examination in assessing preoperative axillary status in women with breast cancer. Those who are US-FNA positive can be directed towards axillary lymph node dissection straight away, and only those who are US-FNA negative should be considered for sentinel lymph node biopsy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Axila , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela/métodos , Ultrassonografia
8.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 36(3): 118-123, 03/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-707158

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Avaliar a viabilidade e acurácia diagnóstica da ultrassonografia pré-operatória combinada com biopsia por agulha fina (US-PAAF) e do exame clínico da axila em pacientes com câncer de mama. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo prospectivo 171 axilas de pacientes com câncer de mama foram avaliadas pelo exame clínico e ultrassonografia (US) com e sem biopsia por agulha fina (PAAF). Os linfonodos com espessura cortical maior que 2,3 mm na ultrassonografia foram considerados suspeitos e submetidos a US-PAAF. RESULTADOS: A análise de regressão logística não mostrou correlação estatisticamente significativa entre exame clínico e axilas positivas no exame patológico. Em relação à avaliação axilar com US, o risco de achados anatomopatológicos positivos aumentou 12,6 vezes, valor Kappa de Cohen foi de 0,12 para exame clínico, 0,48 para US e 0,80 para US-PAAF. A acurácia foi de 61,4% para o exame clínico, 73,1% para os US e 90,1% para US-PAAF. Análise Receiver Operating Chracteristics (ROC) mostrou que uma espessura de 2,75 mm cortical correspondeu à mais elevada sensibilidade e especificidade na predição metástase axilar (82,7 e 82,2%, respectivamente). CONCLUSÕES: A US combinada com aspiração por agulha fina é mais precisa que o exame clínico na avaliação do status axilar no pré-operatório em mulheres com câncer de mama. Aquelas que são US-PAAF positivo podem ser direcionadas para esvaziamento linfonodal axilar imediatamente, e somente aqueles que são US-PAAF negativos devem ser considerados para biópsia de linfonodo sentinela. .


PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of preoperative ultrasound combined with ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) cytology and clinical examination of axillary lymph node in patients with breast cancer. METHODS: In this prospective study, 171 axillae of patients with breast cancer were evaluated by clinical examination and ultrasonography (US) with and without fine needle aspiration (FNA). Lymph nodes with maximum ultrasonographic cortical thickness > 2.3 mm were considered suspicious and submitted to US-FNA. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis showed no statistically significant correlation between clinical examination and pathologically positive axillae. However, in axillae considered suspicious by ultrasonography, the risk of positive anatomopathological findings increased 12.6-fold. Cohen's Kappa value was 0.12 for clinical examination, 0.48 for US, and 0.80 for US-FNA. Accuracy was 61.4% for clinical examination, 73.1% for US and 90.1% for US-FA. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis demonstrated that a cortical thickness of 2.75 mm corresponded to the highest sensitivity and specificity in predicting axillary metastasis (82.7 and 82.2%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonography combined with fine-needle aspiration is more accurate than clinical examination in assessing preoperative axillary status in women with breast cancer. Those who are US-FNA positive can be directed towards axillary lymph node dissection straight away, and only those who are US-FNA negative should be considered for sentinel lymph node biopsy. .


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama , Linfonodos/patologia , Axila , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Estudos de Viabilidade , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela/métodos
9.
Cell Stress Chaperones ; 19(4): 559-68, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24327239

RESUMO

We investigated the association between circulating levels of 60 and 70 kDa heat-shock proteins (HSP60 and 70) and cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women with or without metabolic syndrome (MetS). This cross-sectional study included 311 Brazilian women (age ≥45 years with amenorrhea ≥12 months). Women showing three or more of the following diagnostic criteria were diagnosed with MetS: waist circumference (WC) ≥88 cm, blood pressure ≥130/85 mmHg, triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) <50 mg/dl, and glucose ≥100 mg/dl. Clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical parameters were collected. HSP60, HSP70, antibodies to HSP60 and HSP70, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured in serum. Student's t test, Kruskal-Wallis test, chi-square test, and Pearson correlation were used for statistical analysis. Of the 311 women, 30.9 % (96/311) were diagnosed with MetS. These women were, on average, obese with abdominal fat deposition and had lower HDL values as well as higher triglycerides and glucose levels. Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistant (HOMA-IR) test values in these women were compatible with insulin resistance (P < 0.05). CRP and HSP60 concentrations were higher in women with MetS than in women without MetS (P < 0.05). HSP60, anti-HSP70, and CRP concentrations increased with the number of features indicative of MetS (P < 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between anti-HSP70 and WC, blood pressure and HOMA-IR, and between CRP and WC, blood pressure, glucose, HOMA-IR, and triglycerides (P < 0.05). In postmenopausal women, serum HSP60 and anti-HSP70 concentrations increased with accumulating features of the metabolic syndrome. These results suggest a greater immune activation that is associated with cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Chaperonina 60/sangue , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Proteínas Mitocondriais/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura
10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 68(2): 185-9, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24295784

RESUMO

Inflammatory cells surround breast carcinomas and may act promoting tumor development or stimulating anti-tumor immunity. N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) has been employed to detect macrophage accumulation/activation. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is considered a marker for neutrophils activity/accumulation. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is as strong pro-angiogenic cytokine. The aim of this study was to measure the systemic inflammatory response by measuring serum levels of NAG, MPO and VEGF in women diagnosed with breast cancer and associate this response to the peritumoral inflammatory infiltrate and to prognostic factors. Serum samples obtained from women with no evidence of disease (n=31) and with breast cancer (n=68) were analyzed for the activities of NAG, MPO and VEGF by enzymatic assay. Serum levels of NAG and VEGF were higher in healthy volunteers (P<0.0001) and serum levels of MPO were higher in patients with breast cancer (P=0.002). Serum levels of NAG were positively correlated to serum levels of MPO and VEGF (P<0.0001 and P=0.0012, respectively) and MPO and VEGF serum levels had also a positive correlation (P=0.0018). The inflammatory infiltrate was not associated to serum levels of the inflammatory markers, and higher levels of MPO were associated to lymphovascular invasion negativity (P=0.0175).


Assuntos
Acetilglucosaminidase/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Peroxidase/sangue , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 35(10): 458-63, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24337058

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the time between the first symptom and treatment in patients treated for breast cancer in public hospitals in the Federal District. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis. We interviewed 250 women diagnosed with breast cancer treated in six hospitals of the State Department of Health of the Federal District from November 2009 to January 2011. The time intervals studied were the time between the detection of the symptoms and treatment subdivided into intervals until and after the first medical appointment. The variables were: age, menopausal status, color, educational level, average monthly household income, origin, reason for the initial consultation, staging, tumor size, laterality, metastasis to axillary lymph nodes, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and type of surgery. The Mann-Whtney test was used to assess the association of these variables with the time intervals until treatment. RESULTS: The mean age was 52 years, with a predominance of white women (57.6%), from the Federal District (62.4%), with a family income of up to 2 minimum wages (78%), and up to four years of schooling (52.4%). The staging of the disease ranged from II to IV in 78.8% of the women. The time between the first symptom and treatment was 229 days (median). After detection of the first symptom, 52.9% of the women attended a consultation within 30 days and 88.8% took more than 90 days to start treatment. Women with elementary school education had a greater delay to the start of treatment (p=0.049). CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant delay to start treatment of women with breast cancer in public hospitals of the Federal District, suggesting that efforts should be made to reduce the time needed to schedule medical appointments and to diagnose and treat these patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 35(10): 458-463, out. 2013. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-696039

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Analisar o tempo desde o primeiro sintoma até o tratamento de pacientes tratadas para o câncer de mama em hospitais públicos do Distrito Federal, no Brasil Central. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo transversal analítico. Foram entrevistadas 250 mulheres com diagnóstico de câncer de mama tratadas em 6 hospitais da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Distrito Federal (Brasil) no período de novembro de 2009 a janeiro de 2011. Os intervalos de tempo estudados foram o período entre a detecção do sintoma e o tratamento, subdividido nos intervalos até a primeira consulta e após. As outras variáveis analisadas foram: a idade, o estado menopausal, a cor, o nível de escolaridade, a renda familiar média mensal, a procedência, o motivo da primeira consulta, o estadiamento, o tamanho do tumor, a lateralidade, a metástase para linfonodos axilares, a realização de quimioterapia neoadjuvante e o tipo de cirurgia. Para verificar a associação das variáveis com os intervalos de tempo até o tratamento, foi utilizado o teste de Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: A média de idade foi de 52 anos, predominando mulheres brancas (57,6%), residentes no Distrito Federal (62,4%), com renda familiar de até dois salários mínimos (78%), que estudaram por até 4 anos (52,4%). O estadiamento da doença em 78,8% das mulheres variou de II a IV. O tempo entre o primeiro sintoma e o tratamento foi de 229 dias (mediana). Após a detecção do primeiro sintoma, 52,9% das mulheres compareceram a uma consulta em até 30 dias e 88,8% tiveram demora de mais de 90 dias para iniciar o tratamento. As mulheres com nível primário de escolaridade apresentaram maior atraso para início do tratamento (p=0,04). CONCLUSÕES: Houve um importante atraso para iniciar o tratamento das mulheres com câncer de mama em hospitais públicos do Distrito Federal sugerindo que esforços devem ser feitos para a redução dos tempos necessários para agendar a consulta médica, diagnosticar e tratar essas pacientes.


PURPOSE: To analyze the time between the first symptom and treatment in patients treated for breast cancer in public hospitals in the Federal District. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis. We interviewed 250 women diagnosed with breast cancer treated in six hospitals of the State Department of Health of the Federal District from November 2009 to January 2011. The time intervals studied were the time between the detection of the symptoms and treatment subdivided into intervals until and after the first medical appointment. The variables were: age, menopausal status, color, educational level, average monthly household income, origin, reason for the initial consultation, staging, tumor size, laterality, metastasis to axillary lymph nodes, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and type of surgery. The Mann-Whtney test was used to assess the association of these variables with the time intervals until treatment. RESULTS: The mean age was 52 years, with a predominance of white women (57.6%), from the Federal District (62.4%), with a family income of up to 2 minimum wages (78%), and up to four years of schooling (52.4%). The staging of the disease ranged from II to IV in 78.8% of the women. The time between the first symptom and treatment was 229 days (median). After detection of the first symptom, 52.9% of the women attended a consultation within 30 days and 88.8% took more than 90 days to start treatment. Women with elementary school education had a greater delay to the start of treatment (p=0.049). CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant delay to start treatment of women with breast cancer in public hospitals of the Federal District, suggesting that efforts should be made to reduce the time needed to schedule medical appointments and to diagnose and treat these patients.


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais Públicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Rev. bras. mastologia ; 23(2)abr-jun 2013.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-783168

RESUMO

O conceito do mundo globalizado encontra-se por toda a parte. Na mastologia, a ideia de formação de rede de atendimento, associada a padrões tecnológicos e de alta qualidade, vem se solidificando. A Sociedade Europeia de Mastologia, em 1998, iniciou o processo de cadastramento de unidades mamá- rias, chamadas Breast Units, visando determinar parâmetros mínimos para as unidades de diagnóstico e tratamento do câncer de mama, com critérios de qualidade mínimos, passíveis de certificação, e programas de qualidade. Atualmente, são 137 membros completos, 26 certificados, distribuídos em 44 países, sendo a maioria na Europa. No Brasil, são seis centros, sendo apenas quatro plenos, não havendo nenhum centro com certificado, visto a ausência de rastreamento mamográfico organizado no padrão de qualidade europeu. Da mesma forma, visando a formação e aprimoramento de programas de atendimento mínimo, o Colégio Americano dos Cirurgiões iniciou, em 2005, a criação do National Accreditation Program of Breast Centers, sendo atualmente 28 programas padrão, com recertificação a cada 3 anos, em 365 centros, associados a programas de controle de qualidade regulamentados pelas especialidades envolvidas. No Brasil, existem 74 centros cadastrados na Sociedade Brasileira de Mastologia, porém não há certificações regulares. A formação de rede de unidades mamárias, escalonadas em função de sua complexidade tecnológica com programas de controle de qualidade, certificação e recertificação são metas que se devem considerar, nas quais a grande beneficiada será a mulher.


The concept of a globalized world is everywhere. In mastology the idea of organizing network services, with high technological and quality protocol is coming true. The European Society of Mastology, in 1998, began the process of registration of Breast Units, aiming to determine minimum parameters related to high level for diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, with minimum quality criteria, susceptible to certification, and quality programs. There are currently 137 full members, 26 certified, distributed in 44 countries, mostly in Europe. In Brazil there are six centers, with only four full members, but no center has the EUSOMA certificate, since the absence of organized mammography screening according to the European quality standard. Likewise, aiming the formation and refinement of programs of minimum attendance, the American College of Surgeons, in 2005, initiated the organization of the National Accreditation Program of Breast Centers. Nowadays there are 28 standard programs with re-certification process every three years. The 365 centers have minimum parameters of quality and they also use programs related to the different medial specialties involved. In Brazil, there are 74 centers registered on the Brazilian Society of Mastology, but there are no regular certifications. The network organization of Breast Units, evaluated according to the technological organization, associated with quality control programs, grouped by certification and re-certification process are the goals to be considered in which the great beneficiary will be the woman.

15.
Pathol Res Pract ; 209(6): 331-6, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23702380

RESUMO

The excision repair cross-complementation 1 (ERCC1) enzyme plays an essential role in the nucleotide excision repair pathway and is associated with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy in different types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of ERCC1 expression in breast cancer patients. We analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of ERCC1 in a tissue microarray from 135 primary breast carcinomas and correlated the immunohistochemical findings with clinicopathological factors and outcome data. ERCC1 expression analysis was available for 109 cases. In this group, 58 (53.2%) were positive for ERCC1. ERCC1-positive expression was correlated with smaller tumor size (P=0.007) and with positivity for estrogen receptor (P=0.040), but no correlation was found with other clinicopathological features. Although not statistically significant, triple negative breast cancers were more frequently negative for ERCC1 (61.5% of the cases) compared to the non-triple negative breast cancer cases (41.5%). In conclusion, ERCC1 expression correlated significantly with favorable prognostic factors, such as smaller tumor size and ER-positivity, suggesting a possible role for ERCC1 as a predictive and/or prognostic marker in breast cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma/enzimologia , Carcinoma/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/análise , Endonucleases/análise , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Carcinoma/mortalidade , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/enzimologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Carga Tumoral , Adulto Jovem
16.
Menopause ; 20(10): 1049-54, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23481125

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effects of soy isoflavones on breast tissue in postmenopausal women. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 80 women (aged ≥ 45 y and with amenorrhea >12 mo) with vasomotor symptoms were randomized to receive either 250 mg of standardized soy extract corresponding to isoflavone 100 mg/day (n = 40) or placebo (n = 40) for 10 months. Breasts were evaluated through mammographic density and breast parenchyma using ultrasound (US) at baseline and 10-month follow-up. Independent t test, analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U test, and χ2 trend test were used in statistical analysis. RESULTS: Baseline clinical characteristics showed no significant differences between the isoflavone group and the placebo group, with mean (SD) age of 55.1 (6.0) and 56.2 (7.7) years, mean (SD) menopause duration of 6.6 (4.8) and 7.1 (4.2) years, and mean (SD) body mass index of 29.7 (5.0) and 28.5 (4.9) kg/m2, respectively (P > 0.05). The study was completed by 32 women on isoflavone and 34 women on placebo. The groups did not differ in mammographic density or breast parenchyma by US (P > 0.05). Within each group, the baseline and final moments did not differ in mammography or US parameters significantly (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The use of soy isoflavone extract for 10 months does not affect breast density, as assessed by mammography and US, in postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Mama/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoflavonas/administração & dosagem , Isoflavonas/efeitos adversos , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/anormalidades , Pós-Menopausa , Soja/química , Índice de Massa Corporal , Densidade da Mama , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Genisteína/sangue , Humanos , Isoflavonas/sangue , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ultrassonografia Mamária
17.
Menopause ; 20(4): 448-54, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23149866

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors as compared with postmenopausal women without breast cancer. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 104 postmenopausal breast cancer survivors were compared with 208 postmenopausal women (controls) attending a university hospital. Eligibility criteria included the following: amenorrhea longer than 12 months and aged 45 years or older, treated for breast cancer, and metastasis-free for at least 5 years. The control group consisted of women with amenorrhea longer than 12 months and aged 45 years or older and without breast cancer, matched by age and menopause status (in a proportion of 1:2 as sample calculation). Clinical and anthropometric data were collected. Biochemical parameters, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and C-reactive protein, were measured. Women showing three or more diagnostic criteria were diagnosed as having MetS: waist circumference of 88 cm or larger, blood pressure of 130/85 mm Hg or higher, triglycerides level of 150 mg/dL or higher, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level lower than 50 mg/dL, and glucose level of 100 mg/dL or higher. For statistical analysis, Student's t test, χ2 test, and logistic regression (odds ratio [OR]) were used. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of breast cancer survivors was 60.6 (8.6) years, with a mean (SD) follow-up of 9.4 (4.4) years. A higher percentage of breast cancer survivors (46.2%) were obese as compared with controls (32.7%; P < 0.05), and a smaller percentage showed optimal values for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and C-reactive protein versus controls (P < 0.05). MetS was diagnosed in 50% of breast cancer survivors and in 37.5% of control group women (P < 0.05). Among the MetS diagnostic criteria, the most prevalent was abdominal obesity (waist circumference >88 cm), affecting 62.5% and 67.8% of the participants, respectively. In the control group, breast cancer survivors had a higher risk for MetS (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.04-2.68), dysglycemia (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.09-3.03), and hypertension (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.02-2.89). CONCLUSIONS: Postmenopausal breast cancer survivors present a higher risk of developing MetS as compared with women without breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pós-Menopausa , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Sobreviventes , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura
18.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 34(12): 555-562, dez. 2012. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-660897

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ocorrência de síndrome metabólica (SM) em mulheres na pós-menopausa tratadas de câncer de mama. MÉTODOS: Estudo clínico, transversal, com 158 mulheres na pós-menopausa (amenorreia >12 meses e idade ≥45 anos) tratadas de câncer de mama e livres de doença há pelo menos cinco anos. Por meio de entrevista foram coletados dados clínicos e avaliados o índice de massa corpórea (IMC) e a circunferência da cintura (CC). Na análise bioquímica foram solicitadas dosagens de colesterol total (CT), HDL, LDL, triglicerídeos (TG), glicemia, insulina e proteína C-reativa (PCR). Foram consideradas com SM as mulheres que apresentaram três ou mais critérios diagnósticos: CC>88 cm; TG≥150 mg/dL; HDL colesterol <50 mg/dL; pressão arterial≥130/85 mmHg; glicemia de jejum≥100 mg/dL. Para análise estatística foram empregados o teste t de Student e o teste do χ2. RESULTADOS: A média de idade das pacientes foi de 63,1±8,6 anos, com tempo médio de seguimento de 9,1±4,0 anos. A SM foi diagnosticada em 48,1% (76/158) e entre os critérios diagnósticos, o mais prevalente foi obesidade abdominal (CC>88 cm) afetando 54,4% (86/158) das mulheres. As pacientes sem SM tiveram maior tempo de seguimento quando comparadas àquelas com SM (p<0,05). Em relação ao IMC atual, aquelas sem SM eram em média sobrepeso e aquelas com SM eram obesas (p<0,05). Entre estas, na comparação entre o IMC no momento do diagnóstico do câncer e o atual foi observado ganho significativo de peso (27,8±5,4 versus 33,4±5,4 kg/m²) (p<0,05). O valor médio de PCR foi superior nas mulheres com SM (p<0.05). Na comparação das características tumorais e tratamentos oncológicos não houve diferença significativa entre as mulheres com e sem SM. CONCLUSÃO: Mulheres na pós-menopausa tratadas de câncer de mama têm elevado risco de desenvolver síndrome metabólica e obesidade central.


PURPOSE: To assess the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. METHODS: A total of 158 breast cancer survivors were included in this cross-sectional study. Eligibility criteria were: women with amenorrhea >12 months and age ≥45 years, treated for breast cancer and no metastasis for at least five years. Clinical history and anthropometric indicator data (body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference, (WC) were collected. Biochemical parameters, including total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides (TG), glucose and C-reactive protein (CRP), were measured. MetS was diagnosed as the presence of at least three of the following diagnostic criteria: WC>88 cm, blood pressure≥130/85 mmHg, triglycerides≥150 mg/dl, HDL <50 mg/dL,and glucose≥100 mg/dL. The Student's t-test and χ2 test were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The mean age of breast cancer survivors was 63.1±8.6 years, with a mean follow-up of 9.1±4.0 years. MetS was diagnosed in 48.1% (76/158) and the most prevalent diagnostic criterion was abdominal obesity (WC>88 cm), affecting 54.4% (86/158) of the women. The patients without MetS had a longer follow-up compared those with MetS (p<0.05). Regarding the current BMI, PN average, those without MetS were overweight, and those with MetS were obese (p<0.05). Among the latter, comparison of BMI at the time of cancer diagnosis and current BMI (27.8±5.4 versus 33.4±5.4 kg/m²) showed a significant weight gain (p<0.05). Mean CRP values were higher in women with MetS (p<0.05). In the comparison of tumor characteristics and cancer treatments there was no difference between groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Postmenopausal breast cancer survivors had a higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome and central obesity.


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Mama , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pós-Menopausa , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Sobreviventes
19.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 13(4): 270-5, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22870924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Necrotizing soft tissue infection (NSTI) is characterized by progressive infectious gangrene of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Its treatment involves intensive care, broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, and full debridement. METHODS: We present two cases of NSTI of the breast, adding these cases to the 14 described in the literature, reviewing the characteristics and evolution of all cases. CASE REPORT: On the fourth day after mastectomy, a 59-year-old woman with ulcerated breast cancer developed Type I NSTI caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which had a favorable evolution after debridement and broad-spectrum antibiotics. The second patient was a 57-year-old woman submitted to a mastectomy and axillary dissection, who had recurrent seromas. On the 32nd post-operative day, after a seroma puncture, she developed Type II NSTI caused by ß-hemolytic streptococci. She developed sepsis and died on the tenth day after debridement, intensive care, and broad-spectrum antibiotics. The cases are the first description of breast NSTI after mammary seroma aspiration and the first report of this condition caused by P. aeruginosa. CONCLUSION: Necrotizing soft tissue infection is rare in breast tissue. It frequently is of Type II, occurring mainly after procedures in patients with breast cancer. The surgeon's participation in controlling the focus of the infection is of fundamental importance, and just as important are broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy and support measures, such as maintenance of volume, correction of electrolytic disorders, and treatment of sepsis and septic shock. Once the infection has been brought under control, skin grafting or soft tissue flaps can be considered. The mortality rate in breast NSTI is 18.7%, all deaths being in patients with the fulminant Type II form. Surgical oncologists need to be alert to the possibility of this rare condition.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Fasciite Necrosante/etiologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/etiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Bacteriemia , Neoplasias da Mama/microbiologia , Fasciite Necrosante/microbiologia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Pseudomonas/etiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/microbiologia
20.
Int J Surg ; 10(9): 500-5, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22858800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) is still common in developing countries. The association between neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC) and oncoplastic surgery (OS) might provide an oncological treatment with satisfactory aesthetic results. PURPOSE: The goal was to demonstrate if oncoplastic surgical techniques can be utilized to treat LABC which was submitted to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: This prospective clinical trial included breast cancer patients, clinical stage III, who underwent established NC regimen. All patients underwent preoperative planning to control the tumor size and to define the surgical technique. A detailed analysis of the pathological specimen was performed. RESULTS: 50 patients were assessed and surgically treated. Tumor size ranged from 3.0 to 14.0 cm (median 6.5 cm). Pathologic response was rated as stable, progressive, partial response, and complete response in 10%, 8%, 80% and 2% of the cases, respectively. Seventeen (34%) patients were submitted to OS. No patient had positive margins. Skin involvement was presented in 36% of pathologic specimen. CONCLUSIONS: Oncoplastic surgical techniques for selected patients decrease the rates of radical surgery despite large tumors. (www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00820690).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Mamoplastia/métodos , Mastectomia Segmentar/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
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