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1.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 45(1): 180144, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674733

RESUMO

Background: Cortical folding is essential for healthy brain development. Previous studies have found regional reductions in cortical folding in adult patients with psychotic illness. It is unknown whether these neuroanatomical markers are present in youth with subclinical psychotic symptoms. Methods: We collected MRIs and examined the local gyrification index in a sample of 110 youth (mean age ± standard deviation 14.0 ± 3.7 yr; range 9­25 yr) with a family history of severe mental illness: 48 with psychotic symptoms and 62 without. Images were processed using the Human Connectome Pipeline and FreeSurfer. We tested for group differences in local gyrification index using mixed-effects generalized linear models controlling for age, sex and familial clustering. Sensitivity analysis further controlled for intracranial volume, IQ, and stimulant and cannabis use. Results: Youth with psychotic symptoms displayed an overall trend toward lower cortical folding across all brain regions. After adjusting for multiple comparisons and confounders, regional reductions were localized to the frontal and occipital lobes. Specifically, the medial (B = ­0.42, pFDR = 0.04) and lateral (B = ­0.39, pFDR = 0.04) orbitofrontal cortices as well as the cuneus (B = ­0.47, pFDR = 0.03) and the pericalcarine (B = ­0.45, pFDR = 0.03) and lingual (B = ­0.38, pFDR = 0.04) gyri. Limitations: Inference about developmental trajectories was limited by the cross-sectional data. Conclusion: Psychotic symptoms in youth are associated with cortical folding deficits, even in the absence of psychotic illness. The current study helps clarify the neurodevelopmental basis of psychosis at an early stage, before medication, drug use and other confounds have had a persistent effect on the brain.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and lower cognitive ability have been linked with increased likelihood of exposure to adversity. We hypothesized that these associations may be partly due to genetic factors. METHODS: We calculated polygenic scores for ADHD and intelligence and assessed psychopathology and general cognitive ability in a sample of 297 youth aged 5-27 years enriched for offspring of parents with mood and psychotic disorders. We calculated an adversity score as a mean of 10 indicators, including socio-economic disadvantage, childhood maltreatment and bullying. We tested the effects of polygenic scores, externalizing symptoms and IQ on adversity scores using mixed-effects linear regression. RESULTS: Externalizing symptoms and general cognitive ability showed expected positive and negative relationships with adversity, respectively. Polygenic scores for intelligence were unrelated to adversity, but polygenic scores for ADHD were associated with adversity (ß = 0.23, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.34, p < .0001). ADHD polygenic scores uniquely explained 4.0% of variance in adversity score. The relationship between polygenic scores for ADHD and adversity was independently significant among individuals with (ß = 0.49, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.75, p < .0001) and without (ß = 0.14, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.26, p = .022) ADHD. CONCLUSIONS: A genetic score indexing liability to ADHD was associated with exposure to adversity in early life. Previously observed associations between externalizing symptoms, lower cognitive ability and adversity may be partially attributed to genetic liability to ADHD.

3.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression is higher in individuals with autoimmune diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the observed comorbidities are unknown. Shared genetic etiology is a plausible explanation for the overlap, and in this study we tested whether genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is associated with risk for autoimmune diseases, is also associated with risk for depression. METHODS: We fine-mapped the classical MHC (chr6: 29.6-33.1 Mb), imputing 216 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and 4 complement component 4 (C4) haplotypes in studies from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Major Depressive Disorder Working Group and the UK Biobank. The total sample size was 45,149 depression cases and 86,698 controls. We tested for association between depression status and imputed MHC variants, applying both a region-wide significance threshold (3.9 × 10-6) and a candidate threshold (1.6 × 10-4). RESULTS: No HLA alleles or C4 haplotypes were associated with depression at the region-wide threshold. HLA-B*08:01 was associated with modest protection for depression at the candidate threshold for testing in HLA genes in the meta-analysis (odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval = 0.97-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that an increased risk for depression was conferred by HLA alleles, which play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, or C4 haplotypes, which are strongly associated with schizophrenia. These results suggest that any HLA or C4 variants associated with depression either are rare or have very modest effect sizes.

4.
Psychol Med ; : 1-12, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) display cognitive deficits in acutely depressed and remitted states. Childhood maltreatment is associated with cognitive dysfunction in adults, but its impact on cognition and treatment related cognitive outcomes in adult MDD has received little consideration. We investigate whether, compared to patients without maltreatment and healthy participants, adult MDD patients with childhood maltreatment display greater cognitive deficits in acute depression, lower treatment-associated cognitive improvements, and lower cognitive performance in remission. METHODS: Healthy and acutely depressed MDD participants were enrolled in a multi-center MDD predictive marker discovery trial. MDD participants received 16 weeks of standardized antidepressant treatment. Maltreatment and cognition were assessed with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse interview and the CNS Vital Signs battery, respectively. Cognitive scores and change from baseline to week 16 were compared amongst MDD participants with (DM+, n = 93) and without maltreatment (DM-, n = 90), and healthy participants with (HM+, n = 22) and without maltreatment (HM-, n = 80). Separate analyses in MDD participants who remitted were conducted. RESULTS: DM+ had lower baseline global cognition, processing speed, and memory v. HM-, with no significant baseline differences amongst DM-, HM+, and HM- groups. There were no significant between-group differences in cognitive change over 16 weeks. Post-treatment remitted DM+, but not remitted DM-, scored significantly lower than HM- in working memory and processing speed. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood maltreatment was associated with cognitive deficits in depressed and remitted adults with MDD. Maltreatment may be a risk factor for more severe and persistent cognitive deficits in adult MDD.

5.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 254, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594917

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is primarily treated with antidepressants, yet many patients fail to respond adequately, and identifying antidepressant response biomarkers is thus of clinical significance. Some hypothesis-driven investigations of epigenetic markers for treatment response have been previously made, but genome-wide approaches remain unexplored. Healthy participants (n = 112) and MDD patients (n = 211) between 18-60 years old were recruited for an 8-week trial of escitalopram treatment. Responders and non-responders were identified using differential Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores before and after treatment. Genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression analyses were assessed using the Infinium MethylationEPIC Beadchip and HumanHT-12 v4 Expression Beadchip, respectively, on pre-treatment peripheral blood DNA and RNA samples. Differentially methylated positions (DMPs) located in regions of differentially expressed genes between responders (n = 82) and non-responders (n = 95) were identified, and technically validated using a targeted sequencing approach. Three DMPs located in the genes CHN2 (cg23687322, p = 0.00043 and cg06926818, p = 0.0014) and JAK2 (cg08339825, p = 0.00021) were the most significantly associated with mRNA expression changes and subsequently validated. Replication was then conducted with non-responders (n = 76) and responders (n = 71) in an external cohort that underwent a similar antidepressant trial. One CHN2 site (cg06926818; p = 0.03) was successfully replicated. Our findings indicate that differential methylation at CpG sites upstream of the CHN2 and JAK2 TSS regions are possible peripheral predictors of antidepressant treatment response. Future studies can provide further insight on robustness of our candidate biomarkers, and greater characterization of functional components.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642030

RESUMO

Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a risk factor for anxiety. However, the estimates of the strength of this association vary widely. In addition, while BI is a strong predictor of social anxiety disorder (SAD), its association with other anxiety disorders is unclear. The current study sought to establish the relationship between BI and anxiety and to quantify this association for a range of anxiety disorders. We searched PsycInfo, PubMed and Embase for articles published before May 18th, 2019 using search terms for BI, anxiety and prospective study design. We selected articles which assessed the prospective relationship between BI in childhood and anxiety. Using random-effects meta-analysis with robust variance estimation, which allowed for the inclusion of multiple follow-ups of the same sample, we established the association between BI and any anxiety. We also explored the association between BI and individual anxiety disorders. Data from 27 studies consisting of 35 follow-ups of 20 unique samples indicated that BI prospectively increases the odds of anxiety (OR = 2.80, 95% CI 2.03 to 3.86, p < 0.001). There was also a positive association between BI and all individual anxiety disorders, with effect sizes ranging from small in the case of specific phobia (OR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.14, p = 0.03) to large in the case of SAD (OR = 5.84, 95% CI 3.38 to 10.09, p < 0.001). BI in early childhood is a strong risk factor for anxiety. Targeting BI may help reduce the number of children who will develop anxiety disorders.

7.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 187, 2019 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383853

RESUMO

The identification of generalizable treatment response classes (TRC[s]) in major depressive disorder (MDD) would facilitate comparisons across studies and the development of treatment prediction algorithms. Here, we investigated whether such stable TRCs can be identified and predicted by clinical baseline items. We analyzed data from an observational MDD cohort (Munich Antidepressant Response Signature [MARS] study, N = 1017), treated individually by psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic means, and a multicenter, partially randomized clinical/pharmacogenomic study (Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression [GENDEP], N = 809). Symptoms were evaluated up to week 16 (or discharge) in MARS and week 12 in GENDEP. Clustering was performed on 809 MARS patients (discovery sample) using a mixed model with the integrated completed likelihood criterion for the assessment of cluster stability, and validated through a distinct MARS validation sample and GENDEP. A random forest algorithm was used to identify prediction patterns based on 50 clinical baseline items. From the clustering of the MARS discovery sample, seven TRCs emerged ranging from fast and complete response (average 4.9 weeks until discharge, 94% remitted patients) to slow and incomplete response (10% remitted patients at week 16). These proved stable representations of treatment response dynamics in both the MARS and the GENDEP validation sample. TRCs were strongly associated with established response markers, particularly the rate of remitted patients at discharge. TRCs were predictable from clinical items, particularly personality items, life events, episode duration, and specific psychopathological features. Prediction accuracy improved significantly when cluster-derived slopes were modelled instead of individual slopes. In conclusion, model-based clustering identified distinct and clinically meaningful treatment response classes in MDD that proved robust with regard to capturing response profiles of differently designed studies. Response classes were predictable from clinical baseline characteristics. Conceptually, model-based clustering is translatable to any outcome measure and could advance the large-scale integration of studies on treatment efficacy or the neurobiology of treatment response.

8.
Psychiatr Genet ; 29(5): 160-169, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464997

RESUMO

Offspring of parents with severe mental illness, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder, have a one-in-three risk of developing severe mental illness themselves. Over the last 60 years, three waves of familial high-risk studies examined the development of severe mental illness in offspring of affected parents. The first two waves established familial nature of schizophrenia, and demonstrated early impairment in offspring of affected parents. The most recent wave has added a focus on mood disorders and examined the transdiagnostic nature of familial risk. A synthesis of current knowledge on individuals at familial risk points to psychopathology, neurocognitive, neuroanatomical, and environmental factors involved in the familial transmission of severe mental illness. Although family history remains the single strongest predictor of illness, molecular genetic tools are becoming increasingly informative. The next decade may see family history and molecular genetics complementing each other to facilitate a transdiagnostic approach to early risk identification and prevention.

9.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 80(4)2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicidal ideation is a frequent and difficult-to-treat clinical challenge among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known regarding the differential development during antidepressant treatment and whether some patients may suffer from persistent suicidal ideation. METHODS: Among 811 patients with Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN)-verified MDD from 2004-2007 assessed weekly for 12 weeks of escitalopram or nortriptyline antidepressant treatment, we applied item response theory to integrate a suicidality score based on 3 rating scales. We performed latent growth mixture modeling analysis to empirically identify trajectories. Multinomial logistic regression analyses estimated associations with potential predictors. RESULTS: We identified 5 distinct classes of suicidal ideation. The Persistent-low class (53.7%) showed no suicidal ideation whereas the Persistent-high class (9.8%) had high suicidal ideation throughout 12 weeks. Two classes showed a fluctuating course: the Fluctuating class (5.2%) ended at a low level of suicidal ideation, whereas the Slow-response-relapse class (4.8%) initially responded slowly but then experienced a large increase to a high level of suicidal ideation after 12 weeks. The Fast-response class (26.5%) had a high baseline severity similar to the Persistent-high class but responded quickly within a few weeks and remained at a low level. Previous suicide attempts and higher mood symptom severity were associated with worse suicidal ideation trajectories, whereas living with a partner showed a trend toward better response. CONCLUSION: Approximately 1 of 5 patients with MDD showed high or fluctuating suicidal ideation despite antidepressant treatment. Studies should investigate whether suicidal ideation may persist for longer periods and more targeted treatment possibilities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN​​ identifier: ISRCTN03693000​​​​.

10.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; 53(12): 1179-1188, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244332

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorders increase the risk of dementia and show biological and brain alterations, which resemble accelerated aging. Lithium may counter some of these processes and lower the risk of dementia. However, until now no study has specifically investigated the effects of Li on brain age. METHODS: We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging scans from 84 participants with bipolar disorders (41 with and 43 without Li treatment) and 45 controls. We used a machine learning model trained on an independent sample of 504 controls to estimate the individual brain ages of study participants, and calculated BrainAGE by subtracting chronological from the estimated brain age. RESULTS: BrainAGE was significantly greater in non-Li relative to Li or control participants, F(2, 125) = 10.22, p < 0.001, with no differences between the Li treated and control groups. The estimated brain age was significantly higher than the chronological age in the non-Li (4.28 ± 6.33 years, matched t(42) = 4.43, p < 0.001), but not the Li-treated group (0.48 ± 7.60 years, not significant). Even Li-treated participants with partial prophylactic treatment response showed lower BrainAGE than the non-Li group, F(1, 64) = 4.80, p = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: Bipolar disorders were associated with greater, whereas Li treatment with lower discrepancy between brain and chronological age. These findings support the neuroprotective effects of Li, which were sufficiently pronounced to affect a complex, multivariate measure of brain structure. The association between Li treatment and BrainAGE was independent of long-term thymoprophylactic response and thus may generalize beyond bipolar disorders, to neurodegenerative disorders.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172297

RESUMO

Affective lability, defined as the propensity to experience excessive and unpredictable changes in mood, has been proposed as a potential transdiagnostic predictor of major mood and psychotic disorders. A parental diagnosis of bipolar disorder has been associated with increased affective lability in offspring. However, the association between affective lability and family history of other mood and psychotic disorders has not been examined. We measured affective lability using the self- and parent-reported Children's Affective Lability Scale in a cohort of 320 youth aged 6-17 years, including 137 offspring of a parent with major depressive disorder, 68 offspring of a parent with bipolar disorder, 24 offspring of a parent with schizophrenia, and 91 offspring of control parents. We tested differences in affective lability between groups using mixed-effects linear regression. Offspring of a parent with major depressive disorder (ß = 0.46, 95% CI 0.17-0.76, p = 0.002) or bipolar disorder (ß = 0.47, 95% CI 0.12-0.81, p = 0.008) had significantly higher affective lability scores than control offspring. Affective lability did not differ significantly between offspring of a parent with schizophrenia and offspring of control parents. Our results suggest that elevated affective lability during childhood is a marker of familial risk for mood disorders.

12.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 106: 284-292, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039525

RESUMO

Altered reproductive hormone levels have been associated with the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and this risk may be imparted by their modulatory effect upon hippocampal structure and function. Currently it is unclear whether altered levels of reproductive hormones are causally associated with hippocampal volume reductions and the risk of depressive disorders. Here, we utilize genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics from a GWAS focusing on reproductive hormones, consisting of 2913 individuals. Using this data, we generated polygenic risk scores (PRS) for estradiol, progesterone, prolactin and testosterone in the European RADIANT cohort consisting of 176 postpartum depression (PPD) cases (100% female, mean age: 41.6 years old), 2772 major depressive disorder (MDD) cases (68.6% female, mean age: 46.9 years old) and 1588 control participants (62.5% female, mean age: 42.4 years old), for which there was also a neuroimaging subset of 111 individuals (60.4% female, mean age: 50.0 years old). Only the best-fit PRS for estradiol showed a significant negative association with hippocampal volume, as well as many of its individual subfields; including the molecular layer and granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1, CA2/3 and CA4 regions. Interestingly, several of these subfields are implicated in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. When we tested the same estradiol PRS for association with case-control status for PPD or MDD there was no significant relationship observed. Here, we provide evidence that genetic risk for higher plasma estradiol is negatively associated with hippocampal volume, but this does not translate into an increased risk of MDD or PPD. This work suggests that the relationship between reproductive hormones, the hippocampus, and depression is complex, and that there may not be a clear-cut pathway for etiology or risk moderation.

13.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 80(3)2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087825

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the combination of clinical and molecular biomarkers can predict worsening of suicidal ideation during antidepressant treatment. METHODS: Samples were obtained from 237 patients with major depressive disorder (DSM-IV criteria) treated with either duloxetine or placebo in an 8-week randomized controlled trial. Data were collected between 2007 and 2011. The relationship between treatment-worsening suicidal ideation (TWSI) and a number of clinical variables, as well as peripheral expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA (miRNA), was assessed at baseline. We generated 4 predictive models for TWSI: clinical, mRNA, miRNA, and a combined model comprising the best predictive variables from clinical, mRNA, and miRNA data. RESULTS: Eleven patients (9.8%) presented with TWSI in the duloxetine group. Among the clinical variables, only baseline depressive severity was found to be mildly predictive of TWSI. Two mRNAs (stathmin 1 [STMN1] and protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 9B [PPP1R9B]) and 2 miRNAs (miR-3688 and miR-5695) were identified that were significantly predictive of TWSI when mRNA and miRNA were assessed separately (P = .002, .044, .004, and .005, respectively). The best model included baseline depression severity and expression of STMN1 and miR-5695 and predicted TWSI with area under the curve = 0.94 (P < .001). Additionally, the combined model did not significantly predict TWSI in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: This study generated a predictive tool for TWSI that combines both biological and clinical variables. These biological variables can be easily quantified in peripheral tissues, thus rendering them viable targets to be used in both clinical practice and future studies of suicidal behaviors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00635219, NCT00599911, and NCT01140906.

14.
Biol Psychiatry ; 85(12): 1065-1073, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is moderately heritable, with a high prevalence and a presumed high heterogeneity. Copy number variants (CNVs) could contribute to the heritable component of risk, but the two previous genome-wide association studies of rare CNVs did not report significant findings. METHODS: In this meta-analysis of four cohorts (5780 patients and 6626 control subjects), we analyzed the association of MDD to 1) genome-wide burden of rare deletions and duplications, partitioned by length (<100 kb or >100 kb) and other characteristics, and 2) individual rare exonic CNVs and CNV regions. RESULTS: Patients with MDD carried significantly more short deletions than control subjects (p = .0059) but not long deletions or short or long duplications. The confidence interval for long deletions overlapped with that for short deletions, but long deletions were 70% less frequent genome-wide, reducing the power to detect increased burden. The increased burden of short deletions was primarily in intergenic regions. Short deletions in cases were also modestly enriched for high-confidence enhancer regions. No individual CNV achieved thresholds for suggestive or significant association after genome-wide correction. p values < .01 were observed for 15q11.2 duplications (TUBGCP5, CYFIP1, NIPA1, and NIPA2), deletions in or near PRKN or MSR1, and exonic duplications of ATG5. CONCLUSIONS: The increased burden of short deletions in patients with MDD suggests that rare CNVs increase the risk of MDD by disrupting regulatory regions. Results for longer deletions were less clear, but no large effects were observed for long multigenic CNVs (as seen in schizophrenia and autism). Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.

15.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 80(2)2019 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the symptomatic and functional outcomes in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) during a 2-phase treatment trial and to estimate the value of early improvement after 2 weeks in predicting clinical response to escitalopram and subsequently to adjunctive treatment with aripiprazole. METHODS: Participants with MDD (N = 211) identified with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and confirmed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview were recruited from 6 outpatient centers across Canada (August 2013 through December 2016) and treated with open-label escitalopram (10-20 mg) for 8 weeks (Phase 1). Clinical and functional outcomes were evaluated using the MADRS, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Rated (QIDS-SR), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale (LEAPS). Participants were evaluated at 8 and 16 weeks for clinical and functional response and remission. Phase 1 responders continued escitalopram while nonresponders received adjunctive aripiprazole (2-10 mg) for a further 8 weeks (Phase 2). RESULTS: After Phase 1, MADRS response (≥ 50% decrease from baseline) and remission (score ≤ 10) were, respectively, 47% and 31%, and SDS response (score ≤ 12) and remission (score ≤ 6) were, respectively, 53% and 24%. Response to escitalopram was maintained in 91% of participants at week 16, while 61% of the adjunctive aripiprazole group achieved MADRS response during Phase 2. Response and remission rates with the QIDS-SR were lower than with the MADRS. The LEAPS demonstrated significant occupational improvement (P < .05). Early symptomatic improvement predicted outcomes with modest accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates comparable symptomatic and functional outcomes to those of other large practical-design studies. There was a high response rate with the adjunctive use of aripiprazole in escitalopram nonresponders. Given the limited value of early clinical improvement to predict outcome, integration of clinical and biological markers deserves further exploration. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01655706.

16.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700811

RESUMO

Antidepressants demonstrate modest response rates in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Despite previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of antidepressant treatment response, the underlying genetic factors are unknown. Using prescription data in a population and family-based cohort (Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study; GS:SFHS), we sought to define a measure of (a) antidepressant treatment resistance and (b) stages of antidepressant resistance by inferring antidepressant switching as non-response to treatment. GWAS were conducted separately for antidepressant treatment resistance in GS:SFHS and the Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) study and then meta-analysed (meta-analysis n = 4213, cases = 358). For stages of antidepressant resistance, a GWAS on GS:SFHS only was performed (n = 3452). Additionally, we conducted gene-set enrichment, polygenic risk scoring (PRS) and genetic correlation analysis. We did not identify any significant loci, genes or gene sets associated with antidepressant treatment resistance or stages of resistance. Significant positive genetic correlations of antidepressant treatment resistance and stages of resistance with neuroticism, psychological distress, schizotypy and mood disorder traits were identified. These findings suggest that larger sample sizes are needed to identify the genetic architecture of antidepressant treatment response, and that population-based observational studies may provide a tractable approach to achieving the necessary statistical power.

17.
Br J Psychiatry ; 215(2): 494-501, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) experiencing side-effects or non-response to their first antidepressant, little is known regarding the effect of switching between a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI).AimsTo compare the switch between the TCA nortriptyline and the SSRI escitalopram. METHOD: Among 811 adults with MDD treated with nortriptyline or escitalopram for up to 12 weeks, 108 individuals switched from nortriptyline to escitalopram or vice versa because of side-effects or non-response (trial registration: EudraCT No.2004-001723-38 (https://eudract.ema.europa.eu/) and ISRCTN No.03693000 (http://www.controlled-trials.com)). Patients were followed for up to 26 weeks after switching and response was measured with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating scale (MADRS). We performed adjusted mixed-effects linear regression models with full information maximum likelihood estimation reporting ß-coefficients with 95% CIs. RESULTS: Switching antidepressants resulted in a significant decrease in MADRS scores. This was present for switchers from escitalopram to nortriptyline (n = 36, ß = -0.38, 95% CI -0.51 to -0.25, P<0.001) and from nortriptyline to escitalopram (n = 72, ß = -0.34, 95% CI -0.41 to -0.26, P<0.001). Both switching options resulted in significant improvement among individuals who switched because of non-response or side-effects. The results were supported by analyses on other rating scales and symptom dimensions. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that switching from a TCA to an SSRI or vice versa after non-response or side-effects to the first antidepressant may be a viable approach to achieve response among patients with MDD.Declarations of interestK.J.A. holds an Alberta Centennial Addiction and Mental Health Research Chair, funded by the Government of Alberta. K.J.A. has been a member of various advisory boards, received consultancy fees and honoraria, and has received research grants from various companies including Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceuticals Research and Development and Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceuticals Limited. D.S. has served on advisory boards for, and received unrestricted grants from, Lundbeck and AstraZeneca. A.F. and P.M. have received honoraria for participating in expert panels for Lundbeck and GlaxoSmithKline.

18.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 76(3): 297-305, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586133

RESUMO

Importance: Findings of cognitive impairment in major depressive disorder (MDD), including remitted MDD, raise the question whether impaired cognition is part of preexisting vulnerability rather than a consequence of MDD or its treatment. To our knowledge, no meta-analyses have been published on cognitive impairment in first-degree relatives of individuals with MDD. Objective: To compare cognitive performance between individuals with and without family history of MDD. Data Sources: Medline/PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase using combinations of search terms for depression, first-degree relatives, and cognition from January 1, 1980, to July 15, 2018. Study Selection: Original articles that reported data on cognition in first-degree relatives of individuals with MDD compared with controls with no family history of major mental illness. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Means and SDs were extracted, and standardized mean differences (SMD) between relatives and controls were calculated for each measure of cognitive performance. The relative-control differences in overall cognition and in specific cognitive domains were synthesized in random-effects meta-analyses with robust variance estimation that allows including multiple correlated measures of cognition within each study. Heterogeneity was quantified with τ2. Publication bias was assessed with funnel plots and Egger intercept. Main Outcomes and Measures: Performance on cognitive tests. Results: Across 284 measures of cognition in 54 nonoverlapping samples including 3246 relatives of people with MDD (mean age 15.38 years, 57.68% females) and 5222 controls (mean age 14.70 years, 55.93% females), relatives of people with MDD performed worse than controls across all measures of cognition (SMD = -0.19; 95% CI, -0.27 to -0.11; P < .001). Domain-specific meta-analyses showed similar size of relative-control difference in most domains of cognition, including Full-Scale IQ (SMD = -0.19), verbal intelligence (SMD = -0.29), perceptual intelligence (SMD = -0.23), memory (SMD = -0.20), academic performance (SMD = -0.40), and language (SMD = -0.29). Study characteristics were not significantly associated with observed between-group differences. There was no evidence of publication bias. Conclusions and Relevance: A general impairment in cognition is a feature of familial disposition for MDD. Cognition may contribute to early identification of risk for depression and may be examined as potential target for early intervention.

19.
Res Integr Peer Rev ; 3: 9, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397513

RESUMO

Background: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are often complex and expensive to perform. Less than one third achieve planned recruitment targets, follow-up can be labor-intensive, and many have limited real-world generalizability. Designs for RCTs conducted using cohorts and routinely collected health data, including registries, electronic health records, and administrative databases, have been proposed to address these challenges and are being rapidly adopted. These designs, however, are relatively recent innovations, and published RCT reports often do not describe important aspects of their methodology in a standardized way. Our objective is to extend the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement with a consensus-driven reporting guideline for RCTs using cohorts and routinely collected health data. Methods: The development of this CONSORT extension will consist of five phases. Phase 1 (completed) consisted of the project launch, including fundraising, the establishment of a research team, and development of a conceptual framework. In phase 2, a systematic review will be performed to identify publications (1) that describe methods or reporting considerations for RCTs conducted using cohorts and routinely collected health data or (2) that are protocols or report results from such RCTs. An initial "long list" of possible modifications to CONSORT checklist items and possible new items for the reporting guideline will be generated based on the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) and The REporting of studies Conducted using Observational Routinely-collected health Data (RECORD) statements. Additional possible modifications and new items will be identified based on the results of the systematic review. Phase 3 will consist of a three-round Delphi exercise with methods and content experts to evaluate the "long list" and generate a "short list" of key items. In phase 4, these items will serve as the basis for an in-person consensus meeting to finalize a core set of items to be included in the reporting guideline and checklist. Phase 5 will involve drafting the checklist and elaboration-explanation documents, and dissemination and implementation of the guideline. Discussion: Development of this CONSORT extension will contribute to more transparent reporting of RCTs conducted using cohorts and routinely collected health data.

20.
Br J Psychiatry ; : 1-6, 2018 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30468137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is the most problematic outcome of depression in terms of functional impairment, suicidal thoughts and decline in physical health.AimsTo investigate the genetic predictors of TRD using a genome-wide approach to contribute to the development of precision medicine. METHOD: A sample recruited by the European Group for the Study of Resistant Depression (GSRD) including 1148 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) was characterised for the occurrence of TRD (lack of response to at least two adequate antidepressant treatments) and genotyped using the Infinium PsychArray. Three clinically relevant patient groups were considered: TRD, responders and non-responders to the first antidepressant trial, thus outcomes were based on comparisons of these groups. Genetic analyses were performed at the variant, gene and gene-set (i.e. functionally related genes) level. Additive regression models of the outcomes and relevant covariates were used in the GSRD participants and in a fixed-effect meta-analysis performed between GSRD, STAR*D (n = 1316) and GENDEP (n = 761) participants. RESULTS: No individual polymorphism or gene was associated with TRD, although some suggestive signals showed enrichment in cytoskeleton regulation, transcription modulation and calcium signalling. Two gene sets (GO:0043949 and GO:0000183) were associated with TRD versus response and TRD versus response and non-response to the first treatment in the GSRD participants and in the meta-analysis, respectively (corrected P = 0.030 and P = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS: The identified gene sets are involved in cyclic adenosine monophosphate mediated signal and chromatin silencing, two processes previously implicated in antidepressant action. They represent possible biomarkers to implement personalised antidepressant treatments and targets for new antidepressants.Declaration of interestD.S. has received grant/research support from GlaxoSmithKline and Lundbeck; has served as a consultant or on advisory boards for AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Janssen and Lundbeck. S.M. has been a consultant or served on advisory boards for: AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Forest, Johnson & Johnson, Leo, Lundbeck, Medelink, Neurim, Pierre Fabre, Richter. S.K. has received grant/research support from Eli Lilly, Lundbeck, Bristol-Myers Squibb, GlaxoSmithKline, Organon, Sepracor and Servier; has served as a consultant or on advisory boards for AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, GlaxoSmithKline, Eli Lilly, Lundbeck, Pfizer, Organon, Schwabe, Sepracor, Servier, Janssen and Novartis; and has served on speakers' bureaus for AstraZeneca, Eli Lily, Lundbeck, Schwabe, Sepracor, Servier, Pierre Fabre, Janssen and Neuraxpharm. J.Z. has received grant/research support from Lundbeck, Servier, Brainsway and Pfizer, has served as a consultant or on advisory boards for Servier, Pfizer, Abbott, Lilly, Actelion, AstraZeneca and Roche and has served on speakers' bureaus for Lundbeck, Roch, Lilly, Servier, Pfizer and Abbott. J.M. is a member of the Board of the Lundbeck International Neuroscience Foundation and of Advisory Board of Servier. A.S. is or has been consultant/speaker for: Abbott, AbbVie, Angelini, Astra Zeneca, Clinical Data, Boehringer, Bristol Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, Innovapharma, Italfarmaco, Janssen, Lundbeck, Naurex, Pfizer, Polifarma, Sanofi and Servier. C.M.L. receives research support from RGA UK Services Limited.

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