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1.
JAMA Neurol ; 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985746

RESUMO

Importance: The optimal blood pressure targets during endovascular therapy (EVT) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) are unknown. Objective: To study whether procedural blood pressure parameters, including specific blood pressure thresholds, are associated with neurologic outcomes after EVT. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included adults with anterior-circulation AIS who were enrolled in randomized clinical trials assessing anesthetic strategy for EVT between February 2014 and February 2017. The trials had comparable blood pressure protocols, and patients were followed up for 90 days. A total of 3630 patients were initially approached, and 3265 patients were excluded. Exposure: Endovascular therapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary efficacy variable was functional outcome as defined by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 90 days. Associations of blood pressure parameters and time less than and greater than mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) thresholds with outcome were analyzed. Results: Of the 365 patients included in the analysis, the mean (SD) age was 71.4 (13.0) years, 163 were women (44.6%), and the median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 17 (interquartile range [IQR], 14-21). For the entire cohort, 182 (49.9%) received general anesthesia and 183 (50.1%) received procedural sedation. A cumulated period of minimum 10 minutes with less than 70 mm Hg MABP (adjusted OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.02-2.22) and a continuous episode of minimum 20 minutes with less than 70 mm Hg MABP (adjusted OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.11-4.75) were associated with a shift toward higher 90-day mRS scores, corresponding to a number needed to harm of 10 and 4, respectively. A cumulated period of minimum 45 minutes with greater than 90 mm Hg MABP (adjusted OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.11-2.02) and a continuous episode of minimum 115 minutes with greater than 90 mm Hg MABP (adjusted OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.01-3.54) were associated with a shift toward higher 90-day mRS scores, corresponding to a number needed to harm of 10 and 6, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: Critical MABP thresholds and durations for poor outcome were found to be MABP less than 70 mm Hg for more than 10 minutes and MABP greater than 90 mm Hg for more than 45 minutes, both durations with a number needed to harm of 10 patients. Mean arterial blood pressure may be a modifiable therapeutic target to prevent or reduce poor functional outcome after EVT.

3.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 18(1): 27-32, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dermatoscopy may be hindered by body hair, and the development of an automated hair removal algorithm (AuHRA) might improve the diagnostic accuracy. However, the physicians' exact level of hindrance and the clinical benefit attained by AuHRA has not been assessed. The objectives of this study are to quantify the physicians' level of hindrance by body hair and the level of improvement in the visibility of underlying dermatoscopic patterns after application of AuHRA to digital images of hair-covered nevi. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional reader study including 59 sets of dermatoscopic images of benign nevi that were presented to six dermatologists. Each set included three images of one individual nevus (unshaved/physically shaved/digitally shaved with AuHRA), which were compared to each other within each set to assess the level of improvement caused by hair removal. RESULTS: In comparison to unshaved lesions, dermatologists attributed the highest mean level of improvement to a physical shave (+1.36, p < 0.001) followed by AuHRA's digital shave (+0.79, p < 0.001). The majority of dermatologists considered the application of AuHRA as helpful and confirmed a medical need. CONCLUSIONS: The dermatologists in our study confirmed a substantial impairment of the dermatoscopic examination by body hair. We demonstrated a clinical benefit attained by AuHRA in comparison to unshaved or physically shaved lesions.

4.
Heart Fail Rev ; 25(2): 161-171, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364027

RESUMO

This study aims to assess the comparative benefit and risk profile of treatment with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) with regard to all-cause mortality (primary endpoint), cardiovascular mortality, or heart failure (HF)-related hospitalization (secondary endpoints) and the safety endpoints hyperkalemia, acute renal failure, and gynecomastia in patients with chronic HF. We conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis following PRISMA-P and PRISMA-NMA guidelines. From 16 different sources, 14 randomized controlled trials totaling 12,213 patients testing an active treatment of either spironolactone, eplerenone, or canrenone/potassium-canreonate in adults with symptomatic HF due to systolic dysfunction reporting any of the above endpoints were retained. Efficacy in comparison to placebo/standard medical care with respect to all-cause mortality was confirmed for spironolactone and eplerenone while no conclusion could be drawn for canrenone (HR 0.69 (0.62; 0.77), 0.82 (0.75; 0.91), and 0.50 (0.17; 1.45), respectively). Indirect comparisons hint a potential (non-significant) preference of spironolactone over eplerenone (HR 0.84 (0.68; 1.03)). The overall risk of bias was low to intermediate. Results for secondary endpoints as well as sensitivity analyses essentially mirrored these findings. The beta-blocker adjusted meta-analysis for the primary endpoint showed the same tendency as the unadjusted one (HR 0.39 (0.07; 2.03)). Results need to be interpreted with caution, though, as the resultant mix of patient- and study-level covariates produced unstable statistical modeling. We found no significant and systematic superiority of either MRA regarding efficacy toward all endpoints considered in both direct and indirect comparisons.

5.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e031245, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722944

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hospital stays are critical events as they often disrupt continuity of care. This process evaluation aims to describe and explore the implementation of the VESPEERA programme (Improving continuity of patient care across sectors: An admission and discharge model in general practices and hospitals, Versorgungskontinuitaet sichern: Patientenorientiertes Einweisungs- und Entlassmanagement in Hausarztpraxen und Krankenhauesern). The evaluation concerns the intervention fidelity, reach in targeted populations, perceived effects, working mechanisms, feasibility, determinants for implementation, including contextual factors, and associations with the outcomes evaluation. The aim of the VESPEERA programme is the development, implementation and evaluation of a structured admission and discharge programme in general practices and hospitals. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The process evaluation is linked to the VESPEERA outcomes evaluation, which has a quasi-experimental multi-centre design with four study arms and is conducted in hospitals and general practices in Germany. The VESPEERA programme comprises several components: an assessment before admission, an admission letter, a telephonic discharge conversation between hospital and general practice before discharge, discharge information for patients, structured planning of follow-up care after discharge in the general practice and a telephone monitoring for patients with a risk of rehospitalisation. The process evaluation has a mixed-methods design, incorporating interviews (patients, both care providers who do and do not participate in the VESPEERA programme, total n=75), questionnaires (patients and care providers who participate in the VESPEERA programme, total n=475), implementation plans of hospitals, data documented in general practices, claims-based data and hospital process data. Data analysis is descriptive and explorative. Qualitative data will be transcribed and analysed using framework analysis based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Associations between the outcomes of the program and measures in the process evaluation will be explored in regression models. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval has been obtained by the ethics committee of the Medical Faculty Heidelberg prior to the start of the study (S-352/2018). Results will be disseminated through a final report to the funding agency, articles in peer-reviewed journals and conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: http://www.drks.de/DRKS00015183. TRIAL STATUS: The study protocol on hand is the protocol V.1.1 from 18 June 2018. Recruitment for interviews started on 3 September 2018 and will approximately be completed by the end of May 2019.

6.
JAMA ; 322(13): 1283-1293, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573636

RESUMO

Importance: General anesthesia during thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke has been associated with poor neurological outcome in nonrandomized studies. Three single-center randomized trials reported no significantly different or improved outcomes for patients who received general anesthesia compared with procedural sedation. Objective: To detect differences in functional outcome at 3 months between patients who received general anesthesia vs procedural sedation during thrombectomy for anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke. Data Source: MEDLINE search for English-language articles published from January 1, 1980, to July 31, 2019. Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials of adults with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of at least 10 and anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke assigned to receive general anesthesia or procedural sedation during thrombectomy. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Individual patient data were obtained from 3 single-center, randomized, parallel-group, open-label treatment trials with blinded end point evaluation that met inclusion criteria and were analyzed using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Degree of disability, measured via the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score (range 0-6; lower scores indicate less disability), analyzed with the common odds ratio (cOR) to detect the ordinal shift in the distribution of disability over the range of mRS scores. Results: A total of 368 patients (mean [SD] age, 71.5 [12.9] years; 163 [44.3%] women; median [interquartile range] National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 17 [14-21]) were included in the analysis, including 183 (49.7%) who received general anesthesia and 185 (50.3%) who received procedural sedation. The mean 3-month mRS score was 2.8 (95% CI, 2.5-3.1) in the general anesthesia group vs 3.2 (95% CI, 3.0-3.5) in the procedural sedation group (difference, 0.43 [95% CI, 0.03-0.83]; cOR, 1.58 [95% CI, 1.09-2.29]; P = .02). Among prespecified adverse events, only hypotension (decline in systolic blood pressure of more than 20% from baseline) (80.8% vs 53.1%; OR, 4.26 [95% CI, 2.55-7.09]; P < .001) and blood pressure variability (systolic blood pressure >180 mm Hg or <120 mm Hg) (79.7 vs 62.3%; OR, 2.42 [95% CI, 1.49-3.93]; P < .001) were significantly more common in the general anesthesia group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with acute ischemic stroke involving the anterior circulation undergoing thrombectomy, the use of protocol-based general anesthesia, compared with procedural sedation, was significantly associated with less disability at 3 months. These findings should be interpreted tentatively, given that the individual trials examined were single-center trials and disability was the primary outcome in only 1 trial.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Sedação Consciente/efeitos adversos , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/cirurgia , Trombectomia , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/cirurgia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Burns ; 45(6): 1275-1282, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383606

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inhalation injury is a common complication of thermal trauma. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) is regarded as current standard practice in diagnosing and grading inhalation injury. Nonetheless, its predictive value in terms of therapeutic decision-making and clinical outcome is controversial. METHODS: Adult burn patients with inhalation injury (InI) were selected from the National Burn Repository of the American Burn Association. Subjects were propensity score pair-matched based on injury severity and grouped based on whether or not FOB had been performed (FOB, CTR, respectively). Mortality, incidence of pneumonia, length of hospitalization, length of ICU stay and dependency on mechanical ventilation were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: 3014 patients were matched in two groups with a mean TBSA of 22.4%. There was no significant difference in carboxyhemoglobin fraction at admission. Patients, who underwent FOB on admission had a significantly increased incidence of pneumonia (p < 0.001), mortality (p < 0.05), length of hospitalization (p = 0.002), ICU stay (p < 0.001) and duration of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.006). In a subgroup analysis of patients with TBSA of at least 20%, incidence of pneumonia was significantly higher in the FOB group (p < 0.001) and longer mechanical ventilation was required (p = 0.036). DISCUSSION: Diagnosis and grading of InI through FOB is the current standard, although its predictive value regarding key outcome parameters and therapeutic decision-making, remains unclear. The potential procedural risk of FOB itself should be considered. This study demonstrates correlations of FOB with major clinical outcomes in both a general collective of burned adults as well as severely burned adults. Although these findings must be interpreted with caution, they may induce further research into potential harm of FOB and critical review of routine diagnostic FOB in suspected inhalation injury in thermally injured patients.

8.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 20(6): e667-e677, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327644

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This multicenter study aims to analyze outcome as well as early versus late patterns of recurrence following pulmonary stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with oligometastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This analysis included 301 patients with oligometastatic NSCLC treated with SBRT for 336 lung metastases. Although treatment of the primary tumor consisted of surgical resection, radiochemotherapy, and/or systemic therapy, pulmonary oligometastases were treated with SBRT. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 16.1 months, resulting in 2-year overall survival (OS), local control (LC), and distant control (DC) of 62.2%, 82.0%, and 45.2%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified age (P = .019) and histologic subtype (P = .028), as well as number of metastatic organs (P < .001) as independent prognostic factors for OS. LC was superior for patients with favorable histologic subtype (P = .046) and SBRT with a higher biological effective dose at isocenter (P = .037), whereas DC was inferior for patients with metastases in multiple organs (P < .001) and female gender (P = .027). Early (within 24 months) local or distant progression was observed in 15.3% and 36.5% of the patients. After 24 months, the risk of late local failure was low, with 3- and 4-year local failure rates of only 4.0%, and 7.6%. In contrast, patients remained at a high risk of distant progression with 3- and 4-year failure rates of 13.3% and 24.1%, respectively, with no plateau observed. CONCLUSION: SBRT for pulmonary oligometastatic NSCLC resulted in favorable LC and promising OS. The dominant failure pattern is distant with a continuously high risk of disease progression for many years.

9.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 19(1): 150, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials are the gold-standard for clinical trials. However, randomization is not always feasible. In this article we propose a prospective and adaptive matched case-control trial design assuming that a control group already exists. METHODS: We propose and discuss an interim analysis step to estimate the matching rate using a resampling step followed by a sample size recalculation. The sample size recalculation is based on the observed mean resampling matching rate. We applied our approach in a simulation study and to a real data set to evaluate the characteristics of the proposed design and to compare the results to a naive approach. RESULTS: The proposed design achieves at least 10% higher matching rate than the naive approach at final analysis, thus providing a better estimation of the true matching rate. A good choice for the interim analysis seems to be a fraction of around [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] of the control patients. CONCLUSION: The proposed resampling step in a prospective matched case-control trial design leads to an improved estimate of the final matching rate and, thus, to a gain in power of the approach due to sensible sample size recalculation.

10.
Cancer Med ; 8(8): 3666-3676, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115192

RESUMO

The aim of the Complementary Nursing in Gynecologic Oncology study was to investigate the effects of a complex, nurse-led, supportive care intervention using Complementary and Integrative Medicine (CIM) on patients' quality of life (QoL) and associated patient-reported outcomes. In this prospective, pragmatic, bicentric, randomized controlled trial, women with breast or gynecologic cancer undergoing a new regimen of chemotherapy (CHT) were randomly assigned to routine supportive care plus intervention (intervention group, IG) or routine care alone (control group, CG). The intervention consisted of CIM applications and counseling for symptom management, as well as CIM information material. The primary endpoint was global QoL measured with the EORTC-QLQ-C30 before and after CHT. Mixed linear models considering fixed and random factors were used to analyze the data. In total, 126 patients were randomly assigned into the IG and 125 patients into the CG (median age 51 years). The patients' medical and socio-demographic characteristics were homogenous at baseline and at follow-up. No group effects on QoL were found upon completion of CHT (estimate -1.04 [-4.89; 2.81]; P = 0.596), but there was a significant group difference in favor of the IG 6 months later (estimate 6.643 [1.65; 11.64]; P = 0.010). IG patients did also experience significant better emotional functioning (P = 0.007) and less fatigue (P = 0.027). The tested supportive intervention did not improve patients' QoL outcomes directly after CHT (T3), but was associated with significant QoL improvements when considering the change from baseline to the time point T4, which could be assessed 6 months after patients' completion of CHT. This delayed effect may have resulted due to a strengthening of patients' self-management competencies.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963184

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to identify an ideal location to measure fibular rotation in the ankle joint using axial computed tomography (CT) scans. Another objective was to detect the average fibular rotation in the uninjured ankle joint in a large cohort. METHODS: Standardised axial CT with coronal/sagittal reconstructions was performed in healthy ankle joints. Three investigators performed the measurements. In the axial view, each investigator appointed the ideal location to measure the angle of fibular rotation with the use of reference lines either 4, 6, 8 or 10 mm distal from the talar joint line. Inter- and intraobserver reliability, as well as the intraclass correlation coefficient, were determined. RESULTS: CT scans of one hundred individuals-78 males and 22 females-were analysed. The most common locations for measuring the fibular rotation were in 31% of cases 4 mm and in 51% of cases 6 mm distal the talar joint line. The external rotation of the fibula averaged 8.42° ± 4.86° (range 0°-26°). The intraclass coefficient correlations (ICC) for interrater and intrarater reliability were 0.75. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study demonstrate a reproducible location to measure the fibular rotation in the ankle joint. The most convenient location to measure fibular rotation with a high reliability was 6 mm distal to the talar joint line.

12.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 108(11): 1297-1308, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular non-compaction has been increasingly diagnosed in recent years. However, it is still debated whether non-compaction is a pathological condition or a physiological trait. In this meta-analysis and systematic review, we compare studies, which investigated these two different perspectives. Furthermore, we provide a comprehensive overview on the clinical outcome as well as genetic background of left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy in adult patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrieved PubMed/Medline literatures in English language from 2000 to 19/09/2018 on clinical outcome and genotype of patients with non-compaction. We summarized and extensively reviewed all studies that passed selection criteria and performed a meta-analysis on key phenotypic parameters. Altogether, 35 studies with 2271 non-compaction patients were included in our meta-analysis. The mean age at diagnosis was the mid of their fifth decade. Two-thirds of patients were male. Congenital heart diseases including atrial or ventricular septum defect or Ebstein anomaly were reported in 7% of patients. Twenty-four percent presented with family history of cardiomyopathy. The mean frequency of neuromuscular diseases was 5%. Heart rhythm abnormalities were reported frequently: conduction disease in 26%, supraventricular tachycardia in 17%, and sustained or non-sustained ventricular tachycardia in 18% of patients. Three important outcome measures were reported including systemic thromboembolic events with a mean frequency of 9%, heart transplantation with 4%, and adequate ICD therapy with 15%. Nine studies investigated the genetics of non-compaction cardiomyopathy. The most frequently mutated gene was TTN with a pooled frequency of 11%. The average frequency of MYH7 mutations was 9%, for MYBPC3 mutations 5%, and for CASQ2 and LDB3 3% each. TPM1, MIB1, ACTC1, and LMNA mutations had an average frequency of 2% each. Mutations in PLN, HCN4, TAZ, DTNA, TNNT2, and RBM20 were reported with a frequency of 1% each. We also summarized the results of eight studies investigating the non-compaction in altogether 5327 athletes, pregnant women, patients with sickle cell disease, as well as individuals from population-based cohorts, in which the presence of left ventricular hypertrabeculation ranged from 1.3 to 37%. CONCLUSION: The summarized data indicate that non-compaction may lead to unfavorable outcome in different cardiomyopathy entities. The presence of key features in a multimodal diagnostic approach could distinguish between benign morphological trait and manifest cardiomyopathy.

13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 206, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospitalisations are a critical event in the care process. Insufficient communication and uncoordinated follow-up care often impede the recovery process of the patient resulting in a high number of rehospitalisations and increased health care costs. The overall aim of this study is the development, implementation and evaluation of a structured programme (VESPEERA) to improve the admission and discharge process. METHODS: We will conduct an open quasi-experimental multi-centre study with four intervention arms. A cohort selected from insurance claims data will serve as a control group reflecting usual care. The intervention will be implemented in 25 hospital departments and 115 general practices in 9 districts in Baden-Wurttemberg. Eligibility criteria for patients are: age > 18 years, hospital admission or hospitalisation, insurance at the sickness fund "AOK Baden-Wurttemberg", enrolment in general practice-centred care contract. Each study arm will receive different intervention components based on the point of study enrolment and the patient's medical need. The interventions comprise a) a structured assessment in the general practice prior to admission resulting in an admission letter b) a discharge conversation by phone between hospital and general practice, c) a structured assessment and care plan post-discharge and d) telephone monitoring for patients with a high risk of rehospitalisation. The assessments are supported by a software tool ("CareCockpit"), originally developed for structured case management programmes. The primary outcome (rehospitalisation due to the same indication within 90 days) and a range of secondary outcomes (rehospitalisation due to the same indication within 30 days; hospitalisations due to ambulatory care-sensitive conditions; delayed prescription of medication and medical products/ devices and referral to other health practitioner/s after discharge; utilisation of emergency or rescue services within 3 months; average care cost per year and patient participating in the VESPEERA programme) and quality indicators will be determined based on insurance claims data and CareCockpit data. Additionally, a patient survey on satisfaction with cross-sectoral care and health related quality of life will be conducted. DISCUSSION: Based on the results, area-wide implementation in usual care is well sought. This study will contribute to an improvement of cross-sectoral care during the admission and discharge process. TRIAL REGISTRATION: DRKS00014294 on DRKS / Universal Trial Number (UTN): U1111-1210-9657, Date of registration 12/06/2018.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Alta do Paciente , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Adulto , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3866, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846742

RESUMO

Recordings of aortic root movement represent one of the first accomplishments of ultrasound in medicine and mark the beginning of functional cardiac imaging. However, the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. Since the aortic root is directly connected to the cardiac skeleton we hypothesize, that the amplitude of systolic aortic root motion (SARM) may be mainly caused by displacement of the cardiac base towards the apex and might therefore be used as measure of left ventricular longitudinal function (LV-LF). One hundred and eighty patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and 180 healthy controls were prospectively included into this study. SARM was lower in patients compared to controls (9 ± 3 mm vs. 12 ± 2 mm, p < 0.001) and lowest in patients with cardiovascular events (9 ± 3 mm vs. 7 ± 3 mm, p < 0.001). During a median follow-up time of 38 months, the combined end-point of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure was reached by 25 patients (13.9%). Reduced SARM had significant prognostic impact on outcome (hazard ratio 0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.63-0.88, p < 0.001) and remained an independent predictor in the multivariate analysis. Compared to parameters with potential influence on its mechanism, SARM correlated best (r = 0.75, p < 0.001) with global longitudinal strain (GLS). SARM may therefore represent an alternative echocardiographic parameter for the assessment of LV-LF, particularly when GLS is not feasible or apical views are not available.

15.
Trials ; 20(1): 103, 2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The overuse of antibiotics is a major cause for the worldwide rise of antibiotic resistance. Although it is well known that acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI) are mainly caused by viruses and are often self limiting, antibiotics are too frequently prescribed in primary care. CHANGE-3 examines whether a complex intervention focusing on improving communication and provision of prescribing feedback reduces antibiotic use in patients suffering from ARTI. METHODS/DESIGN: The CHANGE-3 trial is a cluster-randomized controlled trial nested within a web-based public campaign conducted in two regions in Germany. A total of 114 medical practices will be included. Practices randomized to the intervention will receive a practice-specific antibiotic-prescription feedback and an educational outreach visit. During the visit the whole practice team will receive an introduction to e-learning modules addressing patient-centered communication on antibiotics. Furthermore, the practices will receive tablet PCs with information on antibiotics and the treatment of ARTI to be presented to patients. Practices randomized to the control will provide care as usual. The primary outcome measure is the antibiotic prescribing rate for patients with a history of ARTI. Data collected before the intervention, during the intervention and after the intervention will be compared. The use of narrow- vs. broad-spectrum antibiotics will be analyzed as a secondary outcome. A process evaluation is also part of the trial. DISCUSSION: This study should contribute to the growing body of research on reducing antibiotic prescription. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, ISRCTN15061174 . Registered retrospectively on 13 July 2018.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Educação Médica Continuada/métodos , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Hábitos , Capacitação em Serviço/métodos , Médicos de Atenção Primária/educação , Padrões de Prática Médica , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Comunicação , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Alemanha , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Relações Médico-Paciente , Médicos de Atenção Primária/tendências , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Procedimentos Desnecessários
16.
Neurocrit Care ; 31(1): 46-55, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although the treatment window for mechanical thrombectomy (MT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) has been extended in recent years, it has been proven that recanalizing treatment must be administered as soon as possible. We present a new standard operating procedure (SOP) to reduce in-house delay, standardize periinterventional management and improve patient safety during MT. METHODS: KEep Evaluating Protocol Simplification In Managing Periinterventional Light Sedation for Endovascular Stroke Treatment (KEEP SIMPLEST) was a prospective, single-center observational study aimed to compare aspects of periinterventional management in AIS patients treated according to our new SOP using a combination of esketamine and propofol with patients having been randomized into conscious sedation (CS) in the Sedation versus Intubation for Endovascular Stroke TreAtment (SIESTA) trial. Primary outcome was early neurological improvement at 24h using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and secondary outcomes were door-to-recanalization, recanalization grade, conversion rate and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months. RESULTS: Door-to-recanalization time (128.6 ± 69.47 min vs. 156.8 ± 75.91 min; p = 0.02), mean duration of MT (92.01 ± 52 min vs. 131.9 ± 64.03 min; p < 0.001), door-to-first angiographic image (51.61 ± 31.7 min vs. 64.23 ± 21.53 min; p = 0.003) and computed tomography-to-first angiographic image time (31.61 ± 20.6 min vs. 44.61 ± 19.3 min; p < 0.001) were significantly shorter in the group treated under the new SOP. There were no differences in early neurological improvement, mRS at 3 months or other secondary outcomes between the groups. Conversion rates of CS to general anesthesia were similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: An SOP using a novel sedation regimen and optimization of equipment and procedures directed at a leaner, more integrative and compact periinterventional management can reduce in-house treatment delays significantly in stroke patients receiving thrombectomy in light sedation and demonstrated the safety and feasibility of our improved approach.

17.
Neurocrit Care ; 31(1): 97-106, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30569269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decompressive hemicraniectomy improves survival rates and functional outcome in patients with space-occupying middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction. We sought to determine clinical outcomes in elderly patients with MCA infarction treated with hemicraniectomy and to identify factors associated with functional outcome. METHODS: We performed a prospective, single-center observational study aiming to include patients aged ≥ 61 years with large MCA infarction treated with hemicraniectomy. The primary endpoint was the functional outcome according to modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 6 months after hemicraniectomy. Secondary endpoints included outcome measures at 12 months. A pooled analysis of individual patient data from the single-center cohort and a DESTINY 2 trial subgroup was performed to identify factors associated with functional status at 12 months. RESULTS: We included 40 MCA infarction patients who underwent hemicraniectomy between 2012 and 2017 at our university hospital (median [IQR] patient age 64 [62-67] years, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 17 [16-21]). The dominant hemisphere was affected in 22/40 patients. Hemicraniectomy was performed within 31 [23-53] h of symptom onset. At 6 months after hemicraniectomy, 6/40 patients (15%) were moderately or moderately severely disabled (mRS score 3 or 4), 19 (47.5%) severely disabled (mRS score 5), and 15 (37.5%) had died. Compared to surgically treated DESTINY 2 patients, the single-center patients less likely exhibited favorable functional outcome at 6 months (mRS scores 0-4; odds ratio 0.239 [95% CI 0.082-0.696]). Case-fatality rate at 12 months was 43%. In a pooled analysis including 79 patients from DECAP and DESTINY 2, no significant associations of baseline and treatment factors with the clinical status at 12 months were observed. CONCLUSIONS: In this single-center cohort of elderly patients with space-occupying MCA infarction and decompressive hemicraniectomy, the probability for survival without severe disability was low. Lethality at 6 and 12 months was comparable to previously reported data from a randomized trial.

18.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 108(2): 194-202, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30083858

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Calcification of aortic valve and mitral annulus is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, morbidity and mortality. Assessment of cardiac calcification with echocardiography is feasible, however, only few structured scoring systems have been established so far with limited prognostic data. This study aimed to evaluate an echocardiographic calcification score (echo-CCS) in patients with low/intermediate cardiovascular risk. METHODS: Digitally stored echocardiography studies of 151 patients (median age 64, 49.7% male) from February 2008 to December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed for calcifications of the aortic valve, aortic root, mitral annulus, papillary muscles and ventricular septum. A calcification score ranging from 0 to 5 was assigned to every patient and its relation to computed tomography calcium score, coronary stenosis and ESC SCORE was assessed. Follow-up data were collected from 149 patients (98.7%) with a median of 6.2 years. Logistic regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis were performed to assess the association of the echo-CCS with significant coronary artery disease (≥ 50% stenosis) and risk for cardiac events and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: An association of the echo-CCS with the ESC SCORE (ρ = 0.5; p < 0.001) and a good correlation of the echo-CCS with the Agatston score (ρ = 0.73; p < 0.001) can be observed. Univariate regressions revealed that echo-CCS is a significant predictor for cardiac events [OR = 5.1 (CI: 1.7-15.0); p = 0.003], coronary intervention [OR = 2.8 (CI: 1.3-5.7); p = 0.006], hospitalisation for cardiac symptoms [OR = 2.0 (CI: 1.2-3.4); p = 0.007], all-cause mortality [OR = 2.6 (CI: 1.3-5.5); p = 0.01] and significant CAD [OR = 3.2 (CI: 1.9-5.4); p < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the prevalence of an easily obtainable, radiation-free calcification score in patients with low/intermediate cardiovascular risk. The strong association with CT-calcium scoring may evoke its potential as an alternative method in CV risk assessment.


Assuntos
Calcinose/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Medição de Risco , Calcinose/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte/tendências , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 427, 2019 12 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Spreading depolarizations (SD) are characterized by breakdown of transmembrane ion gradients and excitotoxicity. Experimentally, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists block a majority of SDs. In many hospitals, the NMDAR antagonist s-ketamine and the GABAA agonist midazolam represent the current second-line combination treatment to sedate patients with devastating cerebral injuries. A pressing clinical question is whether this option should become first-line in sedation-requiring individuals in whom SDs are detected, yet the s-ketamine dose necessary to adequately inhibit SDs is unknown. Moreover, use-dependent tolerance could be a problem for SD inhibition in the clinic. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 66 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) from a prospectively collected database. Thirty-three of 66 patients received s-ketamine during electrocorticographic neuromonitoring of SDs in neurointensive care. The decision to give s-ketamine was dependent on the need for stronger sedation, so it was expected that patients receiving s-ketamine would have a worse clinical outcome. RESULTS: S-ketamine application started 4.2 ± 3.5 days after aSAH. The mean dose was 2.8 ± 1.4 mg/kg body weight (BW)/h and thus higher than the dose recommended for sedation. First, patients were divided according to whether they received s-ketamine at any time or not. No significant difference in SD counts was found between groups (negative binomial model using the SD count per patient as outcome variable, p = 0.288). This most likely resulted from the fact that 368 SDs had already occurred in the s-ketamine group before s-ketamine was given. However, in patients receiving s-ketamine, we found a significant decrease in SD incidence when s-ketamine was started (Poisson model with a random intercept for patient, coefficient - 1.83 (95% confidence intervals - 2.17; - 1.50), p < 0.001; logistic regression model, odds ratio (OR) 0.13 (0.08; 0.19), p < 0.001). Thereafter, data was further divided into low-dose (0.1-2.0 mg/kg BW/h) and high-dose (2.1-7.0 mg/kg/h) segments. High-dose s-ketamine resulted in further significant decrease in SD incidence (Poisson model, - 1.10 (- 1.71; - 0.49), p < 0.001; logistic regression model, OR 0.33 (0.17; 0.63), p < 0.001). There was little evidence of SD tolerance to long-term s-ketamine sedation through 5 days. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide a foundation for a multicenter, neuromonitoring-guided, proof-of-concept trial of ketamine and midazolam as a first-line sedative regime.

20.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 20(1): 278, 2018 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD4+ T cells are of great importance in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), as an imbalance between CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and CD4+ responder T cells (Tresps) causes flares of active disease in SLE patients. In this study, we aimed to find the role of aberrant Treg/Tresp cell differentiation for maintaining Treg/Tresp cell balance and Treg functionality. METHODS: To determine differences in the differentiation of Tregs/Tresps we calculated the percentages of CD45RA+CD31+ recent thymic emigrant (RTE) Tregs/Tresps and CD45RA+CD31- mature naive (MN) Tregs/Tresps, as well as CD45RA-CD31+ and CD45RA-CD31- memory Tregs/Tresps (CD31+ and CD31- memory Tregs/Tresps) within the total Treg/Tresp pool of 78 SLE remission patients compared with 94 healthy controls of different ages. The proliferation capacity of each Treg/Tresp subset was determined by staining the cells with anti-Ki67 monoclonal antibodies. Differences in the autologous or allogeneic Treg function between SLE remission patients and healthy controls were determined using suppression assays. RESULTS: With age, we found an increased differentiation of RTE Tregs via CD31+ memory Tregs and of RTE Tresps via MN Tresps into CD31- memory Tregs/Tresp in healthy volunteers. This opposite differentiation of RTE Tregs and Tresps was associated with an age-dependent increase in the suppressive activity of both naive and memory Tregs. SLE patients showed similar age-dependent Treg cell differentiation. However, in these patients RTE Tresps differentiated increasingly via CD31+ memory Tresps, whereby CD31- memory Tresps arose that were much more difficult to inhibit for Tregs than those that emerged through differentiation via MN Tresps. Consequently, the increase in the suppressive activity of Tregs with age could not be maintained in SLE patients. Testing the Tregs of healthy volunteers and SLE patients with autologous and nonautologous Tresps revealed that the significantly decreased Treg function in SLE patients was not exclusively attributed to an age-dependent diminished sensitivity of the Tresps for Treg suppression. The immunosuppressive therapy reduced the accelerated age-dependent Tresp cell proliferation to normal levels, but simultaneously inhibited Treg cell proliferation below normal levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our data reveal that the currently used immunosuppressive therapy has a favorable effect on the differentiation and proliferation of Tresps but has a rather unfavorable effect on the proliferation of Tregs. Newer substances with more specific effects on the immune system would be desirable.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Imunossupressão/métodos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Feminino , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
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