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1.
Zootaxa ; 4683(2): zootaxa.4683.2.1, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715924

RESUMO

For the goatfish genus Upeneus Cuvier 1829 (Mullidae), a new taxonomic species group called the "margarethae group" is established which can be distinguished from the six species of the most similar "tragula group" by a combination of the following characteristics: absence of dark pigmentation in the area of the first dorsal-fin tip, 21-25 total gill rakers and 28-30 lateral-line scales. Initially, three recently-described species have been included in the margarethae group: Upeneus margarethae Uiblein Heemstra, 2010, known from the Indian Ocean including the Red Sea and from the Arafura Sea (W Pacific), U. mouthami Randall Kulbicki, 2006, from New Caledonia and Vanuatu (W Pacific), and U. randalli Uiblein Heemstra, 2011, from the Arabian/Persian Gulf and the inner Gulf of Oman (NW Indian Ocean). The present taxonomic review of the margarethae group analyses a large data set of 41 morphometric, 10 meristic and many colour characters obtained from 279 preserved goatfish specimens and 166 fresh-colour photos (plus a fresh-colour drawing). For the nominal species of the group, U. margarethae, a redescription of the colour patterns is provided and new records for Myanmar, Andaman Sea (NE Indian Ocean) and the Gulf of Carpentaria, N Australia (W Pacific), are reported. Three new species are described: U. caudofasciatus n. sp. from the area of the Great Barrier Reef to Torres Strait off NE Australia (Coral Sea, W Pacific), U. gubal n. sp. from the S Gulf of Suez (Northern Red Sea), and U. heterospinus n. sp. from S Indonesia to Singapore, the Gulf of Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines, China, Taiwan and Japan (W Pacific). A comprehensive alpha-taxonomic approach is adopted, considering population differences as well as intraspecific size-related variation in morphology and colour patterns by splitting the data set into two size classes, adults (≥ 65 mm SL) and smaller subadults. Inter- and intraspecific comparisons include statistical analyses for species and population with sufficiently large samples sizes (n ≥ 20). Colour-pattern characterization and analysis are based on photos of recently collected and deceased fish (partly associated with voucher specimens), photos obtained from active or resting fishes in situ or in a tank, and inspection of pigmentation patterns retained in preserved specimens. Species differences are elaborated under consideration of distribution patterns and the characteristics found in the closest-most population of widely distributed species such as U. margarethae, resulting in clear and consistent distinction among the six species in single or in a combination of several characteristics. Comparisons among size classes revealed species-specific patterns in morphometric, meristic and colour changes with increasing size. One species, U. heterospinus n. sp., has seven or eight spines in the dorsal fin which occur in balanced ratio across populations. This is a unique characteristic for Upeneus species which usually have either seven or eight dorsal-fin spines, respectively. The best distinction of Upeneus heterospinus n. sp. from all other congeners is reached by combined examination of dorsal-fin spines with several other characters such as barbel colour, presence of a mid-lateral body stripe, pigmentation patterns (partly retained also in preserved fish), gill-raker and pectoral-fin ray numbers, and body-shape variables. The high degree of overall morphological differentation among the three most common species U. caudofasciatus n. sp., U. heterospinus n. sp. and U. margarethae, as revealed by the statistical comparisons, strongly contrasts with a still signficant, but much lower degree of differentiation among populations. The diagnostic characteristics of the margarethae group are updated and the importance to use the results of this taxonomic review in ongoing fisheries-related and ecological research is emphasized. Requirements for future taxonomic research featuring the stunning diversity of the goatfish genus Upeneus are also discussed.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Austrália , Cor , Indonésia , Oceano Pacífico
2.
Zootaxa ; 4387(1): 157-173, 2018 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29690490

RESUMO

This review was motivated by the recent collection of a specimen of the specious cuskeel genus Neobythites (Ophidiidae) off Myanmar and difficulties to identify it based on the available literature. This specimen has an ocellus consisting of a dark oval spot and a concentric white ring placed on the dorsal fin at mid-body, typical for many Neobythites species. It belongs to a group of single-ocellus bearing species which have no or only one weakly developed, flat preopercular spine which we term here the "steatiticus-species group". Before this study, the steatiticus group consisted of six Indo-Pacific species, N. longipes, N. malhaensis, N. malayanus, N. meteori, N. steatiticus, and N. stefanovi, and the Atlantic N. monocellatus. From 136 specimens representing the six Indo-Pacific steatiticus-group species counts or measurements of 12 meristic, 14 body shape, five ocellus and six otolith characters were obtained and compared, revealing two undescribed species. We describe N. gloriae n. sp. from the Arabian Gulf and inner Gulf of Oman based on nine specimens that had been previously misidentified as N. steatiticus and N. stefanovi. The latter species differ from the new species and from each other in the combination of five characters, head length, orbit length, gill-filament length, ocellus-spot distance, and ocellus-spot size. The second new species described is N. lombokensis n. sp. which consists of a single specimen from off SE Lombok, southern Indonesia. It differs from all other steatiticus-group species in having a larger ocellus spot and in several meristic and morphometric characters. The specimen from off Myanmar, eastern Bay of Bengal, was found to belong to N. steatiticus, providing new information on distribution and colour. Diagnoses, updated distribution information, and a key for the eight Indo-Pacific steatiticus-group species are here presented. We discuss our findings with special emphasis on the variation and possible function of colour patterns in Neobythites, being important for understanding the ecology and evolution of this specious genus.


Assuntos
Peixes , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Indonésia , Mianmar , Omã
3.
Zootaxa ; 4344(3): 541-559, 2017 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29245624

RESUMO

For Jansen's goatfish, Parupeneus jansenii (Mullidae), taxonomic knowledge has been rather poor and occurrence information restricted to a few localities only, with verified records from northern Sulawesi and Sunda Street (Indonesia), and Luzon (Philippines). This species is here included in the so-called "heptacanthus" group together with the Indo-Pacific cinnabar goatfish, P. heptacanthus, and five Indian Ocean congenerics, based on an evenly, symmetrically rounded posterior maxilla margin and similarities in meristic characters and preserved colour. In total 29 P. jansenii and 53 P. heptacanthus consisting of types, recently collected material from south-central Vietnam, southern Indonesia, and NE Australia, and geographically related reference material were studied along with single types of the other five heptacanthus-group species and P. angulatus, a morphologically similar Western Indian Ocean species. In total 62 quantitative meristic and morphometric characters including standard length (SL) were analysed after splitting the data into two size classes (small-sized fish, < 110 mm SL, vs. large-sized fish  > 110 mm SL) to account for size-related differences due to allometry. Diagnoses for P. jansenii and P. heptacanthus and a redescription for P. jansenii were prepared. Fresh-fish colour descriptions for both large- and small-sized voucher specimens of P. jansenii are provided and the effects of freshness status on colour patterns is documented. New records for P. jansenii for Vietnam, southern Indonesia and NE Australia (= first verified record for Australia) are reported and depth information (24-100 m depth range) is given for the first time. P. jansenii differs from the co-occurring P. heptacanthus - independently of size - in shallower body and caudal peduncle, smaller maximum head depth, shorter barbels, caudal and pelvic fins, shallower first dorsal fin, shallower first ray of second dorsal fin, and lack of small dark red or reddish-brown spot on or just below the eighth lateral-line scale. The populations of P. jansenii from Vietnam and Australia differ from each other in a single character, the height of the eighth dorsal-fin ray, but both overlap with the intermediate population from Indonesia. This comprehensive alpha-taxonomic approach provides a useful tool for uncovering the diversity of Parupeneus goatfishes.


Assuntos
Peixes , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Austrália , Oceano Índico , Indonésia , Oceano Pacífico , Filipinas , Vietnã
4.
Zootaxa ; 3980(1): 51-66, 2015 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26249938

RESUMO

Upeneus lombok n. sp. is described from two specimens collected off Lombok, Indonesia, at depths of 54-76 m, and one subadult specimen from the local fish market at Tanjung Luar, Lombok. Four specimens of U. asymmetricus were collected at the same fish market representing the first record of the species since its description from two Philippine Islands in 1954. These two species are compared in detail and with five congeneric species that all share a 7-spined dorsal fin and a high gill-raker count. Upeneus lombok n. sp. differs from all other congeners in having a short snout (snout length 9.0-9.6% SL) combined with a low anal fin (anal-fin height 12-13% SL in adults, 15% in single subadult). The newly recorded U. asymmetricus specimens differ from their types only slightly and all eight specimens together differ from all congeneric species in the combination of 7 dorsal spines, 12-14 pectoral fin rays, 26-28 total gill rakers, short pectoral fins (pectoral-fin length 18-21% SL) and short jaws (upper jaw length 8.7-11% SL). In both species the caudal-fin colour patterns of fresh fish are of diagnostic significance, the only exception being a close similarity between Upeneus lombok n.sp., U. saiab, and U. seychellensis. Additional comparisons with 14 Upeneus species which overlap in distribution or occur in nearby areas are also made. Needs for further taxonomic exploration of the Indonesian-Philippine region and for enhanced attention to the economic and ecological importance of Upeneus species are discussed.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Animais , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/classificação , Oceano Índico , Indonésia , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
Zootaxa ; 3666: 337-44, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26217854

RESUMO

A new goatfish, Upeneus vanuatu (Mullidae), is described based on five specimens collected off two islands of Vanuatu (South Pacific), at depths of 191-321 m, and compared with five closely related species: Upeneus davidaroni (Red Sea), U. mascareinsis (Western Indian Ocean), U. stenopsis (northern Australia, Philippines, 127-275 m), and the more shallow-occurring Indo-West Pacific species U. subvittatus (26-120 m) and U. vittatus (

Assuntos
Peixes/classificação , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ilhas , Oceanos e Mares , Tamanho do Órgão , Vanuatu
6.
Zootaxa ; 3717: 85-95, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26176097

RESUMO

A new goatfish, Upeneus saiab n. sp. (Mullidae), is described from six specimens collected off Angoche, northern Mozambique, during a research cruise of the RV Dr. F. Nansen in August 2009. Upeneus saiab n. sp. differs from all congeneric species in the following combination of characteristics: seven dorsal-fin spines, 29 total gill rakers, body depth at anal-fin origin 17-19% SL, and pectoral-fin length 20-21% SL. Detailed comparisons with the eight other species of the japonicus group are made and a key for Western Indian Ocean species is provided. A new record of Upeneuspori for Kwa-Zulu-Natal, South Africa, is reported based on in situ photographs. The need for further exploration of the rather long and ecologically diverse Mozambican coast and adjacent areas of southeastern Africa for the occurrence of yet undescribed or unreported goatfish species is emphasized.


Assuntos
Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Peixes/fisiologia , Moçambique , Especificidade da Espécie
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