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1.
Hum Reprod ; 2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582778

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Do genetic variations in the DNA damage response pathway modify the adverse effect of alkylating agents on ovarian function in female childhood cancer survivors (CCS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Female CCS carrying a common BR serine/threonine kinase 1 (BRSK1) gene variant appear to be at 2.5-fold increased odds of reduced ovarian function after treatment with high doses of alkylating chemotherapy. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Female CCS show large inter-individual variability in the impact of DNA-damaging alkylating chemotherapy, given as treatment of childhood cancer, on adult ovarian function. Genetic variants in DNA repair genes affecting ovarian function might explain this variability. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: CCS for the discovery cohort were identified from the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) LATER VEVO-study, a multi-centre retrospective cohort study evaluating fertility, ovarian reserve and risk of premature menopause among adult female 5-year survivors of childhood cancer. Female 5-year CCS, diagnosed with cancer and treated with chemotherapy before the age of 25 years, and aged 18 years or older at time of study were enrolled in the current study. Results from the discovery Dutch DCOG-LATER VEVO cohort (n = 285) were validated in the pan-European PanCareLIFE (n = 465) and the USA-based St. Jude Lifetime Cohort (n = 391). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: To evaluate ovarian function, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels were assessed in both the discovery cohort and the replication cohorts. Using additive genetic models in linear and logistic regression, five genetic variants involved in DNA damage response were analysed in relation to cyclophosphamide equivalent dose (CED) score and their impact on ovarian function. Results were then examined using fixed-effect meta-analysis. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Meta-analysis across the three independent cohorts showed a significant interaction effect (P = 3.0 × 10-4) between rs11668344 of BRSK1 (allele frequency = 0.34) among CCS treated with high-dose alkylating agents (CED score ≥8000 mg/m2), resulting in a 2.5-fold increased odds of a reduced ovarian function (lowest AMH tertile) for CCS carrying one G allele compared to CCS without this allele (odds ratio genotype AA: 2.01 vs AG: 5.00). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: While low AMH levels can also identify poor responders in assisted reproductive technology, it needs to be emphasized that AMH remains a surrogate marker of ovarian function. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Further research, validating our findings and identifying additional risk-contributing genetic variants, may enable individualized counselling regarding treatment-related risks and necessity of fertility preservation procedures in girls with cancer. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This work was supported by the PanCareLIFE project that has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no 602030. In addition, the DCOG-LATER VEVO study was funded by the Dutch Cancer Society (Grant no. VU 2006-3622) and by the Children Cancer Free Foundation (Project no. 20) and the St Jude Lifetime cohort study by NCI U01 CA195547. The authors declare no competing interests. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 654, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510174

RESUMO

Low muscle strength is an important heritable indicator of poor health linked to morbidity and mortality in older people. In a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 256,523 Europeans aged 60 years and over from 22 cohorts we identify 15 loci associated with muscle weakness (European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People definition: n = 48,596 cases, 18.9% of total), including 12 loci not implicated in previous analyses of continuous measures of grip strength. Loci include genes reportedly involved in autoimmune disease (HLA-DQA1 p = 4 × 10-17), arthritis (GDF5 p = 4 × 10-13), cell cycle control and cancer protection, regulation of transcription, and others involved in the development and maintenance of the musculoskeletal system. Using Mendelian randomization we report possible overlapping causal pathways, including diabetes susceptibility, haematological parameters, and the immune system. We conclude that muscle weakness in older adults has distinct mechanisms from continuous strength, including several pathways considered to be hallmarks of ageing.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Debilidade Muscular/genética , Sarcopenia/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Fator 5 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Cadeias alfa de HLA-DQ/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/genética , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2033012, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416887

RESUMO

Importance: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) are implicated in the pathophysiological processes of dementia and potentially underlie the association of diabetes with neurodegeneration. However, longitudinal studies examining this association are lacking. Objective: To determine whether markers of the AGE-RAGE system are associated with prevalent and incident dementia and with cognition. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this population-based cohort study including participants from the prospective Rotterdam Study, extracellular newly identified RAGE binding protein (EN-RAGE) and soluble RAGE (S-RAGE) were measured in plasma collected between 1997 and 1999 in a random selection of participants, and additionally in participants with prevalent dementia. Participants without dementia were followed up for dementia until 2016. Skin AGEs, measured as skin autofluorescence, and cognition were measured between 2013 and 2016 in participants without dementia. Data analysis was performed from June 2019 to December 2019. Exposures: EN-RAGE, S-RAGE, and skin autofluorescence. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalent and incident dementia and cognition, adjusted for potential confounders, including age, sex, diabetes, educational level, APOE ε4 carrier status, smoking, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Results: Of 3889 included participants (mean [SD] age, 72.5 [8.9] years; 2187 [56.2%] women), 1021 participants had data on plasma markers (mean [SD] age 73.6 [7.8] years; 564 [55.2%] women), 73 participants had dementia at baseline, and during 10 711 person-years of follow-up, 161 participants developed incident dementia. Compared with low levels, high EN-RAGE level was associated with a higher prevalence of dementia (odds ratio [OR], 3.68 [95% CI, 1.50-8.03]; P = .003), while high S-RAGE level was associated with a lower prevalence of dementia (OR, 0.37 [95% CI, 0.17-0.78]; P = .01). These associations attenuated in a longitudinal setting, with hazard ratios of 0.65 (95% CI, 0.42-1.01) for high EN-RAGE (P = .05) and 1.22 (95% CI, 0.82-1.81) for high S-RAGE (P = .33). Among 2890 participants without dementia (mean [SD] age, 72.5 [9.4] years; 1640 [57%] women), higher skin autofluorescence was associated with lower global cognitive function (adjusted difference in z score per 1-SD higher skin autofluorescence, -0.07 [95% CI, -0.11 to -0.04]), especially among carriers of the APOE ε4 allele (adjusted difference in z score per 1-SD higher skin autofluorescence, -0.15 [95% CI, -0.22 to -0.07]). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that the AGE-RAGE system is associated with cognitive decline and dementia cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. This indicates either a short-term association or reverse causality. Findings of cross-sectional associations between higher skin autofluorescence and lower cognitive function and an association with APOE status also warrant replication and prospective studies.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0230035, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genomic loci associated with coronary artery disease, but most are common variants in non-coding regions that provide limited information on causal genes and etiology of the disease. To overcome the limited scope that common variants provide, we focused our investigation on low-frequency and rare sequence variations primarily residing in coding regions of the genome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using samples of individuals of European ancestry from ten cohorts within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium, both cross-sectional and prospective analyses were conducted to examine associations between genetic variants and myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD), and all-cause mortality following these events. For prevalent events, a total of 27,349 participants of European ancestry, including 1831 prevalent MI cases and 2518 prevalent CHD cases were used. For incident cases, a total of 55,736 participants of European ancestry were included (3,031 incident MI cases and 5,425 incident CHD cases). There were 1,860 all-cause deaths among the 3,751 MI and CHD cases from six cohorts that contributed to the analysis of all-cause mortality. Single variant and gene-based analyses were performed separately in each cohort and then meta-analyzed for each outcome. A low-frequency intronic variant (rs988583) in PLCL1 was significantly associated with prevalent MI (OR = 1.80, 95% confidence interval: 1.43, 2.27; P = 7.12 × 10-7). We conducted gene-based burden tests for genes with a cumulative minor allele count (cMAC) ≥ 5 and variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) < 5%. TMPRSS5 and LDLRAD1 were significantly associated with prevalent MI and CHD, respectively, and RC3H2 and ANGPTL4 were significantly associated with incident MI and CHD, respectively. No loci were significantly associated with all-cause mortality following a MI or CHD event. CONCLUSION: This study identified one known locus (ANGPTL4) and four new loci (PLCL1, RC3H2, TMPRSS5, and LDLRAD1) associated with cardiovascular disease risk that warrant further investigation.

5.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite recent advances in the understanding of the genetic architecture of osteoarthritis (OA), only two genetic loci have been identified for OA of the hand, in part explained by the complexity of the different hand joints and heterogeneity of OA pathology. METHODS: We used data from the Rotterdam Study (RSI, RSII and RSIII) to create three hand OA phenotypes based on clustering patterns of radiographic OA severity to increase power in our modest discovery genome-wide association studies in the RS (n=8700), and sought replication in an independent cohort, the Framingham Heart Study (n=1203). We used multiple approaches that leverage different levels of information and functional data to further investigate the underlying biological mechanisms and candidate genes for replicated loci. We also attempted to replicate known OA loci at other joint sites, including the hips and knees. RESULTS: We found two novel genome-wide significant loci for OA in the thumb joints. We identified WNT9A as a possible novel causal gene involved in OA pathogenesis. Furthermore, several previously identified genetic loci for OA seem to confer risk for OA across multiple joints: TGFa, RUNX2, COL27A1, ASTN2, IL11 and GDF5 loci. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a robust novel genetic locus for hand OA on chromosome 1, of which WNT9A is the most likely causal gene. In addition, multiple genetic loci were identified to be associated with OA across multiple joints. Our study confirms the potential for novel insight into the genetic architecture of OA by using biologically meaningful stratified phenotypes.

6.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 543, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999390

RESUMO

Both extrinsic and intrinsic factors predispose older people to fall. We performed a genome-wide association analysis to investigate how much of an individual's fall susceptibility can be attributed to genetics in 89,076 cases and 362,103 controls from the UK Biobank Study. The analysis revealed a small, but significant SNP-based heritability (2.7%) and identified three novel fall-associated loci (Pcombined ≤ 5 × 10-8). Polygenic risk scores in two independent settings showed patterns of polygenic inheritance. Risk of falling had positive genetic correlations with fractures, identifying for the first time a pathway independent of bone mineral density. There were also positive genetic correlations with insomnia, neuroticism, depressive symptoms, and different medications. Negative genetic correlations were identified with muscle strength, intelligence and subjective well-being. Brain, and in particular cerebellum tissue, showed the highest gene expression enrichment for fall-associated variants. Overall, despite the highly heterogenic nature underlying fall risk, a proportion of the susceptibility can be attributed to genetics.

7.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 157, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a well-known modifiable risk factor for many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). One of the proposed underlying mechanism linking smoking to disease is via epigenetic modifications, which could affect the expression of disease-associated genes. Here, we conducted a three-way association study to identify the relationship between smoking-related changes in DNA methylation and gene expression and their associations with cardio-metabolic traits. RESULTS: We selected 2549 CpG sites and 443 gene expression probes associated with current versus never smokers, from the largest epigenome-wide association study and transcriptome-wide association study to date. We examined three-way associations, including CpG versus gene expression, cardio-metabolic trait versus CpG, and cardio-metabolic trait versus gene expression, in the Rotterdam study. Subsequently, we replicated our findings in The Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) study. After correction for multiple testing, we identified both cis- and trans-expression quantitative trait methylation (eQTM) associations in blood. Specifically, we found 1224 smoking-related CpGs associated with at least one of the 443 gene expression probes, and 200 smoking-related gene expression probes to be associated with at least one of the 2549 CpGs. Out of these, 109 CpGs and 27 genes were associated with at least one cardio-metabolic trait in the Rotterdam Study. We were able to replicate the associations with cardio-metabolic traits of 26 CpGs and 19 genes in the KORA study. Furthermore, we identified a three-way association of triglycerides with two CpGs and two genes (GZMA; CLDND1), and BMI with six CpGs and two genes (PID1; LRRN3). Finally, our results revealed the mediation effect of cg03636183 (F2RL3), cg06096336 (PSMD1), cg13708645 (KDM2B), and cg17287155 (AHRR) within the association between smoking and LRRN3 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that smoking-related changes in DNA methylation and gene expression are associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors. These findings may provide additional insights into the molecular mechanisms linking smoking to the development of CVD.

8.
Data Brief ; 32: 106227, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939381

RESUMO

Genetic association studies suggest a genetic predisposition for cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Among other candidate genes, thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) is considered a critical gene for susceptibility to cisplatin-induced hearing loss in a pharmacogenetic guideline. The PanCareLIFE cross-sectional cohort study evaluated the genetic associations in a large pan-European population and assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the genetic markers. 1,112 pediatric cancer survivors who had provided biomaterial for genotyping were screened for participation in the pharmacogenetic association study. 900 participants qualified for inclusion. Based on the assessment of original audiograms, patients were assigned to three phenotype categories: no, minor, and clinically relevant hearing loss. Fourteen variants in eleven candidate genes (ABCC3, OTOS, TPMT, SLC22A2, NFE2L2, SLC16A5, LRP2, GSTP1, SOD2, WFS1, and ACYP2) were genotyped. The genotype and phenotype data represent a resource for conducting meta-analyses to derive a more precise pooled estimate of the effects of genes on the risk of hearing loss due to platinum treatment.

9.
Eur J Cancer ; 138: 212-224, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irreversible sensorineural hearing loss is a common side effect of platinum treatment with the potential to significantly impair the neurocognitive, social and educational development of childhood cancer survivors. Genetic association studies suggest a genetic predisposition for cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Among other candidate genes, thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) is considered a critical gene for susceptibility to cisplatin-induced hearing loss in a pharmacogenetic guideline. The aim of this cross-sectional cohort study was to confirm the genetic associations in a large pan-European population and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the genetic markers. METHODS: Eligibility criteria required patients to be aged less than 19 years at the start of chemotherapy, which had to include cisplatin and/or carboplatin. Patients were assigned to three phenotype categories: no, minor and clinically relevant hearing loss. Fourteen variants in eleven candidate genes (ABCC3, OTOS, TPMT, SLC22A2, NFE2L2, SLC16A5, LRP2, GSTP1, SOD2, WFS1 and ACYP2) were investigated. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to model the relationship between genetic predictors and platinum ototoxicity, adjusting for clinical risk factors. Additionally, measures of the diagnostic accuracy of the genetic markers were determined. RESULTS: 900 patients were included in this study. In the multinomial logistic regression, significant unique contributions were found from SLC22A2 rs316019, the age at the start of platinum treatment, cranial radiation and the interaction term [platinum compound]∗[cumulative dose of cisplatin]. The predictive performance of the genetic markers was poor compared with the clinical risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: PanCareLIFE is the largest study of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity to date and confirmed a role for the polyspecific organic cation transporter SLC22A2. However, the predictive value of the current genetic candidate markers for clinical use is negligible, which puts the value of clinical factors for risk assessment of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity back into the foreground.

10.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab ; 30(6): 386-395, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998111

RESUMO

Fasting enhances the beneficial metabolic outcomes of exercise; however, it is unknown whether body composition is favorably modified on the short term. A baseline-follow-up study was carried out to assess the effect of an established protocol involving short-term combined exercise with fasting on body composition. One hundred seven recreationally exercising males underwent a 10-day intervention across 15 fitness centers in the Netherlands involving a 3-day gradual decrease of food intake, a 3-day period with extremely low caloric intake, and a gradual 4-day increase to initial caloric intake, with daily 30-min submaximal cycling. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis, all subjects substantially lost total body mass (-3.9 ± 1.9 kg; p < .001) and fat mass (-3.3 ± 1.3 kg; p < .001). Average lean mass was lost (-0.6 ± 1.5 kg; p < .001), but lean mass as a percentage of total body mass was not reduced. The authors observed a loss of -3.9 ± 1.9% android fat over total fat mass (p < .001), a loss of -2.2 ± 1.9% gynoid over total fat mass (p < .001), and reduced android/gynoid ratios (-0.05 ± 0.1; p < .001). Analyzing 15 preselected single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 13 metabolism-related genes revealed trending associations for thyroid state-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs225014 (deiodinase 2) and rs35767 (insulin-like growth factor1), and rs1053049 (PPARD). In conclusion, a short period of combined fasting and exercise leads to a substantial loss of body and fat mass without a loss of lean mass as a percentage of total mass.

11.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784487

RESUMO

Animal studies suggest a role for dietary advanced glycation end-products (dAGEs) in bone health, but human studies on dAGEs in relation to bone are lacking. We aimed to study whether dAGEs intake is associated with the parameters of bone strength namely, bone mineral density (BMD), prevalent vertebral (VFs), and major osteoporotic fractures (MOFs = hip, wrist, proximal humerus, and clinical VFs). 3949 participants (mean age 66.7 ± 10.5 years) were included from a Rotterdam study for whom Carboxymethyllysine (CML-a dietary AGE) was estimated from food frequency questionnaires combined with dAGEs databases. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were performed adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, dietary quality, physical activity, diabetes, smoking, renal function, and cohort effect and for models on fractures, subsequently for BMD. We observed no association of CML with BMD at both femoral neck (ß = -0.006; p = 0.70) and lumbar spine (ß = -0.013; p = 0.38). A higher intake of CML was linearly associated with VFs (Odds ratio, OR = 1.16, 95% CI (1.02-1.32) and a similar but non-significant trend with MOFs (OR = 1.12 (0.98-1.27). Additional adjustment for BMD did not change the associations. Our results imply a positive association between dietary intake of CML and VFs independent of BMD. Future studies are needed in order to elucidate whether associations found are causal.

12.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: In the initial B-proof, we found inconsistent results of B vitamin supplementation. However, the debate regarding the effects of B vitamins on age-related diseases continues. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the long-term effects (5-7 years follow-up) of an intervention with folic acid and vitamin-B12 supplementation on fracture and cardiovascular disease risk. METHODS: Extended follow-up of the B-PROOF trial, a multi-center, double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial designed to assess the effect of 2-3 years daily supplementation with folic acid (400 µg) and vitamin-B12 (500 µg) versus placebo (n = 2,919). Primary outcome was verified self-reported fracture incidence and secondary outcomes were self-reported cardiovascular endpoints, which were collected through a follow-up questionnaires Proportional hazard analyses was used for the effect of the intervention on risk of fracture(s) and logistic regression for the effect of the intervention on risk of cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: A total of 1,298 individuals (44.5%) participated in the second follow-up round with median of 54 months [51-58], (n = 662 and n = 636, treatment versus placebo group). Median age at baseline was 71.0 years [68.0-76.0] for both groups. No effect was observed of the intervention on osteoporotic fracture or any fracture risk after a follow-up (HR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.62-1.59 and HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.50-1.19, respectively), nor on cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease risk (OR: 1.05; 95%CI: 0.80-1.44 and OR: 0.85; 95%CI: 0.50-1.45, respectively). Potential interaction by baseline homocysteine concentration was observed for osteoporotic- and any fracture (p = 0.10 and 0.06 respectively), which indicated a significantly lower risk of any fracture in the treatment group with higher total homocysteine concentrations (>15.1 µmol/l). No age-dependent effects were present. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports and extends previous null-findings of the B-PROOF trial and shows that supplementation of folic acid and vitamin-B12 has no effect on fracture risk, nor on cardiovascular disease in older individuals over a longer follow-up period. However, B-vitamin supplementation may be beneficial in reducing fractures in individuals with high total homocysteine concentrations, a finding which needs to be replicated.

13.
Genet Med ; 22(11): 1803-1811, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624571

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated the performance of the recently extended Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm (BOADICEA version 5) in a Dutch prospective cohort, using a polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 313 breast cancer (BC)-associated variants (PRS313) and other, nongenetic risk factors. METHODS: Since 1989, 6522 women without BC aged 45 or older of European descent have been included in the Rotterdam Study. The PRS313 was calculated per 1 SD in controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Cox regression analysis was performed to estimate the association between the PRS313 and incident BC risk. Cumulative 10-year risks were calculated with BOADICEA including different sets of variables (age, risk factors and PRS313). C-statistics were used to evaluate discriminative ability. RESULTS: In total, 320 women developed BC. The PRS313 was significantly associated with BC (hazard ratio [HR] per SD of 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.40-1.73]). Using 10-year risk estimates including age and the PRS313, other risk factors improved the discriminatory ability of the BOADICEA model marginally, from a C-statistic of 0.636 to 0.653. CONCLUSIONS: The effect size of the PRS313 is highly reproducible in the Dutch population. Our results validate the BOADICEA v5 model for BC risk assessment in the Dutch general population.

14.
Hepatology ; 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Previous small studies have appraised the gut microbiome (GM) in steatosis, but large-scale studies are lacking. We studied the association of GM diversity and composition, plasma metabolites, predicted functional metagenomics and steatosis. Approach & Results This is a cross-sectional analysis of the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study. We used 16Sribosomal-RNA gene sequencing and determined taxonomy using the Silva-reference database. Alpha-and beta-diversity were calculated using Shannon-index and Bray-Curtis dissimilarities. Differences were tested across steatosis using PerMANOVA. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed by ultrasonography. We subsequently selected genera using regularized regression. The functional metagenome was predicted based on the GM using KEGG-pathways. Serum metabolomics were assessed using high-throughput proton nuclear magnetic resonance. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, BMI, alcohol, diet, and proton-pump inhibitors. We included 1355 participants of which 472 had steatosis. Alpha-diversity was lower in steatosis (P=1.1∙10-9 ) and beta-diversity varied across steatosis strata (P=0.001). Lasso selected 37 genera of which three remained significantly associated after adjustment (Coprococcus3: ß=-65; Ruminococcus Gauvreauiigroup: ß=62; and Ruminococcus Gnavusgroup: ß=45, Q-value =0.037). Predicted metagenome analyses revealed that pathways of secondary bile-acid synthesis and biotin metabolism were present and D-alanine metabolism was absent in steatosis. Metabolic profiles showed positive associations for aromatic-and branched chain amino acids and glycoprotein acetyls with steatosis and R. Gnavusgroup, whereas these metabolites were inversely associated with alpha-diversity and Coprococcus3. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed, for the first time on a large-scale, the lower microbial diversity and association of Coprococcus and Ruminococcus Gnavus with steatosis. We additionally showed that steatosis and alpha-diversity share -opposite- metabolic profiles.

15.
Bone ; 138: 115475, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531338

RESUMO

The decreased risk of osteoporotic fractures in thiazide diuretics (TD) users is possibly not only caused by an increase in bone mineral density (BMD), but by an increase in other determinants of bone strength as well, such as the trabecular bone score (TBS). To test this hypothesis, we studied the association between TD use and both lumbar spine BMD (LS-BMD) and lumbar spine TBS (LS-TBS) cross-sectionally in 6096 participants from the Rotterdam Study, as well as the association between TD use and bone turnover estimated by serum osteocalcin levels. We found that past and current use of TD were associated with an increase of LS-BMD (ß = 0.021 g/cm2 (95% CI: 0.006;0.036) and ß = 0.016 g/cm2 (95% CI: 0.002;0.031), respectively). Use of ≥1 defined daily dose (DDD) (ß = 0.028, 95% CI: 0.010;0.046; p for trend within DDD of use <0.001) and use of >365 days (ß = 0.033, 95% CI: 0.014;0.052; p for trend within duration of use <0.001) were positively associated with LS-BMD. No significant association between TD use and LS-TBS was observed. Mean serum osteocalcin levels were significantly different between users and non-users of TD (20.2 ng/ml (SD 8.3) and 22.5 ng/ml (SD 17.0), respectively, p < 0.001). Furthermore, linear regression analysis showed that the use of TD was associated with a 3.2 ng/l (95% CI: -4.4.; -2.0) lower serum osteocalcin level compared to non-use of TD, when adjusted for Rotterdam Study cohort, age, and sex. Our results may implicate that the decreased fracture risk in TD users is explained by increased bone mass rather than by improved bone microarchitecture. Alternatively, changes in bone microarchitecture might not be detected through TBS and more sophisticated techniques are possibly needed to study a potential effect of TD on bone microarchitecture.

16.
Front Genet ; 11: 337, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425970

RESUMO

Telomeres are important for maintaining genomic stability. Telomere length has been associated with aging, disease, and mortality and is highly heritable (∼82%). In this study, we aimed to identify rare genetic variants associated with telomere length using whole-exome sequence data. We studied 1,303 participants of the Erasmus Rucphen Family (ERF) study, 1,259 of the Rotterdam Study (RS), and 674 of the British Heart Foundation Family Heart Study (BHF-FHS). We conducted two analyses, first we analyzed the family-based ERF study and used the RS and BHF-FHS for replication. Second, we combined the summary data of the three studies in a meta-analysis. Telomere length was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in blood. We identified nine rare variants significantly associated with telomere length (p-value < 1.42 × 10-7, minor allele frequency of 0.2-0.5%) in the ERF study. Eight of these variants (in C11orf65, ACAT1, NPAT, ATM, KDELC2, and EXPH5) were located on chromosome 11q22.3 that contains ATM, a gene involved in telomere maintenance. Although we were unable to replicate the variants in the RS and BHF-FHS (p-value ≥ 0.21), segregation analysis showed that all variants segregate with shorter telomere length in a family. In the meta-analysis of all studies, a nominally significant association with LTL was observed with a rare variant in RPL8 (p-value = 1.48 × 10-6), which has previously been associated with age. Additionally, a novel rare variant in the known RTEL1 locus showed suggestive evidence for association (p-value = 1.18 × 10-4) with LTL. To conclude, we identified novel rare variants associated with telomere length. Larger samples size are needed to confirm these findings and to identify additional variants.

17.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(5): 483-517, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367290

RESUMO

The Rotterdam Study is an ongoing prospective cohort study that started in 1990 in the city of Rotterdam, The Netherlands. The study aims to unravel etiology, preclinical course, natural history and potential targets for intervention for chronic diseases in mid-life and late-life. The study focuses on cardiovascular, endocrine, hepatic, neurological, ophthalmic, psychiatric, dermatological, otolaryngological, locomotor, and respiratory diseases. As of 2008, 14,926 subjects aged 45 years or over comprise the Rotterdam Study cohort. Since 2016, the cohort is being expanded by persons aged 40 years and over. The findings of the Rotterdam Study have been presented in over 1700 research articles and reports. This article provides an update on the rationale and design of the study. It also presents a summary of the major findings from the preceding 3 years and outlines developments for the coming period.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Projetos de Pesquisa Epidemiológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0230815, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379818

RESUMO

Smoking is a potentially causal behavioral risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but not all smokers develop T2D. It is unknown whether genetic factors partially explain this variation. We performed genome-environment-wide interaction studies to identify loci exhibiting potential interaction with baseline smoking status (ever vs. never) on incident T2D and fasting glucose (FG). Analyses were performed in participants of European (EA) and African ancestry (AA) separately. Discovery analyses were conducted using genotype data from the 50,000-single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ITMAT-Broad-CARe (IBC) array in 5 cohorts from from the Candidate Gene Association Resource Consortium (n = 23,189). Replication was performed in up to 16 studies from the Cohorts for Heart Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium (n = 74,584). In meta-analysis of discovery and replication estimates, 5 SNPs met at least one criterion for potential interaction with smoking on incident T2D at p<1x10-7 (adjusted for multiple hypothesis-testing with the IBC array). Two SNPs had significant joint effects in the overall model and significant main effects only in one smoking stratum: rs140637 (FBN1) in AA individuals had a significant main effect only among smokers, and rs1444261 (closest gene C2orf63) in EA individuals had a significant main effect only among nonsmokers. Three additional SNPs were identified as having potential interaction by exhibiting a significant main effects only in smokers: rs1801232 (CUBN) in AA individuals, rs12243326 (TCF7L2) in EA individuals, and rs4132670 (TCF7L2) in EA individuals. No SNP met significance for potential interaction with smoking on baseline FG. The identification of these loci provides evidence for genetic interactions with smoking exposure that may explain some of the heterogeneity in the association between smoking and T2D.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Fumar Cigarros/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Jejum/sangue , Genótipo , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idoso , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
19.
J Bone Miner Res ; 35(10): 1904-1913, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463533

RESUMO

Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), which bind to type 1 collagen in bone and skin, have been implicated in reduced bone quality. The AGE reader™ measures skin autofluorescence (SAF), which might be regarded as a marker of long-term accumulation of AGEs in tissues. We investigated the association of SAF with bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures in the general population. We studied 2853 individuals from the Rotterdam Study with available SAF measurements (median age, 74.1 years) and with data on prevalent major osteoporotic (MOFs: hip, humerus, wrist, clinical vertebral) and vertebral fractures (VFs: clinical + radiographic Genant's grade 2 and 3). Radiographs were assessed 4 to 5 years before SAF. Multivariate regression models were performed adjusted for age, sex, BMI, creatinine, smoking status, and presence of diabetes and additionally for BMD with interaction terms to test for effect modification. Prevalence of MOFs was 8.5% and of VFs 7%. SAF had a curvilinear association with prevalent MOFs and VFs and therefore, age-adjusted, sex stratified SAF quartiles were used. The odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of the second, third and fourth quartiles of SAF for MOFs were as follows: OR 1.60 (95% CI, 1.08-2.35; p = .02); OR 1.30 (95% CI, 0.89-1.97; p = .20), and OR 1.40 (95% CI, 0.95-2.10; p = .09), respectively, with first (lowest) quartile as reference. For VFs the ORs were as follows: OR 1.69 (95% CI, 1.08-2.64; p = .02), OR 1.74(95% CI, 1.11-2.71; p = .01), and OR 1.73 (95% CI, 1.12-2.73; p = .02) for second, third, and fourth quartiles, respectively. When comparing the top three quartiles combined with the first quartile, the OR (95% CI) for MOFs was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.04-2.00; p = .03) and for VFs was 1.72 (95% CI, 1.18-2.53; p = .005). Additional adjustment for BMD did not change the associations. In conclusion, there is evidence of presence of a threshold of skin AGEs below which there is distinctly lower prevalence of fractures. Longitudinal analyses are needed to confirm our cross-sectional findings. © 2020 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

20.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393786

RESUMO

We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of relative intake from the macronutrients fat, protein, carbohydrates, and sugar in over 235,000 individuals of European ancestries. We identified 21 unique, approximately independent lead SNPs. Fourteen lead SNPs are uniquely associated with one macronutrient at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8), while five of the 21 lead SNPs reach suggestive significance (P < 1 × 10-5) for at least one other macronutrient. While the phenotypes are genetically correlated, each phenotype carries a partially unique genetic architecture. Relative protein intake exhibits the strongest relationships with poor health, including positive genetic associations with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease (rg ≈ 0.15-0.5). In contrast, relative carbohydrate and sugar intake have negative genetic correlations with waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and neighborhood deprivation (|rg| ≈ 0.1-0.3) and positive genetic correlations with physical activity (rg ≈ 0.1 and 0.2). Relative fat intake has no consistent pattern of genetic correlations with poor health but has a negative genetic correlation with educational attainment (rg ≈-0.1). Although our analyses do not allow us to draw causal conclusions, we find no evidence of negative health consequences associated with relative carbohydrate, sugar, or fat intake. However, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that relative protein intake plays a role in the etiology of metabolic dysfunction.

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