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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251747, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355878

RESUMO

Abstract Fish is the main source of animal protein for human diet. The aim of this study was to find out prevalence of pathogenic bacteria of two selected economically important fish of Pakistan namely Mahseer (Tor putitora) and Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Live fish samples from hatcheries and dead fish samples from different markets of study area were randomly collected. The fish samples were analyzed for isolation, identification and prevalence of bacteria. The isolated bacteria from study fish were identified through biochemical test and about 10 species of pathogenic bacteria were identified including the pathogenic bacteria to human and fish namely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus iniae, Serratia spp. Citrobacter spp. Stenotrophomonas spp. Bacillus spp. and Salmonella spp. The bacterial percentage frequency of occurrence in Silver carp and Mahseer fish showed Pseudomonas aeruginosa 21.42%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 17.85%, Escherichia coli 11.90%, Staphylococcus aureus 9.52%, Citrobacter spp. 9.52%, Serratia spp. 8.33%, Streptococcus iniae 7.14%, Stenotrophomonas spp. 5.95%, Bacillus spp. 4.76% and Salmonella spp. 3.57%. The study revealed that Fish samples of Mahseer and Silver carp that were collected from markets have found more isolates (10 bacterial species) than did the fresh fish pond samples (03 bacterial species) of hatcheries. The occurrence of pathogenic bacteria in study fish showed risk factor for public health consumers.


Resumo O peixe é a principal fonte de proteína animal para a alimentação humana. O objetivo deste estudo foi descobrir a prevalência de bactérias patogênicas de dois peixes economicamente importantes selecionados do Paquistão, nomeadamente Mahseer (Tor putitora) e carpa prateada (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Amostras de peixes vivos de incubatórios e amostras de peixes mortos de diferentes mercados da área de estudo foram coletadas aleatoriamente. As amostras de peixes foram analisadas quanto ao isolamento, identificação e prevalência de bactérias. As bactérias isoladas dos peixes do estudo foram identificadas através de testes bioquímicos e cerca de 10 espécies de bactérias patogênicas foram identificadas incluindo as bactérias patogênicas para humanos e peixes, nomeadamente, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus iniae, Serratia spp. Citrobacter spp. Stenotrophomonas spp. Bacillus spp. e Salmonella spp. A porcentagem de freqüência de ocorrência bacteriana em carpa prateada e peixes Mahseer mostrou Pseudomonas aeruginosa 21,42%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 17,85%, Escherichia coli 11,90%, Staphylococcus aureus 9,52%, Citrobacter spp. 9,52%, Serratia spp. 8,33%, Streptococcus iniae 7,14%, Stenotrophomonas spp. 5,95%, Bacillus spp. 4,76% e Salmonella spp. 3,57%. O estudo revelou que as amostras de peixes de Mahseer e carpa prateada coletadas nos mercados encontraram mais isolados (10 espécies bacterianas) do que as amostras de peixes frescos (03 espécies bacterianas) de incubatórios. A ocorrência de bactérias patogênicas nos peixes do estudo apresentou fator de risco para consumidores de saúde pública.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Carpas , Paquistão , Bactérias , Lagoas , Incidência
2.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627477

RESUMO

Technological advances and socioeconomic development of Bangladesh are leading to the best choice between branded and non-branded powdered spices. But toxic metal issues can be another factor to elect them. So lead (Pb) exposure and its consequence on the human body for these two categories of four common spices have been ascertained here. A validated laboratory method using hot plate digestion and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) has been used for that. The obtained mean concentration of Pb in branded and non-branded spice powders followed the decreasing order of turmeric > coriander > red chili > cumin powder and turmeric > red chili > cumin > coriander powder, respectively, where, in any analysis mode, the non-branded items are potentially ahead of Pb exposure. The market-based mean concentration between these two categories was not a significant difference (t-test). Approximately 90% of the spice samples have shown within the maximum allowable limit by Bangladesh Standard. The sum of estimated daily intake indicated that most of the city market (67%) for non-branded items and some branded (33%) samples have crossed the maximum tolerable daily intake (> 0.21 mg/kg). So, the human health risk assumption for the inhabitant of studied areas suggests there is no significant level of risk for them due to the consumption of spices regarding non-carcinogenic risk factor (THQ and total THQ) and carcinogenic risk factor (CR). But the development of a quality control process for loose spice powders as well as toxic metal screening from raw materials to finish products urgently needed and continuous monitoring with identifying the source of toxic metal is highly recommended.

3.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639511

RESUMO

The consequences of climate change, food security, and self-sufficiency goals are driving excessive human activity onto vegetable farms in Bangladesh, and harmful heavy metal exposure is spreading. So, the study assessed the toxic metals (Pb, Cd, and Cr) exposure, characteristics, and human health risk regarding the soil-vegetable system of two distinct locations in Bangladesh using atomic absorption spectrometry. The average concentration of metals in soil and fertilizer/pesticide samples followed the same order (Cr > Pb > Cd), but for vegetable samples, the order was Pb > Cr > Cd, with some extra Pb compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) allowable limit (0.3 mg/kg). Low levels of pollution with negligible ecological concerns were predicted for both locations by the soil quality indexing. But industrial influence boosted the Pb content in location B, and common sources (fertilizer/pesticide) for both locations might be responsible for a moderate level of Cd. The toxic metals transferred to vegetables followed the trend of Cd > Pb > Cr. However, the human health risks arising from harmful metals exposure at both locations were ineffective (< 1) in evaluating noncarcinogenic risk patterns through the target hazard quotient (THQ), total THQ, and hazard index (HI). Again, considering probable carcinogenic risk patterns, vegetable consumption with studied exposure levels of toxic metals followed within the acceptable range (between 1.0E-04 and 1.0E-06). Overall, location B is slightly more vulnerable than location A by considering metal exposure, pollution distribution, and risk evaluation in the study area (significant at p < 0.05). So, systematic monitoring and protective measures are required to ensure food safety and sustainable vegetable production.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245199, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355853

RESUMO

Abstract The present investigation was aimed to examine the concentrations of trace metals including e.g copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in water samples collected from nursery pond of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in Bannu Hatchery of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during the period from April 2018 to January 2019. The temperature and pH of each water sample were measured for the whole study duration. The concentration of Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), and Zinc (Zn) in collected water samples were measured in mg/liter by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The blank and standard solutions for device calibration Standard solutions i.e., 2.0 mg, 4.0 mg, and 6.0 were used to measure the concentration of these metals in water samples to verify the measurements. The data was statistically analyzed on descriptive statistics (estimation of proportions and standard deviation) used to summarize mean concentration. The results obtained of both temperature and pH of water samples were found in ranged 10 to 36 0C and 7.0 to 8.44; whereas the size of fry stages was ranged from 4.0 to 56.0 mm in total length. The results of investigated metals found in pond water samples are in order of Zn>Mn>Ni>Cu, respectively. As optimum temperature and pH for grass carp were mostly between 15 0C and 30 0C and pH 6.5 to 8.0. It was concluded from obtained results that temperature, pH, and trace metals were found appropriate for the growth of Ctenopharyngodon idella from fry to fingerling stages, but the highest amount of zinc can cause its mortality. It is a preliminary study on grass carp culturing in Bannu fish hatchery so, it would provide useful information for model fish seed production unit in a hatchery.


Resumo A presente investigação teve como objetivo examinar as concentrações de metais traço, incluindo cobre (Cu), manganês (Mn), níquel (Ni) e zinco (Zn) em amostras de água coletadas de viveiro de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella) em Incubatório de Bannu de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa durante o período de abril de 2018 a janeiro de 2019. A temperatura e o pH de cada amostra de água foram medidos durante todo o período do estudo. A concentração de cobre (Cu), manganês (Mn), níquel (Ni) e zinco (Zn) nas amostras de água coletadas foi medida em mg / litro usando espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica. As soluções em branco e padrão para as soluções padrão de calibração do dispositivo, ou seja, 2,0 mg, 4,0 mg e 6,0, foram usadas para medir a concentração desses metais em amostras de água para verificar as medições. Os dados foram analisados ​​estatisticamente em estatística descritiva (estimativa de proporções e desvio padrão) usada para resumir a concentração média. Os resultados obtidos tanto de temperatura quanto de pH das amostras de água variaram de 10 a 36 0C e 7,0 a 8,44, enquanto o tamanho dos estágios de alevinos variou de 4,0 a 56,0 mm no comprimento total. Os resultados dos metais investigados encontrados em amostras de água de lagoas são da ordem de Zn > Mn > Ni > Cu, respectivamente. A temperatura e o pH ótimos para a carpa-capim foram principalmente entre 15 0C e 30 0C e pH 6,5 a 8,0. Concluiu-se, a partir dos resultados obtidos, que temperatura, pH e traços de metais foram considerados adequados para o crescimento de Ctenopharyngodon idella desde os estágios de alevinos até alevinos, mas a maior quantidade de zinco pode causar sua mortalidade. É um estudo preliminar sobre a cultura da carpa-capim em incubatório de peixes Bannu, portanto forneceria informações úteis para modelo de unidade de produção de sementes de peixes em um incubatório.


Assuntos
Animais , Carpas , Paquistão , Água , Lagoas , Pesqueiros
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250179, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339372

RESUMO

Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a non-communicable disease throughout the world in which there is persistently high blood glucose level from the normal range. The diabetes and insulin resistance are mainly responsible for the morbidities and mortalities of humans in the world. This disease is mainly regulated by various enzymes and hormones among which Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a principle enzyme and insulin is the key hormone regulating it. The GSK-3, that is the key enzyme is normally showing its actions by various mechanisms that include its phosphorylation, formation of protein complexes, and other cellular distribution and thus it control and directly affects cellular morphology, its growth, mobility and apoptosis of the cell. Disturbances in the action of GSK-3 enzyme may leads to various disease conditions that include insulin resistance leading to diabetes, neurological disease like Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Fluoroquinolones are the most common class of drugs that shows dysglycemic effects via interacting with GSK-3 enzyme. Therefore, it is the need of the day to properly understand functions and mechanisms of GSK-3, especially its role in glucose homeostasis via effects on glycogen synthase.


Resumo O diabetes mellitus (DM) é uma doença não transmissível em todo o mundo, na qual existe nível glicêmico persistentemente alto em relação à normalidade. O diabetes e a resistência à insulina são os principais responsáveis ​​pelas morbidades e mortalidades de humanos no mundo. Essa doença é regulada principalmente por várias enzimas e hormônios, entre os quais a glicogênio sintase quinase-3 (GSK-3) é uma enzima principal e a insulina é o principal hormônio que a regula. A GSK-3, que é a enzima-chave, normalmente mostra suas ações por vários mecanismos que incluem sua fosforilação, formação de complexos de proteínas e outras distribuições celulares e, portanto, controla e afeta diretamente a morfologia celular, seu crescimento, mobilidade e apoptose do célula. Perturbações na ação da enzima GSK-3 podem levar a várias condições de doença que incluem resistência à insulina que leva ao diabetes, doenças neurológicas como a doença de Alzheimer e câncer. As fluoroquinolonas são a classe mais comum de drogas que apresentam efeitos disglicêmicos por meio da interação com a enzima GSK-3. Portanto, é necessário hoje em dia compreender adequadamente as funções e mecanismos da GSK-3, principalmente seu papel na homeostase da glicose via efeitos na glicogênio sintase.


Assuntos
Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Diabetes Mellitus , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase , Glucose , Homeostase
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251004, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339339

RESUMO

Abstract The supplementation of Selenium-enriched probiotics is effective in reducing oxidative stress and maintaining meat quality stability in broiler chicken especially under heat stress. An experimental study was conducted to perform Comparative analysis of Selenium yeast with inorganic Se in broilers under heat stress. A total of 120 broilers chicks of one day were assigned to 4 groups each consisting 30 chicks fed on same basal diet but different selenium sources. The basal diet of group D1 was not supplemented with Se source (Negative control), group D2 basal diet was supplemented with inorganic selenium (Sodium selenite 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase), group D3 basal diet was supplemented with commercially available organic selenium (Seleno-methionine 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase) and group D4 basal diet was supplemented with self-developed organic selenium (Se-enriched yeast 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase). The performance parameters i.e. feed intake (FI), live body weight (BW) and FCR were not significantly (p>0.05) effected by selenium supplementation in the starter phase but were significantly (p<0.05) effected in the finisher phase. Selenium supplementation significantly (p<0.05) effected serum Se level in different supplemented groups. Higher serum Se value (58.20±0.06) was recorded in D4 group. Similarly significantly lower selenium value was recorded for D4 and higher was recorded for D1 (11.36±0.08). However lower serum Paraoxonase (PON) value was recorded for D4 (13.24±0.01) and higher for D1 (13.33±0.03). Comparatively self-developed Se enriched yeast increased the Se accumulation and improved antioxidant system. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was found higher in D4 (12.333±0.03) followed by D3, D2 and D1 respectively. Whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly lower (p<0.05) in D4 (0.1437±0.003) followed by D3 (0.1457±0.002). Selenium supplementation increased the bird's survival rate. Birds fed on Se enriched yeast showed higher Se deposition and better antioxidant capacity as compared to other sources of selenium. Se-enriched yeast displayed an improved result on Se deposition in tissues, and oxidative capacity, meat tenderness and immune response level as compared to other sources of selenium.


Resumo A suplementação de probióticos enriquecidos com selênio é eficaz na redução do estresse oxidativo e na manutenção da estabilidade da qualidade da carne em frangos de corte, especialmente sob estresse por calor. Um estudo experimental foi conduzido para realizar uma análise comparativa da levedura selênio com o Se inorgânico em frangos de corte sob estresse térmico. Um total de 120 pintos de um dia foi dividido em 4 grupos, cada um consistindo de 30 pintos alimentados com a mesma dieta basal, mas com diferentes fontes de selênio. A dieta basal do grupo D1 não foi suplementada com fonte de Se (controle negativo), a dieta basal do grupo D2 foi suplementada com selênio inorgânico (selenito de sódio 0,22 mg / kg fase inicial e 0,15 mg / kg fase finalizadora), a dieta basal do grupo D3 foi suplementada com selênio orgânico disponível comercialmente (fase inicial de seleno-metionina 0,22 mg / kg e fase finalizadora de 0,15 mg / kg) e a dieta basal do grupo D4 foi suplementada com selênio orgânico autodesenvolvido (fermento enriquecido com Se 0,22 mg / kg fase inicial e 0,15 mg / kg fase finalizadora). Os parâmetros de desempenho, ou seja, consumo de ração (FI), peso corporal vivo (PC) e FCR não foram significativamente (p > 0,05) afetados pela suplementação de selênio na fase inicial, mas foram significativamente (p < 0,05) afetados na fase final. A suplementação de selênio afetou significativamente (p < 0,05) o nível de Se sérico em diferentes grupos suplementados. O maior valor de Se sérico (58,20 ± 0,06) foi registrado no grupo D4. Da mesma forma, valor de selênio significativamente menor foi registrado para D4 e maior foi registrado para D1 (11,36 ± 0,08). No entanto, um valor mais baixo de Paraoxonase (PON) sérica foi registrado para D4 (13,24 ± 0,01) e mais alto para D1 (13,33 ± 0,03). A levedura enriquecida com Se comparativamente autodesenvolvida aumentou o acúmulo de Se e melhorou o sistema antioxidante. A glutationa peroxidase (GPx) foi encontrada maior em D4 (12,333 ± 0,03) seguido por D3, D2 e ​​D1 respectivamente. Enquanto a superóxido dismutase (SOD) foi significativamente menor (p < 0,05) em D4 (0,1437 ± 0,003) seguido por D3 (0,1457 ± 0,002). A suplementação de selênio aumentou a taxa de sobrevivência da ave. Aves alimentadas com levedura enriquecida com Se apresentaram maior deposição de Se e melhor capacidade antioxidante em comparação com outras fontes de selênio. A levedura enriquecida com Se apresentou um resultado melhorado na deposição de Se nos tecidos, capacidade oxidativa, maciez da carne e nível de resposta imune em comparação com outras fontes de selênio.


Assuntos
Animais , Selênio , Galinhas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Antioxidantes
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246825, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285634

RESUMO

Abstract A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Piper nigrum (black pepper) leaf extract on on the growth performance, proximate composition, hematological parameters, and immune response of Labeo rohita fingerlings with an average weight of 22.14 ± 0.98g. Aftrer acclimation for two weeks, fish (n=25) were randomly selected and placed in four glass aquaria (T0, T1, T2 and T3) at constant water temperature (30.0 ± 1.0 °C), pH (7.50 ± 0.5) and total hardness (200 ± 2.0 mgL,-1) for a period of 12 weeks, with three replicates each. Fish were fed with P. nigrum leaf extract supplemented feed @ 0.0%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0% in T0, T1,T2 and T3, respectively. At the end of experiment, five fish were randomly selected from each aquaria for proximate composition, gut and skin microbial load, hematological parameters. Total proteins, albumins, and globulins were also recorded to evaluate immunological memory. The result revealed that fish in T2 showed better growth performance with an average weight gain of 56.11 ± 0.51 g. Thus, it had been concluded that Piper nigrum, a medicinal plant, can also be used to enhance the growth performance and immune response of Labeo rohita as attractive alternatives against antibiotics and vaccines and has shown no negative side effects on fish health as well as on its environment.


Resumo Um estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito do extrato da folha de Piper nigrum (pimenta-do-reino) sobre o desempenho de crescimento, composição centesimal, parâmetros hematológicos e resposta imune de alevinos de Labeo rohita com peso médio de 22,14 ± 0,98g. Após aclimatação por duas semanas, os peixes (n = 25) foram selecionados aleatoriamente e colocados em quatro aquários de vidro (T0, T1, T2 e T3) em temperatura constante da água (30,0 ± 1,0 °C), pH (7,50 ± 0,5) e dureza total (200 ± 2,0 mgL-1) por um período de 12 semanas, com três repetições cada. Os peixes foram alimentados com ração suplementada com extrato de folha de P. nigrum @ 0,0%, 1,0%, 2,0% e 3,0% em T0, T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente. Ao final do experimento, cinco peixes foram selecionados aleatoriamente de cada aquário para composição centesimal, carga microbiana intestinal e cutânea e parâmetros hematológicos. Proteínas totais, albuminas e globulinas também foram registradas para avaliar a memória imunológica. O resultado revelou que os peixes em T2 apresentaram melhor desempenho de crescimento com ganho de peso médio de 56,11 ± 0,51 g. Assim, concluiu-se que Piper nigrum, uma planta medicinal, também pode ser usado para melhorar o desempenho de crescimento e resposta imunológica de Labeo rohita como alternativas atraentes contra antibióticos e vacinas e não mostrou efeitos colaterais negativos na saúde dos peixes, bem como sobre seu ambiente.


Assuntos
Animais , Cyprinidae , Piper nigrum , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta
8.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e261695, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674594

RESUMO

Study was planned to assess the bio-efficiency along with toxicity of iron and zinc fortified whole wheat flour in Sprague dawley albino rats. Whole wheat flour was fortified with different dosage of sodium iron EDTA (NaFeEDTA), ferrous sulphate (FeSO4), zinc oxide (ZnO) and zinc sulphate (ZnSO4). The rats (n=3) in each group were fed on fortified wheat flour for 2 months. Liver biomarkers including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and bilirubin were recorded from serum samples. Increased concentration of ZnSO4 affected the liver biomarkers to be highest among all whereas, bilirubin levels were less than the rats fed on control diet. The above mentioned fortificants have negligible effect on renal biomarkers including creatinine and urea. Moreover, hematological parameters were also checked and reportedly, sodium iron EDTA fed rats presented highest amount of hemoglobin, iron and total iron binding capacity. Highest zinc level was observed in rats fed on whole wheat flour fortified with 60mg/Kg Zinc oxide. Microscopic observation of liver tissue depicted that rats fed on iron and zinc fortified wheat flour have more toxic effects whereas, histopathology presentation of kidney tissue has least toxic impact. It has been concluded that mandatory fortification of wheat flour with iron and zinc may cause increased serum biomarkers along with toxicity of vital organs like liver, hence fraction of wheat flour may be fortified to fulfill the requirements of deprived and vulnerable group.


Assuntos
Farinha , Óxido de Zinco , Animais , Bilirrubina , Alimentos Fortificados , Ferro , Rim , Fígado , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triticum , Zinco/toxicidade
9.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 37(4): 1912-1917, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35403250

RESUMO

Over the last few years, the number of Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh has increased exponentially. On arrival, they experience poor mental health and psychological well-being. This commentary explores the risk factors and contemporary challenges that deteriorate Rohingyas' psychological well-being in Bangladesh. The onslaught of Covid-19 compounds the pre-existing psychological health conditions of the Rohingyas living in cramped and flimsy camps. The recent relocation to Bhashan Char may likely trigger tensions and eventually exacerbates their existing psychological well-being. The relocation to Bhashan Char has presumably happened against their volition. Meanwhile, the Myanmar military's coup has added additional fear about their bleak future of a safe and dignified return from Bangladesh to Myanmar. All these have contributed to the worsening of their existing psychological well-being. In order to subside their psychological health challenges, this commentary suggests: (a) the immediate execution of 'National Deployment and Vaccination Plan for Covid-19 Vaccines and initiation of vaccine rollout among the refugees; and (b) involving Rohingyas in economic activities and making them a self-reliant and economically empowered community. We suggest that safe and dignified repatriation is the only solution to the challenges they have been going through in Bangladesh and to preserve their psychological well-being.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Refugiados , Bangladesh , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Políticas , Fatores de Risco
10.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(2): 556-561, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383780

RESUMO

Hyperbilirubinemia is commonly seen in medical practice. But what could be the highest level of bilirubin in an individual that is still an unanswered question. We came across to a 37 years old lady in October 2018 with hepaticolithiasis who underwent extended choledocholithotomy. Her preoperative serum bilirubin was within normal range. Post-operatively she developed cholangitis and from 3rd post-operative day onwards she developed severe hyperbilirubinemia, which was high as 70.47 mg/dl on the 6th post-operative day. Other causes of post-operative hyperbilirubinemia were excluded. She was managed conservatively for this hyperbilirubinemia and bilirubin level gradually reduced.


Assuntos
Bilirrubina , Hiperbilirrubinemia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperbilirrubinemia/etiologia , Período Pós-Operatório
11.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e257622, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35293518

RESUMO

Green synthesis has been introduced as an alternative to chemical synthesis due to the serious consequences. Metal nanoparticles synthesized through green approach have different pharmaceutical, medical and agricultural applications. The present study followed a green and simple route for the preparation of potentially bioactive gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Au NPs were prepared via green synthesis approach using crude basic alkaloidal portion of the tuber of Delphinium chitralense. The green synthesized Au NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Morphological analysis shows that Au NPs have cubic geometry with different sizes. UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis confirmed the synthesis of Au NPs while XRD proved their pure crystalline phase. The Au NPs showed promising dose dependent inhibition of both AChE and BChE as compared to the crude as well as standard drug.


Assuntos
Delphinium , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
12.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245197, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35137837

RESUMO

The water quality parameters of a fish pond are essential to be managing properly under control for successful operations of fish culture. Improper management of pond water quality during the juvenile stages can create stressful conditions to produce various harmful diseases, which may decrease the fish quality and results in low profits. The present study was aimed to monitored important water quality parameters of nursery ponds of Labeo rohita culturing in Bannu fish hatchery. The study duration was 75 days extends from 10th June to 24th August 2019 for the successful culture of this specie which can play a significant role in breeding season. Furthermore, the concentration of some heavy metals like copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in pond water and fry stages of this species was also determined. The data obtained from all water quality parameters were analyzed expressed as range, mean and standard deviation using MS Excel 2013. The obtained results of 75 days study revealed that the water pH & temperature, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), and total dissolved oxygen (DO) of pond water samples were found within a tolerable limit except salinity and dissolved ammonia concentration were not permissible for fish growth. The average concentration of heavy metals in pond water exhibited descending order Fe>Ni>Mn>Zn>Cd>Ni, which was found in acceptable ranges. Whereas, the average values of heavy metals in fry stages were in the order of Zn>Fe>Ni>Cu>Cd>Mn, and found within the recommended values of WHO/FAO. Thus, it was concluded from this study that good water quality is a precondition, maintaining balanced levels of water quality parameters is fundamental for both the health and growth of fish culture which is quite necessary for assuring increased fish productivity. It is recommended to monitor and assess water quality parameters on a routine basis for promoting healthy fish culture.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pesqueiros , Metais Pesados/análise , Lagoas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água
13.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245199, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35043831

RESUMO

The present investigation was aimed to examine the concentrations of trace metals including e.g copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in water samples collected from nursery pond of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in Bannu Hatchery of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during the period from April 2018 to January 2019. The temperature and pH of each water sample were measured for the whole study duration. The concentration of Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), and Zinc (Zn) in collected water samples were measured in mg/liter by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The blank and standard solutions for device calibration Standard solutions i.e., 2.0 mg, 4.0 mg, and 6.0 were used to measure the concentration of these metals in water samples to verify the measurements. The data was statistically analyzed on descriptive statistics (estimation of proportions and standard deviation) used to summarize mean concentration. The results obtained of both temperature and pH of water samples were found in ranged 10 to 36 0C and 7.0 to 8.44; whereas the size of fry stages was ranged from 4.0 to 56.0 mm in total length. The results of investigated metals found in pond water samples are in order of Zn>Mn>Ni>Cu, respectively. As optimum temperature and pH for grass carp were mostly between 15 0C and 30 0C and pH 6.5 to 8.0. It was concluded from obtained results that temperature, pH, and trace metals were found appropriate for the growth of Ctenopharyngodon idella from fry to fingerling stages, but the highest amount of zinc can cause its mortality. It is a preliminary study on grass carp culturing in Bannu fish hatchery so, it would provide useful information for model fish seed production unit in a hatchery.


Assuntos
Carpas , Animais , Pesqueiros , Paquistão , Lagoas , Água
14.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e251747, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019091

RESUMO

Fish is the main source of animal protein for human diet. The aim of this study was to find out prevalence of pathogenic bacteria of two selected economically important fish of Pakistan namely Mahseer (Tor putitora) and Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Live fish samples from hatcheries and dead fish samples from different markets of study area were randomly collected. The fish samples were analyzed for isolation, identification and prevalence of bacteria. The isolated bacteria from study fish were identified through biochemical test and about 10 species of pathogenic bacteria were identified including the pathogenic bacteria to human and fish namely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus iniae, Serratia spp. Citrobacter spp. Stenotrophomonas spp. Bacillus spp. and Salmonella spp. The bacterial percentage frequency of occurrence in Silver carp and Mahseer fish showed Pseudomonas aeruginosa 21.42%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 17.85%, Escherichia coli 11.90%, Staphylococcus aureus 9.52%, Citrobacter spp. 9.52%, Serratia spp. 8.33%, Streptococcus iniae 7.14%, Stenotrophomonas spp. 5.95%, Bacillus spp. 4.76% and Salmonella spp. 3.57%. The study revealed that Fish samples of Mahseer and Silver carp that were collected from markets have found more isolates (10 bacterial species) than did the fresh fish pond samples (03 bacterial species) of hatcheries. The occurrence of pathogenic bacteria in study fish showed risk factor for public health consumers.


Assuntos
Carpas , Animais , Bactérias , Humanos , Incidência , Paquistão , Lagoas
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(15): 22031-22042, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775560

RESUMO

Chicken meat and hen egg are very popular foodstuffs around the world and highly consumed as curry, fast food, processed food, etc. assuming a promising source of protein. In the present study, the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, As, Hg, Mn, Fe, and Zn in nationally representative samples of chicken meat and hen egg were determined and found in the range of 0.03-2.73, 0.01-0.015, 0.025-0.67, 0.04-0.06, 0.01-0.015, 0.15-0.63, 2.50-38.6, and 1.02-19.4 mg/kg-fw, respectively. The results demonstrated that only Pb exceeded the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) for dietary food. Multivariate statistical analyses depicted that anthropogenic activities were the major source of heavy metals in the investigated foodstuffs. Human health risks associated with the dietary intake of these metals through the consumption of chicken meat and hen egg were evaluated in terms of estimated daily intake (EDI), non-carcinogenic risk of individual heavy metal by target hazard quotient (THQ), total target hazard quotient (TTHQ) for combined metals, and carcinogenic risk (CR) for lifetime exposure. The calculated values of EDI, THQ, TTHQ, and CR were below their respective permissible benchmarks indicating the safe consumption of the investigated foodstuffs with respect to heavy metal contamination.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Metais Pesados , Animais , Bangladesh , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Carne/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240943, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278469

RESUMO

Abstract The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial strains, which are posing a global health threat has developed the interest of scientists to use bacteriophages instead of conventional antibiotics therapy. In light of an increased interest in the use of phage as a bacterial control agent, the study aimed to isolate and characterize lytic phages from sewage effluent. During the current study, bacteriophage AS1 was isolated from sewage effluent against E.coli S2. The lytic activity of phageAS1 was limited to E.coli S2 strain showing monovalent behavior. The calculated phage titer was 3.5×109 pfu/ml. PhageAS1 was stable at a wide range of pH and temperature. The maximum stability was recorded at 37ºC and pH 7.0, while showing its normal lytic activity at temperature 60ºC and from pH 5.0 to11.0 respectively. At temperature 70ºC, phage activity was somewhat reduced whereas, further increase in temperature and decrease or increase in pH completely inactivated the phage. From the current study, it was concluded that waste water is a best source for finding bacteriophages against multi-drug resistant bacterial strains and can be used as bacterial control agent.


Resumo O surgimento de cepas bacterianas multirresistentes (MDR), que representam uma ameaça global à saúde, desenvolveu o interesse dos cientistas em usar bacteriófagos em vez da terapia convencional com antibióticos. Diante do crescente interesse no uso de fago como agente de controle bacteriano, o estudo visou isolar e caracterizar fagos líticos de efluente de esgoto. Durante o estudo atual, o bacteriófago AS1 foi isolado de efluente de esgoto contra E. coli S2. A atividade lítica de phageAS1 foi limitada à cepa E. coli S2, apresentando comportamento monovalente. O título de fago calculado foi de 3,5 x 109 ufp/ml. PhageAS1 foi estável em uma ampla faixa de pH e temperatura. A estabilidade máxima foi registrada a 37ºC e pH 7,0, enquanto mostrou atividade lítica normal em temperatura de 60ºC e pH 5,0 a 11,0, respectivamente. Na temperatura de 70ºC, a atividade do fago foi um pouco reduzida, enquanto o aumento adicional da temperatura e a diminuição ou aumento do pH inativaram completamente o fago. Com base no estudo atual, concluiu-se que a água residual é a melhor fonte para encontrar bacteriófagos contra cepas bacterianas multirresistentes e pode ser usada como agente de controle bacteriano.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Bacteriófagos , Paquistão , Temperatura , Colífagos
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e257622, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364492

RESUMO

Greeen synthesis has been introduced as an alternative to chemical synthesis due to the serious consequences. Metal nanoparticles synthesized through green approach have different pharmaceutical, medical and agricultural applications. The present study followed a green and simple route for the preparation of potentially bioactive gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Au NPs were prepared via green synthesis approach using crude basic alkaloidal portion of the tuber of Delphinium chitralense. The green synthesized Au NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Morphological analysis shows that Au NPs have cubic geometry with different sizes. UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis confirmed the synthesis of Au NPs while XRD proved their pure crystalline phase. The Au NPs showed promising dose dependent inhibition of both AChE and BChE as compared to the crude as well as standard drug.


A síntese verde foi introduzida como uma alternativa à síntese química devido às graves consequências. As nanopartículas metálicas sintetizadas através da abordagem verde têm diferentes aplicações farmacêuticas, médicas e agrícolas. O presente estudo seguiu uma rota verde e simples para a preparação de nanopartículas de ouro potencialmente bioativas (Au NPs). As NPs de Au foram preparadas via abordagem de síntese verde usando a porção alcaloide básica bruta do tubérculo de Delphinium chitralense. As NPs de Au sintetizadas verdes foram caracterizadas por microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (TEM), microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV), difração de raios X (DRX), infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (FTIR) e espectrofotômetro UV-Visível. A análise morfológica mostra que as NPs de Au possuem geometria cúbica com tamanhos diferentes. A análise espectroscópica UV-Vis confirmou a síntese de Au NPs enquanto a XRD provou sua fase cristalina pura. O Au NPs mostrou inibição dependente da dose promissora de AChE e BChE em comparação com a droga bruta e padrão.


Assuntos
Delphinium , Tubérculos , Enzimas , Nanopartículas , Ouro
18.
Glob Policy ; 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36718469

RESUMO

The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how a lack of policy attention has exacerbated the extreme circumstances faced by the Rohingya and how they can contribute to deterioration of their health, livelihood, and education, as well as their repatriation to their homeland. This article is based on data collected from field observations and interviews prior to and during the pandemic. This study confirms that the Rohingya refugee populations endure a higher level of suffering from lack of food security and livelihood, lack of basic amenities and financial resources, and accommodation is overcrowded compared with the pre-pandemic period. The lack of a specific policy for the Rohingya has compounded the current situation in Bangladesh. This research is crucial for countries receiving refugees as well as the countries from which they flee and other actors.

19.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e251046, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932675

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM), an endocrine syndrome characterized by high blood glucose levels due to abrogated insulin activity. The existing treatments for DM have side effects and varying degrees of efficacy. Therefore, it is paramount that novel approaches be developed to enhance the management of DM. Therapeutic plants have been accredited as having comparatively high efficacy with fewer adverse effects. The current study aims to elucidate the phytochemical profile, anti-hyperlipidemic, and anti-diabetic effects of methanolic extract D. salicifolia (leaves) in Alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Alloxan was injected intraperitoneally (150 mg kg-1, b.w), to induced diabetes in mice. The mice were divided into three groups (n=10). Group 1 (normal control) received normal food and purified water, Group II (diabetic control) received regular feed and clean water and group III (diabetic treated) received a methanolic extract of the plant (300 mg kg-1) for 28 days with a typical diet and clean water throughout the experiment. Blood samples were collected to checked serum glucose and concentration of LDL, TC, TG. The extract demonstrated significant antihyperglycemic activity (P<0.05), whereas improvements in mice's body weight and lipid profiles were observed after treatment with the extract. This study establishes that the extract has high efficacy with comparatively less toxicity that can be used for DM management.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aloxano , Animais , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Fitoterapia
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 934-939, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153427

RESUMO

Abstract During the present study thirteen Megaderma lyra bats were observed roosting in dark, domed shaped room of Rohtas Fort, district Jhelum. Out of these, six specimens were captured from the roosting site, using hand net. All captured specimens were male. These bats were identified through their unique facial features, an erect and elongated nose-leaf, large oval ears that joined above the forehead and no tail. Mean head and body length of captured specimens was 80 mm, forearm length was 67 mm while average lengths of 3rd, 4th and 5th metacarpals were 51.73 mm, 55.17 mm and 60.42 mm, respectively. Mean skull length was 29.84 mm, breadth of braincase was 12.77 mm. Average Penis length of two specimens was 6.6 mm and total bacular length was 3.08 mm respectively. This is the first record of Megaderma lyra from district Jhelum.


Resumo Durante o presente estudo, 13 morcegos Megadermalyra foram observados empoleirados em uma sala escura em forma de cúpula no Forte Rohtas, distrito de Jhelum, dos quais 6 espécimes foram capturados no local usando rede manual. Todos os espécimes capturados eram machos. Esses morcegos foram identificados por suas características faciais únicas, uma folha nasal ereta e alongada, grandes orelhas ovais que se juntam acima da testa e sem cauda. O comprimento médio da cabeça e do corpo dos espécimes capturados foi de 80 mm, o comprimento do antebraço foi de 67 mm, enquanto os comprimentos médios do 3º, 4º e 5º metacarpos foram de 51,73 mm, 55,17 mm e 60,42 mm, respectivamente. O comprimento médio do crânio foi de 29,84 mm, e a largura da caixa craniana, de 12,77 mm. O comprimento médio do pênis de duas amostras foi de 6,6 mm, e o comprimento total do báculo foi de 3,08 mm. Este é o primeiro registro de Megadermalyra no distrito de Jhelum.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Quirópteros , Paquistão
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