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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246825, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285634

RESUMO

Abstract A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Piper nigrum (black pepper) leaf extract on on the growth performance, proximate composition, hematological parameters, and immune response of Labeo rohita fingerlings with an average weight of 22.14 ± 0.98g. Aftrer acclimation for two weeks, fish (n=25) were randomly selected and placed in four glass aquaria (T0, T1, T2 and T3) at constant water temperature (30.0 ± 1.0 °C), pH (7.50 ± 0.5) and total hardness (200 ± 2.0 mgL,-1) for a period of 12 weeks, with three replicates each. Fish were fed with P. nigrum leaf extract supplemented feed @ 0.0%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0% in T0, T1,T2 and T3, respectively. At the end of experiment, five fish were randomly selected from each aquaria for proximate composition, gut and skin microbial load, hematological parameters. Total proteins, albumins, and globulins were also recorded to evaluate immunological memory. The result revealed that fish in T2 showed better growth performance with an average weight gain of 56.11 ± 0.51 g. Thus, it had been concluded that Piper nigrum, a medicinal plant, can also be used to enhance the growth performance and immune response of Labeo rohita as attractive alternatives against antibiotics and vaccines and has shown no negative side effects on fish health as well as on its environment.


Resumo Um estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito do extrato da folha de Piper nigrum (pimenta-do-reino) sobre o desempenho de crescimento, composição centesimal, parâmetros hematológicos e resposta imune de alevinos de Labeo rohita com peso médio de 22,14 ± 0,98g. Após aclimatação por duas semanas, os peixes (n = 25) foram selecionados aleatoriamente e colocados em quatro aquários de vidro (T0, T1, T2 e T3) em temperatura constante da água (30,0 ± 1,0 °C), pH (7,50 ± 0,5) e dureza total (200 ± 2,0 mgL-1) por um período de 12 semanas, com três repetições cada. Os peixes foram alimentados com ração suplementada com extrato de folha de P. nigrum @ 0,0%, 1,0%, 2,0% e 3,0% em T0, T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente. Ao final do experimento, cinco peixes foram selecionados aleatoriamente de cada aquário para composição centesimal, carga microbiana intestinal e cutânea e parâmetros hematológicos. Proteínas totais, albuminas e globulinas também foram registradas para avaliar a memória imunológica. O resultado revelou que os peixes em T2 apresentaram melhor desempenho de crescimento com ganho de peso médio de 56,11 ± 0,51 g. Assim, concluiu-se que Piper nigrum, uma planta medicinal, também pode ser usado para melhorar o desempenho de crescimento e resposta imunológica de Labeo rohita como alternativas atraentes contra antibióticos e vacinas e não mostrou efeitos colaterais negativos na saúde dos peixes, bem como sobre seu ambiente.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251004, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339339

RESUMO

Abstract The supplementation of Selenium-enriched probiotics is effective in reducing oxidative stress and maintaining meat quality stability in broiler chicken especially under heat stress. An experimental study was conducted to perform Comparative analysis of Selenium yeast with inorganic Se in broilers under heat stress. A total of 120 broilers chicks of one day were assigned to 4 groups each consisting 30 chicks fed on same basal diet but different selenium sources. The basal diet of group D1 was not supplemented with Se source (Negative control), group D2 basal diet was supplemented with inorganic selenium (Sodium selenite 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase), group D3 basal diet was supplemented with commercially available organic selenium (Seleno-methionine 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase) and group D4 basal diet was supplemented with self-developed organic selenium (Se-enriched yeast 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase). The performance parameters i.e. feed intake (FI), live body weight (BW) and FCR were not significantly (p>0.05) effected by selenium supplementation in the starter phase but were significantly (p<0.05) effected in the finisher phase. Selenium supplementation significantly (p<0.05) effected serum Se level in different supplemented groups. Higher serum Se value (58.20±0.06) was recorded in D4 group. Similarly significantly lower selenium value was recorded for D4 and higher was recorded for D1 (11.36±0.08). However lower serum Paraoxonase (PON) value was recorded for D4 (13.24±0.01) and higher for D1 (13.33±0.03). Comparatively self-developed Se enriched yeast increased the Se accumulation and improved antioxidant system. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was found higher in D4 (12.333±0.03) followed by D3, D2 and D1 respectively. Whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly lower (p<0.05) in D4 (0.1437±0.003) followed by D3 (0.1457±0.002). Selenium supplementation increased the bird's survival rate. Birds fed on Se enriched yeast showed higher Se deposition and better antioxidant capacity as compared to other sources of selenium. Se-enriched yeast displayed an improved result on Se deposition in tissues, and oxidative capacity, meat tenderness and immune response level as compared to other sources of selenium.


Resumo A suplementação de probióticos enriquecidos com selênio é eficaz na redução do estresse oxidativo e na manutenção da estabilidade da qualidade da carne em frangos de corte, especialmente sob estresse por calor. Um estudo experimental foi conduzido para realizar uma análise comparativa da levedura selênio com o Se inorgânico em frangos de corte sob estresse térmico. Um total de 120 pintos de um dia foi dividido em 4 grupos, cada um consistindo de 30 pintos alimentados com a mesma dieta basal, mas com diferentes fontes de selênio. A dieta basal do grupo D1 não foi suplementada com fonte de Se (controle negativo), a dieta basal do grupo D2 foi suplementada com selênio inorgânico (selenito de sódio 0,22 mg / kg fase inicial e 0,15 mg / kg fase finalizadora), a dieta basal do grupo D3 foi suplementada com selênio orgânico disponível comercialmente (fase inicial de seleno-metionina 0,22 mg / kg e fase finalizadora de 0,15 mg / kg) e a dieta basal do grupo D4 foi suplementada com selênio orgânico autodesenvolvido (fermento enriquecido com Se 0,22 mg / kg fase inicial e 0,15 mg / kg fase finalizadora). Os parâmetros de desempenho, ou seja, consumo de ração (FI), peso corporal vivo (PC) e FCR não foram significativamente (p > 0,05) afetados pela suplementação de selênio na fase inicial, mas foram significativamente (p < 0,05) afetados na fase final. A suplementação de selênio afetou significativamente (p < 0,05) o nível de Se sérico em diferentes grupos suplementados. O maior valor de Se sérico (58,20 ± 0,06) foi registrado no grupo D4. Da mesma forma, valor de selênio significativamente menor foi registrado para D4 e maior foi registrado para D1 (11,36 ± 0,08). No entanto, um valor mais baixo de Paraoxonase (PON) sérica foi registrado para D4 (13,24 ± 0,01) e mais alto para D1 (13,33 ± 0,03). A levedura enriquecida com Se comparativamente autodesenvolvida aumentou o acúmulo de Se e melhorou o sistema antioxidante. A glutationa peroxidase (GPx) foi encontrada maior em D4 (12,333 ± 0,03) seguido por D3, D2 e ​​D1 respectivamente. Enquanto a superóxido dismutase (SOD) foi significativamente menor (p < 0,05) em D4 (0,1437 ± 0,003) seguido por D3 (0,1457 ± 0,002). A suplementação de selênio aumentou a taxa de sobrevivência da ave. Aves alimentadas com levedura enriquecida com Se apresentaram maior deposição de Se e melhor capacidade antioxidante em comparação com outras fontes de selênio. A levedura enriquecida com Se apresentou um resultado melhorado na deposição de Se nos tecidos, capacidade oxidativa, maciez da carne e nível de resposta imune em comparação com outras fontes de selênio.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250179, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339372

RESUMO

Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a non-communicable disease throughout the world in which there is persistently high blood glucose level from the normal range. The diabetes and insulin resistance are mainly responsible for the morbidities and mortalities of humans in the world. This disease is mainly regulated by various enzymes and hormones among which Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a principle enzyme and insulin is the key hormone regulating it. The GSK-3, that is the key enzyme is normally showing its actions by various mechanisms that include its phosphorylation, formation of protein complexes, and other cellular distribution and thus it control and directly affects cellular morphology, its growth, mobility and apoptosis of the cell. Disturbances in the action of GSK-3 enzyme may leads to various disease conditions that include insulin resistance leading to diabetes, neurological disease like Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Fluoroquinolones are the most common class of drugs that shows dysglycemic effects via interacting with GSK-3 enzyme. Therefore, it is the need of the day to properly understand functions and mechanisms of GSK-3, especially its role in glucose homeostasis via effects on glycogen synthase.


Resumo O diabetes mellitus (DM) é uma doença não transmissível em todo o mundo, na qual existe nível glicêmico persistentemente alto em relação à normalidade. O diabetes e a resistência à insulina são os principais responsáveis ​​pelas morbidades e mortalidades de humanos no mundo. Essa doença é regulada principalmente por várias enzimas e hormônios, entre os quais a glicogênio sintase quinase-3 (GSK-3) é uma enzima principal e a insulina é o principal hormônio que a regula. A GSK-3, que é a enzima-chave, normalmente mostra suas ações por vários mecanismos que incluem sua fosforilação, formação de complexos de proteínas e outras distribuições celulares e, portanto, controla e afeta diretamente a morfologia celular, seu crescimento, mobilidade e apoptose do célula. Perturbações na ação da enzima GSK-3 podem levar a várias condições de doença que incluem resistência à insulina que leva ao diabetes, doenças neurológicas como a doença de Alzheimer e câncer. As fluoroquinolonas são a classe mais comum de drogas que apresentam efeitos disglicêmicos por meio da interação com a enzima GSK-3. Portanto, é necessário hoje em dia compreender adequadamente as funções e mecanismos da GSK-3, principalmente seu papel na homeostase da glicose via efeitos na glicogênio sintase.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240943, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278469

RESUMO

Abstract The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial strains, which are posing a global health threat has developed the interest of scientists to use bacteriophages instead of conventional antibiotics therapy. In light of an increased interest in the use of phage as a bacterial control agent, the study aimed to isolate and characterize lytic phages from sewage effluent. During the current study, bacteriophage AS1 was isolated from sewage effluent against E.coli S2. The lytic activity of phageAS1 was limited to E.coli S2 strain showing monovalent behavior. The calculated phage titer was 3.5×109 pfu/ml. PhageAS1 was stable at a wide range of pH and temperature. The maximum stability was recorded at 37ºC and pH 7.0, while showing its normal lytic activity at temperature 60ºC and from pH 5.0 to11.0 respectively. At temperature 70ºC, phage activity was somewhat reduced whereas, further increase in temperature and decrease or increase in pH completely inactivated the phage. From the current study, it was concluded that waste water is a best source for finding bacteriophages against multi-drug resistant bacterial strains and can be used as bacterial control agent.


Resumo O surgimento de cepas bacterianas multirresistentes (MDR), que representam uma ameaça global à saúde, desenvolveu o interesse dos cientistas em usar bacteriófagos em vez da terapia convencional com antibióticos. Diante do crescente interesse no uso de fago como agente de controle bacteriano, o estudo visou isolar e caracterizar fagos líticos de efluente de esgoto. Durante o estudo atual, o bacteriófago AS1 foi isolado de efluente de esgoto contra E. coli S2. A atividade lítica de phageAS1 foi limitada à cepa E. coli S2, apresentando comportamento monovalente. O título de fago calculado foi de 3,5 x 109 ufp/ml. PhageAS1 foi estável em uma ampla faixa de pH e temperatura. A estabilidade máxima foi registrada a 37ºC e pH 7,0, enquanto mostrou atividade lítica normal em temperatura de 60ºC e pH 5,0 a 11,0, respectivamente. Na temperatura de 70ºC, a atividade do fago foi um pouco reduzida, enquanto o aumento adicional da temperatura e a diminuição ou aumento do pH inativaram completamente o fago. Com base no estudo atual, concluiu-se que a água residual é a melhor fonte para encontrar bacteriófagos contra cepas bacterianas multirresistentes e pode ser usada como agente de controle bacteriano.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 934-939, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153427

RESUMO

Abstract During the present study thirteen Megaderma lyra bats were observed roosting in dark, domed shaped room of Rohtas Fort, district Jhelum. Out of these, six specimens were captured from the roosting site, using hand net. All captured specimens were male. These bats were identified through their unique facial features, an erect and elongated nose-leaf, large oval ears that joined above the forehead and no tail. Mean head and body length of captured specimens was 80 mm, forearm length was 67 mm while average lengths of 3rd, 4th and 5th metacarpals were 51.73 mm, 55.17 mm and 60.42 mm, respectively. Mean skull length was 29.84 mm, breadth of braincase was 12.77 mm. Average Penis length of two specimens was 6.6 mm and total bacular length was 3.08 mm respectively. This is the first record of Megaderma lyra from district Jhelum.


Resumo Durante o presente estudo, 13 morcegos Megadermalyra foram observados empoleirados em uma sala escura em forma de cúpula no Forte Rohtas, distrito de Jhelum, dos quais 6 espécimes foram capturados no local usando rede manual. Todos os espécimes capturados eram machos. Esses morcegos foram identificados por suas características faciais únicas, uma folha nasal ereta e alongada, grandes orelhas ovais que se juntam acima da testa e sem cauda. O comprimento médio da cabeça e do corpo dos espécimes capturados foi de 80 mm, o comprimento do antebraço foi de 67 mm, enquanto os comprimentos médios do 3º, 4º e 5º metacarpos foram de 51,73 mm, 55,17 mm e 60,42 mm, respectivamente. O comprimento médio do crânio foi de 29,84 mm, e a largura da caixa craniana, de 12,77 mm. O comprimento médio do pênis de duas amostras foi de 6,6 mm, e o comprimento total do báculo foi de 3,08 mm. Este é o primeiro registro de Megadermalyra no distrito de Jhelum.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775560

RESUMO

Chicken meat and hen egg are very popular foodstuffs around the world and highly consumed as curry, fast food, processed food, etc. assuming a promising source of protein. In the present study, the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, As, Hg, Mn, Fe, and Zn in nationally representative samples of chicken meat and hen egg were determined and found in the range of 0.03-2.73, 0.01-0.015, 0.025-0.67, 0.04-0.06, 0.01-0.015, 0.15-0.63, 2.50-38.6, and 1.02-19.4 mg/kg-fw, respectively. The results demonstrated that only Pb exceeded the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) for dietary food. Multivariate statistical analyses depicted that anthropogenic activities were the major source of heavy metals in the investigated foodstuffs. Human health risks associated with the dietary intake of these metals through the consumption of chicken meat and hen egg were evaluated in terms of estimated daily intake (EDI), non-carcinogenic risk of individual heavy metal by target hazard quotient (THQ), total target hazard quotient (TTHQ) for combined metals, and carcinogenic risk (CR) for lifetime exposure. The calculated values of EDI, THQ, TTHQ, and CR were below their respective permissible benchmarks indicating the safe consumption of the investigated foodstuffs with respect to heavy metal contamination.

7.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e251004, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614126

RESUMO

The supplementation of Selenium-enriched probiotics is effective in reducing oxidative stress and maintaining meat quality stability in broiler chicken especially under heat stress. An experimental study was conducted to perform Comparative analysis of Selenium yeast with inorganic Se in broilers under heat stress. A total of 120 broilers chicks of one day were assigned to 4 groups each consisting 30 chicks fed on same basal diet but different selenium sources. The basal diet of group D1 was not supplemented with Se source (Negative control), group D2 basal diet was supplemented with inorganic selenium (Sodium selenite 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase), group D3 basal diet was supplemented with commercially available organic selenium (Seleno-methionine 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase) and group D4 basal diet was supplemented with self-developed organic selenium (Se-enriched yeast 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase). The performance parameters i.e. feed intake (FI), live body weight (BW) and FCR were not significantly (p>0.05) effected by selenium supplementation in the starter phase but were significantly (p<0.05) effected in the finisher phase. Selenium supplementation significantly (p<0.05) effected serum Se level in different supplemented groups. Higher serum Se value (58.20±0.06) was recorded in D4 group. Similarly significantly lower selenium value was recorded for D4 and higher was recorded for D1 (11.36±0.08). However lower serum Paraoxonase (PON) value was recorded for D4 (13.24±0.01) and higher for D1 (13.33±0.03). Comparatively self-developed Se enriched yeast increased the Se accumulation and improved antioxidant system. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was found higher in D4 (12.333±0.03) followed by D3, D2 and D1 respectively. Whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly lower (p<0.05) in D4 (0.1437±0.003) followed by D3 (0.1457±0.002). Selenium supplementation increased the bird's survival rate. Birds fed on Se enriched yeast showed higher Se deposition and better antioxidant capacity as compared to other sources of selenium. Se-enriched yeast displayed an improved result on Se deposition in tissues, and oxidative capacity, meat tenderness and immune response level as compared to other sources of selenium.


Assuntos
Selênio , Animais , Antioxidantes , Galinhas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico
8.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e250179, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524376

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a non-communicable disease throughout the world in which there is persistently high blood glucose level from the normal range. The diabetes and insulin resistance are mainly responsible for the morbidities and mortalities of humans in the world. This disease is mainly regulated by various enzymes and hormones among which Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a principle enzyme and insulin is the key hormone regulating it. The GSK-3, that is the key enzyme is normally showing its actions by various mechanisms that include its phosphorylation, formation of protein complexes, and other cellular distribution and thus it control and directly affects cellular morphology, its growth, mobility and apoptosis of the cell. Disturbances in the action of GSK-3 enzyme may leads to various disease conditions that include insulin resistance leading to diabetes, neurological disease like Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Fluoroquinolones are the most common class of drugs that shows dysglycemic effects via interacting with GSK-3 enzyme. Therefore, it is the need of the day to properly understand functions and mechanisms of GSK-3, especially its role in glucose homeostasis via effects on glycogen synthase.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Resistência à Insulina , Glucose , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase , Homeostase , Humanos
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 776-784, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153399

RESUMO

Abstract Present study was conducted to record ecotoparasitic prevalence in bat fauna of the northwestern parts of Pakistan. A total of 204 bat specimens representing 14 species were captured during a two year survey, extending from June 2015 through May 2016. A species of soft ticks Argas vespertilionis was identified from 23 bat specimens. Similarly, members of the family Dermanyssoidae (dermanyssoid mites) were isolated from 10 bat specimens, that of Spinturnicidae (spinturnicid mites) from 3 and Streblidae (bat flies) from 2 bat specimens. These parasites were collected using entomological tweezers and were identified on morphological basis. Further studies on parasitic prevalence, molecular characterization of bat parasites and their control measures are recommended.


Resumo O presente estudo foi realizado para registrar a prevalência de ectoparasitas na fauna de morcegos em partes do noroeste do Paquistão. Um total de 204 espécimes de morcegos, representando 14 espécies, foi capturado durante uma pesquisa de dois anos, de junho de 2015 a maio de 2016. A espécie de carrapato Argas vespertilionis foi identificada em 23 espécimes de morcegos. Da mesma forma, os membros da família Dermanyssidae (ácaros dermanyssoid) foram isolados de 10 espécimes de morcego, os da Spinturnicidae (ácaros spinturnicid), de 3, e os da Streblidae (mosca de morcego), de 2 espécimes de morcego. Esses parasitas foram coletados com pinça entomológica e identificados com base morfológica. Estudos adicionais sobre prevalência parasitária, caracterização molecular de parasitas de morcego e suas medidas de controle devem ser realizados.

10.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246825, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431909

RESUMO

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Piper nigrum (black pepper) leaf extract on on the growth performance, proximate composition, hematological parameters, and immune response of Labeo rohita fingerlings with an average weight of 22.14 ± 0.98g. Aftrer acclimation for two weeks, fish (n=25) were randomly selected and placed in four glass aquaria (T0, T1, T2 and T3) at constant water temperature (30.0 ± 1.0 °C), pH (7.50 ± 0.5) and total hardness (200 ± 2.0 mgL,-1) for a period of 12 weeks, with three replicates each. Fish were fed with P. nigrum leaf extract supplemented feed @ 0.0%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0% in T0, T1,T2 and T3, respectively. At the end of experiment, five fish were randomly selected from each aquaria for proximate composition, gut and skin microbial load, hematological parameters. Total proteins, albumins, and globulins were also recorded to evaluate immunological memory. The result revealed that fish in T2 showed better growth performance with an average weight gain of 56.11 ± 0.51 g. Thus, it had been concluded that Piper nigrum, a medicinal plant, can also be used to enhance the growth performance and immune response of Labeo rohita as attractive alternatives against antibiotics and vaccines and has shown no negative side effects on fish health as well as on its environment.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Piper nigrum , Animais , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
11.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e240943, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259715

RESUMO

The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial strains, which are posing a global health threat has developed the interest of scientists to use bacteriophages instead of conventional antibiotics therapy. In light of an increased interest in the use of phage as a bacterial control agent, the study aimed to isolate and characterize lytic phages from sewage effluent. During the current study, bacteriophage AS1 was isolated from sewage effluent against E.coli S2. The lytic activity of phageAS1 was limited to E.coli S2 strain showing monovalent behavior. The calculated phage titer was 3.5×109 pfu/ml. PhageAS1 was stable at a wide range of pH and temperature. The maximum stability was recorded at 37ºC and pH 7.0, while showing its normal lytic activity at temperature 60ºC and from pH 5.0 to11.0 respectively. At temperature 70ºC, phage activity was somewhat reduced whereas, further increase in temperature and decrease or increase in pH completely inactivated the phage. From the current study, it was concluded that waste water is a best source for finding bacteriophages against multi-drug resistant bacterial strains and can be used as bacterial control agent.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Esgotos , Colífagos , Paquistão , Temperatura
12.
Am Heart J Plus ; 1: 100001, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173587

RESUMO

The consequences of severe acute viral respiratory syndrome (COVID 19) pandemic include collateral effects, one of which has been the significant reduction in routine hospital work. With widespread reports indicating reduction of cardiac procedures including MI presentation to hospitals, we aimed to analyze the local data over a 10-week period during lockdown in a tertiary cardiac centre Catheter Laboratory in England. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of the coronary catheterisation procedures and admissions with MI over the peak COVID-19 pandemic 10-week period (23rd March-30th May) in 2020, compared with the same 10-week period (25th March-2nd June) in 2019. Results: In 2019, 539 patients were admitted to the Cath lab for coronary catheterisation (M = 385:F = 154; mean age 65 years; STEMI = 186, NSTEMI = 192, elective = 161). In 2020, during peak period of COVID19 pandemic in England, a total of 278 patients were admitted for coronary catheterisation over the 10-week period (M = 201:F = 77; mean age 60.5 years; STEMI = 132, NSTEMI = 118, elective = 28). During peak COVID19 pandemic, this represents a 48.4% drop in all coronary catheterisations. The reduction in STEMI was 29% (54 less), in NSTEMI was 38.9% (74 less) and elective procedures dropped by 83% (133 less). Conclusion: During peak COVID hospital admission period in England, we report a 48.5% reduction in coronary catheterisation in our tertiary hospital. These results are consistent with reports from other countries, and highlight the worrying potential consequences for these patients arising from delays in presentation with MI, and the challenges for restoring services post-pandemic.

13.
Vacunas ; 22(2): 106-113, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078061

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The spread of the virus was rapid and currently COVID-19 cases are present worldwide in 213 countries, area or territories. Researchers worldwide are working and sharing their contribution regarding epidemiology, prevention, treatment, clinical and diagnostic patterns of the COVID-19. Current review is another contribution to the current knowledge, presenting the data in organized and systematic format about the current pandemic of COVID-19. The epidemiological information presented in the paper is subject to change as new cases are diagnosed and status of active cases is updated on daily basis.

14.
Braz J Biol ; 81(4): 934-939, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146253

RESUMO

During the present study thirteen Megaderma lyra bats were observed roosting in dark, domed shaped room of Rohtas Fort, district Jhelum. Out of these, six specimens were captured from the roosting site, using hand net. All captured specimens were male. These bats were identified through their unique facial features, an erect and elongated nose-leaf, large oval ears that joined above the forehead and no tail. Mean head and body length of captured specimens was 80 mm, forearm length was 67 mm while average lengths of 3rd, 4th and 5th metacarpals were 51.73 mm, 55.17 mm and 60.42 mm, respectively. Mean skull length was 29.84 mm, breadth of braincase was 12.77 mm. Average Penis length of two specimens was 6.6 mm and total bacular length was 3.08 mm respectively. This is the first record of Megaderma lyra from district Jhelum.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Animais , Masculino , Paquistão
15.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 199(9): 3478-3488, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094448

RESUMO

In this study, accumulation of the top six most toxic trace metals (Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni) and Lead (Pb)) were assessed in six indigenous fish species (Barilius barila, Salmostoma acinaces, Gudusia chapra, Labeo bata, Corica soborna, and Sperata aor) collected from the Old Brahmaputra River in Bangladesh. Human health risk associated with these fish consumption was also evaluated. Metals were analyzed in whole body of fish by an atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). Mean concentrations of metals (µg/g, wet weight) were in the range of As (< 0.02-0.278), Cd (< 0.002-0.005), Cr (0.239-0.761), Hg (0.008-0.057), Ni (< 0.02-0.044), and Pb (< 0.01-0.038). The metal contents varied significantly among the fishes regarding their feeding habits and living habitats. Concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, and Pb were significantly higher in omnivorous species, whereas the benthopelagic species showed significantly higher accumulation of As (p < 0.05). The target hazard quotient (THQ) for noncarcinogenic risk and target cancer risk (TR) for carcinogenic risk were calculated to estimate the probabilities of experiencing these adverse health effects for the fish consumers. Metal-specific THQ values were all below 1 indicating no potential human health risk. Nonetheless, the hazard index (HI) values to estimate the effects from exposure to all metals collectively elucidated chronic noncarcinogenic health risk particularly from G. chapra consumption. The TR values revealed that there was carcinogenic risk from exposure to As through consumption of the fish. This study finally suggests a systematic and continuous monitoring of trace metal contamination in fishes from the river to ensure the fitness of this food item regarding the safety for human health.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bangladesh , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Braz J Biol ; 81(3): 776-784, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965336

RESUMO

Present study was conducted to record ecotoparasitic prevalence in bat fauna of the northwestern parts of Pakistan. A total of 204 bat specimens representing 14 species were captured during a two year survey, extending from June 2015 through May 2016. A species of soft ticks Argas vespertilionis was identified from 23 bat specimens. Similarly, members of the family Dermanyssoidae (dermanyssoid mites) were isolated from 10 bat specimens, that of Spinturnicidae (spinturnicid mites) from 3 and Streblidae (bat flies) from 2 bat specimens. These parasites were collected using entomological tweezers and were identified on morphological basis. Further studies on parasitic prevalence, molecular characterization of bat parasites and their control measures are recommended.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Dípteros , Ácaros , Parasitos , Animais , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência
17.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 199(9): 3272-3286, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236292

RESUMO

Green synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) have demonstrated promising effects, including cytotoxicity and anticancer potential, in different cell lines. Therefore, in our previous study, Ag-NPs were synthesized from the reduction of AgNO3 using Brassica rapa var. japonica (Bj) leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The synthesized Ag-NPs were spherical in shape, with a size range of 15-30 nm. They had phase-centered cubic structure with strong growth inhibition potential against some bacteria. In continuation with our previous study, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the autophagy-regulated cytotoxic effect of Ag-NPs against human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2 cells). We found that the Bj leaf aqueous extract facilitated Brassica silver nanoparticles (Brassica Ag-NPs)-induced NF-κB mediated autophagy in Caco-2 cells. Results showed that Ag-NPs reduced cell viability of Caco-2 cells by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damage. Therefore, to understand the mechanism underlying the death-promoting activity of Ag-NPs in Caco-2 cells, western blotting was performed. Western blot analysis showed decreased expression of NFκB and increased expression of IκB, which is a sign of autophagy initiation. In addition, autophagosome formation was accelerated by the activity of p53 and light chain 3 (LC3) II. In addition, inhibition of Akt and mTOR also played a pivotal role in autophagy formation. Finally, excessive expansion of autophagy promoted apoptosis, which subsequently resulted in necrosis. These findings support a novel cell death-promoting function of autophagy by Ag-NPs in Caco-2 cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Apoptose , Autofagia , Células CACO-2 , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , NF-kappa B , Prata/farmacologia
18.
Adv Differ Equ ; 2020(1): 472, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922446

RESUMO

In this paper, a novel coronavirus infection system with a fuzzy fractional differential equation defined in Caputo's sense is developed. By using the fuzzy Laplace method coupled with Adomian decomposition transform, numerical results are obtained for better understanding of the dynamical structures of the physical behavior of COVID-19. Such behavior on the general properties of RNA in COVID-19 is also investigated for the governing model. The results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach to address the uncertainty condition in the pandemic situation.

19.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(2): 337-340, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506087

RESUMO

Excision of type I choledochal cyst mandates restoration of continuity of extrahepatic biliary drainage system through anastomotic options having their advantages and disadvantages. Roux en-Y Hepaticojejunostomy (RYHJ) has been very popular and long studied standard surgical treatment for type I choledochal cyst. But now Hepaticoduodenostomy (HD) is also being practiced and studied in different centers all over the world for the treatment of the same disease. We have been practicing Hepaticoduodenostomy for treating type I choledochal cyst, at Bangabandhu Sheik Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), for last five years. Here, we are presenting our experience at BSMMU Hospital, regarding immediate post-operative outcome of Hepaticoduodenostomy for the treatment of type I Choledochal cyst, to show whether this procedure can be safely practiced, producing acceptable results. It is a retrospective document review of forty two MRCP confirmed type I Choledochal cyst children, admitted and operated at BSMMU Hospital, from January 2013 to December 2017. Patient's particulars, history, physical examination, investigations (including MRCP confirmation), assessment, surgical plan were collected from relevant medical records under standard privacy protocol. Information regarding early post-operative outcome of Hepaticoduodenostomy in treating uncomplicated type I choledochal cyst were searched for review and evaluation, specifically with respect to- a) mortality (if any); b) morbidities like- i) prolonged post-operative abdominal pain, ii) anastomotic bile leak, iii) features of early Cholangitis, iv) wound dehiscence and c) prolonged Hospital stay. There was no immediate post-operative mortality. But 9(21.42%) patients had prolonged post-operative pain requiring parenteral Pethidine 'on demand' beyond second post-operative day, 2(4.76%) had anastomotic bile leak, 7(16.67%) had early cholangitis and 1(2.38%) had abdominal wound dehiscence; they (21.42%) also stayed in hospital for more than fourteen days. The outcome was acceptably safe when compared with other studies abroad. Through this study, at BSMMU Hospital, immediate post-operative outcome of Hepaticoduodenostomy for treating type I choledochal cyst- in terms of morbidity, mortality and hospital stay- was found to be yielding acceptable results, for safe practice.


Assuntos
Ductos Biliares Extra-Hepáticos , Cisto do Colédoco/cirurgia , Laparoscopia , Anastomose em-Y de Roux , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Chem Phys Lipids ; 230: 104916, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407734

RESUMO

The interaction of anionic magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) of size 18 nm with negatively charged giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) formed from a mixture of neutral dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) and negatively charged dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG) lipids has been investigated. It has been obtained that NPs induces the deformation of spherical GUVs. The reaction of other GUVs on NPs consists in the appearance of pores in their membranes. We focused the effect of electrostatics on the interaction of charged membranes with MNPs. To study the influence of the surface charge of GUVs on the processes under consideration, we varied the fraction of DOPG in the vesicles from 0 to 100%. We examined the influence of salt concentration in the range of 50-300 mM NaCl concentration. To describe the degree of deformation, a special parameter compactness was introduced. The pore formation in the membranes of GUVs was investigated by the leakage of sucrose. The compactness increases with time and also NPs concentration. The fraction of deformed GUVs increases with the increase of surface charge density of membranes as well as the decrease of salt concentration in buffer. The value of compactness for neutral membrane is 1.25 times higher than that of charged ones. The fraction of deformed GUVs become constant after 20 min, however it increases with NPs concentration. The time taken for stochastic pore formation is less for charged membrane than neutral one. The physical mechanism explaining the experimental results obtained in these investigations.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/química , Lipossomas Unilamelares/química , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Fosfatidilgliceróis/química , Processos Estocásticos
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