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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238665, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153463

RESUMO

Abstract Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Resumo A região de Malakand é uma área endêmica para leishmaniose cutânea (CL). No entanto, há um número limitado de estudos sobre esta doença no Paquistão. Portanto, foi realizado um estudo para entender o nível de atitude e prática de conscientização entre os residentes de Makaland em relação aos CL e os vetores da doença. Este estudo adotou uma abordagem transversal com um total de 400 entrevistados (n = 93 rural e n = 307 urbano). No geral, a população da região de Malakand (61,2%) estava bem informada sobre o papel da mosca na transmissão de doenças, mas a maioria não possui conhecimento sobre o comportamento do vetor e quase um quarto (24,5%) foi incapaz de fornecer conhecimento sobre medidas de controle adequadas . De maneira alarmante, a prática e as atitudes da população em geral não foram satisfatórias, pois cerca da metade (49,8%) da população adotou algum método de controle. Este estudo apela ao aumento da conscientização por meio de campanhas de educação em saúde para reduzir o risco de surtos de leishmaniose cutânea no futuro.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238735, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153486

RESUMO

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.

3.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238665, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825759

RESUMO

Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Psychodidae , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , População Rural , População Urbana
4.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238665, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787717

RESUMO

Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Psychodidae , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , População Rural , População Urbana
5.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238735, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787718

RESUMO

Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Roedores , Roedores , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Paquistão , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Simbiose
6.
Cells ; 10(2)2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572505

RESUMO

Nogo-A (Rtn 4A), a member of the reticulon 4 (Rtn4) protein family, is a neurite outgrowth inhibitor protein that is primarily expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). However, previous studies revealed that Nogo-A was upregulated in skeletal muscles of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Additionally, experiments showed that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), was upregulated in gastrocnemius muscle of a murine model of ALS. We therefore hypothesized that Nogo-A might relate to skeletal muscle diseases. According to our knocking down and overexpression results in muscle cell line (C2C12), we have found that upregulation of Nogo-A resulted in upregulation of CHOP, pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, while downregulation of Nogo-A led to downregulation of CHOP, IL-6 and TNF-α. Immunofluorescence results showed that Nogo-A and CHOP were expressed by myofibers as well as tissue macrophages. Since resident macrophages share similar functions as bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM), we therefore, isolated macrophages from bone marrow to study the role of Nogo-A in activation of these cells. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BMDM in Nogo-KO mice showed low mRNA expression of CHOP, IL-6 and TNF-α compared to BMDM in wild type (WT) mice. Interestingly, Nogo knockout (KO) BMDM exhibited lower migratory activity and phagocytic ability compared with WT BMDM after LPS treatment. In addition, mice experiments data revealed that upregulation of Nogo-A in notexin- and tunicamycin-treated muscles was associated with upregulation of CHOP, IL-6 and TNF-α in WT group, while in Nogo-KO group resulted in low expression level of CHOP, IL-6 and TNF-α. Furthermore, upregulation of Nogo-A in dystrophin-deficient (mdx) murine model, myopathy and Duchenne muscle dystrophy (DMD) clinical biopsies was associated with upregulation of CHOP, IL-6 and TNF-α. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate Nogo-A as a regulator of inflammation in diseased muscle and bone marrow macrophages and that deletion of Nogo-A alleviates muscle inflammation and it can be utilized as a therapeutic target for improving muscle diseases.

7.
Vet Sci ; 6(4)2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561583

RESUMO

A black bear of 29-year-old (Ursus americanus) died unexpectedly in captivity without any gross lesions or clinical signs. We identified a firm, lobulated, yellowish tan, and well-circumscribed mass embedded inside the testicular tissue at the time of necropsy. The tumor sections exhibited soft necrotic and hemorrhagic areas beneath its capsule. Histologically, the tumor comprised Sertoli cells arranged in tubules and solid sheets supported by prominent fibrous connective tissues. The Sertoli cells were positive for vimentin and ER-ß expression, whereas it showed negative staining for inhibin-α, cytokeratin 19, and S-100. To the best of our knowledge, this is the rare case report of testicular Sertoli cell tumor in black bear.

8.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 38(12): 1344-1365, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514588

RESUMO

Research in the past has indicated associated long-term and low levels of exposure of bisphenol A (BPA) in early life and neuroendocrine disorders, such as obesity, precocious puberty, diabetes, and hypertension. BPA and its analogs bisphenol B (BPB), bisphenol F (BPF), and bisphenol S (BPS) have been reported to have similar or even more toxic effect as compared to BPA. Exposure of rats to BPA and its analogs BPB, BPF, and BPS resulted in decreased sperm production, testosterone secretion, and histological changes in the reproductive tissues of male rats. In the present study, BPA, BPB, BPF, and BPS were administered in drinking water at concentrations of (5, 25, and 50 µg/L) from pregnancy day (PD) 1 to PD 21. Body weight (BW), hormonal concentrations, antioxidant enzymes, and histological changes were determined in the reproductive tissues. BPA and its analogs prenatal exposure to female rats induced significant statistical difference in the antioxidant enzymes, plasma testosterone, and estrogen concentrations in the male offspring when compared with the control. Histological parameters of both testis and epididymis revealed prominent changes in the reproductive tissues. The present study suggests that BPA and its analogs BPB, BPF, and BPS different concentrations led to marked alterations in the development of the male reproductive system.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Troca Materno-Fetal , Fenóis/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Epididimo/efeitos dos fármacos , Epididimo/patologia , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/patologia , Testosterona/metabolismo
9.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 65(4): 1009-1023, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29457368

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Bangladesh, and the implementation of a control programme for this disease is at an early stage, according to the FAO- and OIE-proposed Progressive Control Pathway for FMD (PCP-FMD) Roadmap. To develop an effective control programme, understanding of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes, even subtypes within the serotypes is essential. The present investigation aims at viral VP1 coding region sequence-based analysis of FMD samples collected from 34 FMD outbreaks during 2012-2016 in Bangladesh. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O was responsible for 82% of the outbreaks in Bangladesh, showing its dominance over serotype A and Asia1. The VP1 phylogeny revealed the emergence of two novel sublineages of serotype O, named as Ind2001BD1 and Ind2001BD2, within the Ind2001 lineage along with the circulation of Ind2001d sublineage in Bangladesh, which was further supported by the multidimensional scaling with distinct clusters for each sublineage. The novel sublineages had evident genetic variability with other established sublineages within Ind2001 lineage. Ten mutations with three or more amino acid variations were detected within B-C loop, G-H loop and C-terminal region of the VP1 protein of FMDV serotype O viruses isolated exclusively from Bangladesh. Furthermore, two amino acid substitutions at positions 197 and 198 within the VP1 C-terminal region are unique to the novel sublineages. The existence of widespread genetic variations among circulatory FMDV serotype O viruses makes the FMD control programme complex in Bangladesh. Adequate epidemiological data, disease reporting, animal movement control, appropriate vaccination and above all stringent policies of the government are necessary to combat FMD in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/isolamento & purificação , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Amplificação de Genes , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , RNA Viral/genética , Sorogrupo , Vacinação
10.
Vaccine ; 36(3): 371-380, 2018 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29223485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori, a gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of gastric disorders and gastric cancer in the human stomach. Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) is among the multi-effect protein toxins released by H. pylori that enables its persistence in the human stomach. METHODS: To evaluate the effect of anti-VacA egg yolk immunoglobulin (anti-VacA IgY) on H. pylori infection, a highly specific anti-VacA IgY was produced from egg yolks of hens immunized with a mixture of two purified recombinant VacAs. Female C57BL/6 mice were supplemented anti-VacA IgY daily with drinking water for 2 weeks before and 4 weeks after H. pylori ATCC 43504 inoculation. Anti-VacA IgY recognized both native and denatured structures of VacA by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting analyses, respectively. RESULTS: Oral administration of anti-VacA IgYs significantly (p < .05) reduced the serum levels of anti-H. pylori antibodies compared to those in the H. pylori-infected, untreated group. The reduction in the immune response was accompanied by a significant (p < .05) decrease in eosinophilic infiltration of the stomach in anti-VacA IgY treated group compared to other groups. Concomitantly, H. pylori-induced histological changes and H. pylori antigen-positivity in gastric tissues were decreased significantly (p < .05) in anti-VacA IgY treated group similar to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Oral administration of anti-VacA IgY is correlated with a protective effect against H. pylori colonization and induced histological changes in gastric tissues. Our experimental study has proved that it is expected to be a new drug candidate of Hp infection by further study.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Infecções por Helicobacter/prevenção & controle , Helicobacter pylori/imunologia , Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 21(3): 620-628, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29205898

RESUMO

AIM: The aim was to study whether oral glucosamine hydrochloride (GlcN.HCl) or mucopolysaccharide protein (MucoP) has a structure-modifying effect on an anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) rabbit model of osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: OA was surgically induced in the right knees of rabbits by transection of the ACLT. The left knees served as a sham-operated control. The animals were divided into four groups (n = 6 each): negative control (phosphate buffered saline, orally), positive control (oral celecoxib 10 mg/kg body weight/day), GlcN.HCl (oral 100 mg/kg/day) and MucoP (oral 100 mg/kg/day). Experimental animals were sacrificed after 8 weeks of treatment and the distal femur was removed for macroscopic examination, histological assessment, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay of the OA rabbits. RESULTS: On gross morphology, severe lesions were observed in articular cartilage in the negative control group. In the GlcN.HCl and MucoP treatment groups, fibrillations and cartilaginous lesions were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased compared to the negative control group. In particular, degenerative changes in cartilage and chondrocyte cellularity were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in the positive control (celecoxib) group, GlcN.HCl treatment group and MucoP treatment group compared with the negative control group. TUNEL assay showed that apoptotic chondrocytes were significantly suppressed in the celecoxib group. Similar significant (P < 0.05) results were seen in the GlcN.HCl group and MucoP group but apoptosis of chondrocytes were high in the negative control group. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the protective effects of GlcN.HCl and MucoP may play a useful role in the clinical treatment of OA.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosamina/administração & dosagem , Glicosaminoglicanos/administração & dosagem , Articulações/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cartilagem Articular/diagnóstico por imagem , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Celecoxib/farmacologia , Condrócitos/patologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Membro Posterior , Articulações/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulações/patologia , Osteoartrite/patologia , Coelhos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
In Vivo ; 32(1): 93-99, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29275304

RESUMO

Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) is well known as a free radical scavenger that protects cells against damage from oxidative stress. Herein, we investigated the effects of vitamin C against diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatotoxicity. Male wild-type (C57BL/6) and senescence marker protein-30 (Smp30) knockout (KO) mice were used and divided in the following four groups: WT group (n=15): Wild-type (WT) mice fed vitamin C-free diet with tap water; WV group (n=14): WT mice fed vitamin C-free diet with water supplemented with 1.5 g/kg vitamin C; KT group (n=12): Smp30 KO mice fed vitamin C-free diet with tap water; and KV group (n=13): Smp30 KO mice fed vitamin C-free diet with water supplemented with 1.5 g/kg vitamin C. A single intraperitoneal injection of DEN (5 mg/kg body weight) was injected in the second week during the experimental period. Mice were sacrificed after 17 weeks of treatment to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin C on DEN-induced hepatotoxicity. The results showed that vitamin C significantly increased the mean lifespan (p<0.05) in the WT, WV and KV groups compared with the KT group. The serum concentrations of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase did not significantly differ among groups. The WT group exhibited significantly more acute cellular swelling accompanied by centrilobular necrosis, focal lymphocyte infiltration, and eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies as compared with the WV and KV groups, suggesting that vitamin C had a hepatoprotective effect. Dysplastic, large, and binucleated hepatocytes were also observed in the WT group, but these pathological signs were absent from the WV and KV groups. Our experimental evidence suggests that vitamin C supplementation in Smp30 KO mice was effective for the treatment of DEN-induced hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/deficiência , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/deficiência , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/mortalidade , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dietilnitrosamina/toxicidade , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Taxa de Sobrevida , Vitaminas/farmacologia
13.
In Vivo ; 32(1): 101-108, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29275305

RESUMO

Capsosiphon fulvescens (green seaweed) and Hizikia fusiforme (brown seaweed) are marine algae consumed as food supplements, especially in Japan, China and Korea, and are considered traditional medicinal tonics for certain ailments. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible inhibitory effects of dietary C. fulvescens and H. fusiforme on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colorectal cancer (CRC) in rats. F344 male rats (5 weeks, 150 g) were divided into six groups as follows. Group 1: Injected with normal saline solution and fed control diet (untreated control). Group 2: Injected with AOM and fed control diet (treated control). Group 3: Injected with AOM and fed 1% C. fulvescens diet. Group 4: Injected with AOM and fed 2% C. fulvescens diet. Group 5: Injected with AOM and fed 2% H. fusiforme diet. Group 6: Injected with AOM and fed 6% H. fusiforme diet. Test animals received subcutaneous injections of AOM (15 mg/1 ml/kg body weight) once a week for 2 weeks to induce aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in treated control and experimental groups. We evaluated the effects of dietary C. fulvescens and H. fusiforme at two different dose levels: 1 and 2% C. fulvescens, and 2 and 6% H. fusiforme, on colonic carcinogenesis by AOM in rats. Our results suggest that body weights were not significantly different amongst groups. We found that feeding C. fulvescens and H. fusiforme with a control diet significantly (p<0.05) inhibited the development of ACF in experimental groups. C. fulvescens and H. fusiforme in food also significantly (p<0.05) reduced the proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index in the colonic tissues of experimental groups. These results demonstrate the chemopreventive potential of C. fulvescens and H. fusiforme against CRC in an AOM-induced rats.


Assuntos
Focos de Criptas Aberrantes/prevenção & controle , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Clorófitas/química , Neoplasias do Colo/prevenção & controle , Feófitas/química , Focos de Criptas Aberrantes/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Azoximetano , Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/induzido quimicamente , Suplementos Nutricionais , Masculino , Ratos Endogâmicos F344
14.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 127(1): 41-47, 2017 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29256426

RESUMO

A 5 yr old, 184 kg, and 262 cm total length female bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus was found dead in a display after bloody discharge from the blowhole was observed 3 h prior to death. Pathological examination revealed fibrinous bronchopneumonia with prominent areas of necrosis (sequestra) and numerous Gram-negative bacilli within alveoli and in blood vessels of the lungs and liver and between muscle fibers. The cause of death was attributed to septicemia. Often, cases of fibrinous bronchopneumonia are characterized by bacteremia in the latter stages of infection, resulting in the death of the animal. Septicemia likely accounts for the ecchymoses and petechiae noted on the spleen, pancreas, forestomach, lungs, visceral peritoneum, and small intestine. Additional lesions included hemothorax, stable red frothy fluid in the trachea, and lymphoid depletion in the spleen and lymph nodes. Pure growth of Morganella morganii was isolated from the lungs, blood, liver, and blowhole mucosa. Sequencing of 16s rRNA of the isolated bacteria showed more than 99.6% identity with M. morganii strain FDAARGOS_172. To our knowledge, this is the first report of fatal fibrinonecrotizing bronchopneumonia associated with M. morganii infection in a cetacean.


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Broncopneumonia/veterinária , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Morganella morganii/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Broncopneumonia/microbiologia , Broncopneumonia/patologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/patologia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino
16.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 60(2): 168-173, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25370946

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes O, A and Asia1 are responsible for significant number of disease outbreaks in Bangladesh; however serotype Asia1 has not been reported in circulation since 1996. The present investigation reports the detection of serotype FMDV Asia1 from local farms in 2012 and 2013 outbreaks. The farms were located in Jessore and Gazipur districts, and one of these farms was under vaccine control programme. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete VP1 gene revealed that FMDV Asia1 is under genetic lineage C having close similarity to the Asia1 sequences of Indian origin. The circulatory genotype Asia1 showed VP1 protein sequence heterogeneity of eight amino acid substitutions within the G-H loop with the vaccine strain [IND 63/72 (AY304994)] used in vaccination programme. ELISA assay revealed that, of seven, only one local field serum sample (cattle vaccinated 38 days earlier) was positive at a titre level of >2.4 (log10) but failed to protect the cattle from infection occurred by the virus. This investigation focused that the eight amino acid substitution in VP1 protein at G-H loop of the locally circulated FMDV serotype Asia1 strain may be a reason for current vaccination failure.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Vacinas Virais , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/classificação , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica , Sorogrupo
17.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 14: 346, 2014 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25242194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study was aimed to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of the Curcuma zedoaria (family Zingiberaceae) ethanolic rhizome extract in laboratory using both in vitro and in vivo methods so as to justify its traditional use in the above mentioned pathological conditions. METHODS: Phytochemical screening was done to find the presence of various secondary metabolites of the plant. In vivo antinociceptive activity was performed employing the hot plate method, acidic acid induced writhing test and formalin induced writhing test on Swiss albino mice at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. Anti-inflammatory activity test was done on Long Evans rats at two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) by using carrageenan induced paw edema test. Finally in vitro anti-inflammatory test by protein-denaturation method was followed. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Dunnett's t-test was used as the test of significance. P value <0.05 was considered as the minimum level of significance. RESULTS: Phytochemical screening revealed presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, gums & carbohydrates, steroids, alkaloids, reducing sugars and terpenoids in the extract. In the hot plate method, the extract increased the reaction time of heat sensation significantly to 61.99% and 78.22% at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg BW respectively. In acetic acid induced writhing test, the percent inhibition of writhing response by the extract was 48.28% and 54.02% at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses respectively (p < 0.001). The extract also significantly inhibited the licking response in both the early phase (64.49%, p < 0.01) and the late phase (62.37%, p < 0.01) in formalin induced writhing test. The extract significantly (p < 0.05, p < 0.01 and p < 0.001) inhibited carrageenan induced inflammatory response in rats in a dose related manner. In in-vitro anti-inflammatory test, the extract significantly inhibited protein denaturation of 77.15, 64.43, 53.04, 36.78 and 23.70% for doses of 500, 400, 300, 200 and 100 µg/mL respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained from the tests indicate that the plant might have one or more secondary metabolite(s) having central and peripheral analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Curcuma/química , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Rizoma/química
18.
Genet Mol Res ; 12(4): 5283-8, 2013 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24301789

RESUMO

Farmers in northern parts of Pakistan face severe shortage of green forage for their livestock during the harsh winter season. Winter wheat has the potential to be used as a dual-purpose crop for forage plus grain production in these areas. Ten elite winter wheat lines from Oklahoma State University were evaluated at Hazara Research Station Abbottabad under unclipped and clipped treatment level during 2005-06. The material was planted in a randomized complete block design with three replications, with a row length of four meters and a row to row space of 25 cm. Data were recorded on green forage yield, plant height, spike length, spikelets/spike, days to maturity, spike weight, biological weight, and grain yield. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences among genotypes for all traits except spike length. Similarly all traits except spikelets/spike exhibited significant differences between unclipped and clipped treatment levels. Genotype x clipping interaction was non-significant for all traits except grain yield. Overall, winter wheat lines OK98G508W and OK00611W performed better for important traits such as early maturity, biological yield and grain yield, although over-environment testing is needed before recommendations can be made to the farmers.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Estações do Ano , Triticum/fisiologia , Grão Comestível
19.
Genet Mol Res ; 12(2): 1872-81, 2013 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23359057

RESUMO

This research was carried out at the Agriculture Research Farm, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, and the Cereal Crops Research Institute, Pirsabak, Nowshera, during 2009 and 2010. Half-sib families (HS) derived from the maize variety Pahari in spring crop seasons 2009 and 2010 were developed at the Cereal Crops Research Institute. All HS families were detasseled well before pollen shedding. At maturity, each family was harvested and shelled separately. During the summer crop of seasons 2009 and 2010, these HS families were evaluated in 12 x 12 and 11 x 11 partially balanced lattice square arrangements at the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, for various flowering and yield traits, respectively. The data on days to mid-silking, anthesis, anthesis-silking interval, 100-grain weight, and grain yield were recorded. The results revealed significant differences among families for all traits in both cycles. High heritability (0.88) was observed for days to mid-silking in cycle 0 (C0), while moderate heritability (0.42) was recorded for 100-grain weight in C1. The selection differential was quite reasonable and varied according to the traits of interest. The observed response for grain yield in C0 (815.74 kg/ha) was greater than the expected response (681.76 kg/ha).


Assuntos
Padrões de Herança/genética , Seleção Genética , Zea mays/genética , Análise de Variância , Biomassa , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Flores/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 25(2): 144-7, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21783850

RESUMO

The dechlorination of PCB, specifically the noncoplanar congener PCB 153, has been observed in the presence of a crude nitrate reductase extract from Medicago sativa leaves. These observations were further confirmed using a commercially available and pure nitrate reductase from Zea mays. The presence of nitrate reductase increased PCB 153 dechlorination. Then, the addition of molybdenum, the enzyme's cofactor, enhanced dechlorination of the environmental contaminant. The ability of plant nitrate reductase to dechlorinate PCB is a new observation.

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