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1.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 29(4): 2402-2408, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531154

RESUMO

In Pakistan and all over the world, the Peach Fruit Fly (PFF), Bactrocera zonata (Saunders.) and the Melon Fruit Fly (MFF), Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett.) are considered severe and polyphagous insect pests for various fruits and vegetables. The current study was conducted to check the Laboratory preference and performance of B. cucurbitae and B. zonata on selected Fruits Citrus (Citrus sinensis), Apple (Malus domestica), Banana (Musa acuminate), and vegetable, Sponge gourd (luffa aegyptiaca), Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) under laboratory conditions. The study showed that Sponge Gourd was the preferable host with the mean pupae resurgence of (242.33), followed by Bitter Gourd (78.333) among selected vegetables. At the same time, among fruits, a banana was the preferable host with mean pupae resurgence (204.33), followed by orange (158.33). The pumpkin and apple was the least preferable host for both B. cucurbitae and B. zonata, with mean pupae resurgence (35.667) and (79.000), respectively. Furthermore, the study showed that Banana was the preferable host for B. Zonata among intact and infested fruits, whereas B. cucurbitaee showed the most preference to Bitter gourd among intact and infested vegetables showing significantly different results among intact and infested fruits and vegetables. Maximum number of eggs, pupa, female flies, male flies, adult emergence from pupa (flies) and period of pupa of B. zonata and B. cucurbitae on banana and bitter gourd. While, other fruits and vegetables showed the minimum number of eggs, pupa, female flies, male flies, adult emergence from pupa (flies) and period of the pupa. The current study concluded there is a need to evaluate other host plants against these fruit fly species for effective control.

2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 209(Pt A): 59-69, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364204

RESUMO

In the study, fabrication of Arabic gum (AG) hydrogels via reverse micellization method is reported. AG hydrogels were utilized as capping agents to encapsulate zinc sulphide (ZnS), and cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles via in-situ reduction. Pristine and nanocomposite hydrogels (AG-ZnS and AG-CdS) were characterized through SEM, EDX, TEM, XRD, FTIR, TGA, UV/Visible, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The hydrogels were subjected to multiple biological assays including antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-diabetic formulation, in addition to biocompatibility test. The hydrogels were found to be more effective against bacterial and fungal strains. For instance, AG-ZnS exhibited excellent growth inhibition activity against Escherichia coli (ZoI: 12 ± 1.04 mm) and Candida albicans (35 ± 0.94 mm). Likewise, the nanocomposites hydrogel also displayed excellent DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging capacity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and total reducing power (TRP) ability. Among the hydrogels, AG-ZnS demonstrated considerable α-amylase, and α-glucosidase inhibition potential. Above all, the hydrogels were found highly compatible with human red blood cells (hRBCs). Owing to remarkable antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, and bio-compatible nature, the fabricated nanocomposites hydrogels have the potential to be explored in tissue engineering, wound healing, drug delivery, and in environmentally friendly hygiene products.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanocompostos , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanocompostos/química , Nanogéis , Prata/química
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(7)2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408106

RESUMO

A 32-bit chipless RFID tag operating in the 4.5-10.9 GHz band is presented in this paper. The tag has a unique multiple-arc-type shape consisting of closely packed 0.2 mm wide arcs of different radii and lengths. The specific tag geometry provides multiple resonances in frequency domain of an RCS plot. A frequency domain coding technique has also been proposed to encode the tag's RCS signature into a 32-bit digital identification code. The tag has an overall dimension of 17.9 × 17.9 mm2, resulting in a high code density of 9.98 bits/cm2 and spectral efficiency of 5 bits/GHz. The proposed tag is built on a low loss substrate bearing a very small footprint, thereby making it extremely suitable for large-scale product identification purposes in future chipless RFID tag systems.


Assuntos
Dispositivo de Identificação por Radiofrequência , Dispositivo de Identificação por Radiofrequência/métodos
4.
Plants (Basel) ; 11(6)2022 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35336672

RESUMO

Drought stress restricts the growth of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) primarily by disrupting its physiological and biochemical functions. This study evaluated the role of Ascophyllum nodosum extract (ANE) in improving the drought tolerance of okra. Drought stress (3 days (control), 6 days (mild stress), and 9 days (severe stress)) and 4 doses of ANE (0, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3%) were imposed after 30 days of cultivation. The results indicate that drought stress decreases the chlorophyll content (total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid) but increases the activity of anthocyanin, proline, and antioxidant enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT). Physiological and biochemical plant disturbances and visible growth reduction in okra under drought stress were significantly decreased by the application of ANE foliar spray. ANE spray (0.3%) significantly increased the chlorophyll abundance and activity of anthocyanin, proline, and antioxidants (APX, POD, and CAT). ANE regulated and improved biochemical and physiological functions in okra under both drought and control conditions. The results of the current study show that ANE foliar spray may improve the growth performance of okra and result in the development of drought tolerance in okra.

5.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(6): 3023-3038, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35146633

RESUMO

The level of heavy metals in vegetables grown in soil irrigated with various sources of water and the health risks associated with the consumption of these vegetables were assessed in this study. Samples of water, soil, and vegetables were collected from farmer fields. After digestion in acidic solution, analytical measurements were made using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean concentration of Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe, and Mn in the soil of two sampling area were in the range from 60.00 to 84.00 mg kg-1, 68.00 to 98.00 mg kg-1, 1.60 to 2.60 mg kg-1, 26.10 to 33.20 mg kg-1, 22.60 to 30.80 mg kg-1, 50.10 to 78.30 mg kg-1, 420.00 to 471.00 mg kg-1, and 270.20 to 340.50 mg kg-1, respectively. Heavy metals in soil varied significantly at (P ≤ 0.001) among sampling area. The nine heavy metals were divided into two clusters for wastewater and soil, according to cluster analysis. The number of variables was reduced using principal component analysis, which yielded three latent factors, one for wastewater and one for soil. Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe, and Mn concentrations were significantly higher at P ≤ 0.001 in nine vegetables grown on soil irrigated with untreated wastewater than in vegetables grown on fresh-tube well-water-irrigated soil. The health risks associated with metal intake were assessed using the estimated daily intake of metals (EDIM), hazard quotients (HQs), and hazard index (HI). The rates of metal transfer to vegetables have been determined. Except for Pb and Cd, all of the elements' EDMI values were found to be lower than their RfD values. The corresponding HRI values of metals in the various vegetables were found to be below 1, implying that vegetable consumption in the studied region poses no carcinogenic risk. Constant determination of heavy metals in all fruits and vegetables is essential for the assessment of health risks associated with dietary metal exposure. The study has provided valuable information to the general public about the use of wastewater for irrigation of vegetables.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Chumbo/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Paquistão , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras , Águas Residuárias/análise , Água/análise
6.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(11): 6209-6217, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759741

RESUMO

Avoidable or inappropriate nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates harmfully affect the yield production and ecological value. Therefore, the aims of this study were to optimize the rate and timings of N fertilizer to maximize yield components and photosynthetic parameter of soybean. This field experiment consists of five fertilizer N rates: 0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 kg N ha-1 arranged in main plots and four N fertilization timings: V5 (trifoliate leaf), R2 (full flowering stage) and R4 (full poding stage), and R6 (full seeding stage) growth stages organized as subplots. Results revealed that 225 kg N ha-1 significantly enhanced grain yield components, total chlorophyll (Chl), photosynthetic rate (P N), and total dry biomass and N accumulation by 20%, 16%, 28%, 7% and 12% at R4 stage of soybean. However, stomatal conductance (g s ), leaf area index (LAI), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and transpiration rate (E) were increased by 12%, 88%, 10%, 18% at R6 stage under 225 kg N ha-1. Grain yield was significantly associated with photosynthetic characteristics of soybean. In conclusion, the amount of nitrogen 225 kg ha-1 at R4 and R6 stages effectively promoted the yield components and photosynthetic characteristics of soybean.

7.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(9): 4852-4858, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466058

RESUMO

Nitrogen fertilizer is one of the key elements to increase the yield and significance of winter wheat. The experiment was established in the split zone design and was repeated three times. The nitrogen application level is set to 4 treatments, 75, 150, 225 and 300 kg ha-1 are arranged in the main plot, and different nitrogen application ratios are arranged in the sub-plots, respectively 5:5 (50%+50%) and 6: 4 (60%) + 40%). Nitrogen fertilizer was applied before sowing, jointing stage, flowering stage and filling stage. The experimental plot is 12 m2 (3 m × 4 m). The results showed that under the conditions of 225 kg/hm2 nitrogen application and 60%+40% nitrogen application rate, the yield of Jintai 182 was the highest compared with other treatment groups. With the increase of nitrogen application rate, the number of ears, grains per ear, thousand-grain weight and grain yield all increase first and then decrease. Each factor reached the highest 225 N kg / hm2, 417.17, 30.74, 40.96 g and 6182.11 kg / hm2. Compared with 75 kg/hm2 topdressing fertilizer, 225 kg/hm2 is a more suitable nitrogen fertilizer application rate for winter wheat. Within a reasonable range of nitrogen fertilizer application, there is a significant positive correlation between nitrogen content and winter wheat yield. By studying the amount of nitrogen fertilizer and a reasonable ratio of base fertilizer to topdressing, the utilization rate of nitrogen fertilizer can be maximized and excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer can be avoided.

8.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(6): 3186-3192, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121854

RESUMO

The dusky cotton bug (Oxycarenus laetus, KIRBY) a pest of several crops. The effects of winter and summer on the biology and morphology was investigated. The sampled eggs of dusky cotton bug (DCB) were kept under controlled environment for biological and morphological investigations. In winter, the mating duration of DCB was observed longer significantly (74.2 days), egg development period (3.93 days), an egg laying period (3.6 days) and hatching period (6.66 days) noted longer in winter season. Interestingly, average number of hatched egg (16.8 days) observed significantly higher in summer and the percentage of the hatching of eggs (81.95%) were also observed higher in summer as compare to winter. Whereas, the longevity of all nymph stages in winter longer days as compare to summer nymph stages. Moreover, differences were also observed between male and female development days between winter and summer. In the winter, female DCB development was suggestively higher as compare to summer (24 days). Whereas, the developmental days were noted considerably more in winter for males as compare to summer (14.93 days). On other hand, for morphological parameters, no differences were observed between winter and summer population of DCB.

9.
Cureus ; 13(3): e14098, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907642

RESUMO

Introduction Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is the most effective coronary revascularization procedure, and it has been endorsed by many trials and studies over the years. However, due to CABG's immediate adverse effects, patients tend to prefer percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for coronary revascularization over it. This article focuses on the recent downtrend in CABG procedures for revascularization among patients for whom it is indicated. This study's main objective was to identify the factors responsible for the downtrend in patients undergoing CABG despite a clear indication for it in those with multivessel diseases. Methods This study was conducted at the Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan, from August 1, 2020, to January 1, 2021. A total of 340 patients with a class-I indication (presence of conditions regarding which there is evidence and/or general agreement that a given procedure or treatment is beneficial, useful, and effective) for CABG were enrolled in the study. Data related to all the variables were collected from patients and hospital records through an adequately designed proforma. For analysis, we applied the chi-square test to elaborate on the data for information and point biserial correlation to rule out the effect of age and weight on CABG's downward trend. Results The mean age of the patients was 58.77 ± 9.54 years; 65.88% were male, and 34.12% were female. Only 17.65% of the patients underwent CABG; 71.47% opted for medical treatment, and 9.41% underwent PCI. Out of the 280 patients who did not undergo CABG, 26.76% had financial issues; 23.82% were high-risk patients and hence refused surgeries by the surgeons; 20.59% of patients were not willing to undergo surgery; 7.94% were on the waiting list, and 3.24% had deranged renal function tests (RFTs). Conclusions A limited number of patients underwent revascularization therapy even though they had clear indications for CABG. The high-risk status of patients, patients' unwillingness, and the cost of the procedure were the primary reasons behind the downtrend in CABG procedures among patients with a clear indication for the same.

10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 173: 267-276, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454331

RESUMO

In current study, α-amylase of fungal origin was immobilized using cross-linking strategy. The influence of precipitant (ammonium sulphate) and cross-linker (glutaraldehyde) concentration revealed that 60% (w/v) precipitant and 1.5% (v/v) cross-linker saturation was required to attain optimum activity. Cross-linked amylase aggregates (CLAAs) were characterized and 10-degree shift in optimum temperature (soluble enzyme: 50 °C; cross-linked: 60 °C) and 1-unit shift in pH (soluble enzyme: pH -6; cross-linked: pH -7) was observed after immobilization. The Vmax for soluble α-amylase and its cross-linked form was 1225 U ml-1 and 3629 U ml-1, respectively. The CLAAs was more thermostable than its soluble form and retained its 30% activity even after 60 min of incubation at 70 °C. Moreover, cross-linked amylase retained its activity after two months while its soluble counterpart lost its complete activity after 10 and 20 days at 30 °C and 4 °C storage, respectively. Reusability test showed that cross-linked amylase could retain 13% of its residual activity after 10 repeated cycles. Therefore, 10 times more glucose was produced after cross-linking than soluble amylase when it was utilized multiple times. This study indicates that amylase aggregates are highly effective for continuous liquefaction of starch, hence have strong potential to be used for different industrial processes.


Assuntos
Amido/química , alfa-Amilases/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Sulfato de Amônio/química , Reagentes de Ligações Cruzadas/química , Estabilidade Enzimática , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Glutaral/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Agregados Proteicos , Temperatura
11.
Insects ; 11(11)2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167530

RESUMO

Peroxiredoxins (Prxs), which scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), are cysteine-dependent peroxide reductases that group into six structurally discernable classes: AhpC-Prx1, BCP-PrxQ, Prx5, Prx6, Tpx, and AhpE. A previous study showed that forkhead box protein O (FOXO) in the insulin signaling pathway (ISP) plays a vital role in regulating locust diapause by phosphorylation, which can be promoted by the high level of ROS. Furthermore, the analysis of transcriptome between diapause and non-diapause phenotypes showed that one of the Prxs, LmPrx6, which belongs to the Prx6 class, was involved. We presumed that LmPrx6 might play a critical role in diapause induction of Locusta migratoria and LmPrx6 may therefore provide a useful target of control methods based on RNA interference (RNAi). To verify our hypothesis, LmPrx6 was initially cloned from L. migratoria to make dsLmPrx6 and four important targets were tested, including protein-tyrosine phosphorylase 1B (LmPTP1B), insulin receptor (LmIR), RAC serine/threonine-protein kinase (LmAKT), and LmFOXO in ISP. When LmPrx6 was knocked down, the diapause rate was significantly reduced. The phosphorylation level of LmPTP1B significantly decreased while the phosphorylation levels of LmIR, LmAKT, and LmFOXO were significantly increased. Moreover, we identified the effect on two categories of genes downstream of LmFOXO, including stress tolerance and storage of energy reserves. Results showed that the mRNA levels of catalase and Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), which enhanced stress tolerance, were significantly downregulated after silencing of LmPrx6. The mRNA levels of glycogen synthase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxy kinase (PEPCK) that influence energy storage were also downregulated after knocking down of LmPrx6. The silencing of LmPrx6 indicates that this regulatory protein may probably be an ideal target for RNAi-based diapause control of L. migratoria.

12.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 167, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that soyasaponins may reduce inflammation via modulating toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) signaling. However, its underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. METHODS: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged inflamed male ICR mice were intervened by intragastrical administration with 10 and 20 µmol/kg·BW of soyasaponin A1, A2 or I for 8 weeks. The serum inflammatory markers were determined by commercial kits and the expression of molecules in TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway in liver by real-time PCR and western blotting. The recruitments of TLR4 and MyD88 into lipid rafts of live tissue lysates were detected by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation and western blotting. LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with 10, 20 and 40 µmol/L of soyasaponin A1, A2 or I for 2 h. MyD88-overexpressed HEK293T cells were treated with 20 and 40 µmol/L of soyasaponins (A1, A2 or I) or 20 µmol/L of ST2825 (a MyD88 inhibitor) for 6 h. The expression of molecules in TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway were determined by western blotting. Data were analyzed by using one way analysis of variance or t-test by SPSS 20.0 statistical software. RESULTS: Soyasaponins A1, A2 or I significantly reduced the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-6 and nitric oxide (NO) in serum (p < 0.05), and decreased the mRNA levels of TNFα, IL-6, IL-1ß, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (p < 0.05), the protein levels of myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2), TLR4, MyD88, toll-interleukin1 receptor domain containing adaptor protein (TIRAP), phosphorylated interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (p-IRAK-4), phosphorylated interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (p-IRAK-1) and TNF receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) (p < 0.05), and the recruitments of TLR4 and MyD88 into lipid rafts in liver (p < 0.05). In LPS-stimulated macrophages, soyasaponins A2 or I significantly decreased MyD88 (p < 0.05), soyasaponins A1, A2 or I reduced p-IRAK-4 and p-IRAK-1 (p < 0.05), and soyasaponin I decreased TRAF6 (p < 0.05). In MyD88-overexpressed HEK293T cells, soyasaponins (A1, A2 or I) and ST2825 significantly decreased MyD88 and TRAF6 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Soyasaponins can reduce inflammation by downregulating MyD88 expression and suppressing the recruitments of TLR4 and MyD88 into lipid rafts. This study provides novel understanding about the anti-inflammatory mechanism of soyasaponins.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Saponinas/farmacologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia
13.
3 Biotech ; 10(4): 188, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32257744

RESUMO

The study aims to determine the timing of application for high efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae as a biocontrol agent. A field experiment was undertaken with M. anisopliae applied to the soil at five intervals during the peanut crop lifecycle, at seed germination (day 0) through to pod filling period [75 days after sowing (DAS)], and assessed the change of M. anisopliae density by sampling rhizospheric soil, subsequently at regular intervals and testing counts (CFU/g dry soil) through to harvest. The crop was sown into soil with an established white grub population, with larval density determined at harvest when the trial was concluded. Applications at 0, 15 and 30 days in the crop growth cycle, saw M. anisopliae mean propagule counts drop significantly after 15 days before increasing over the following 15-45 days. We observed an elevated mean increase in counts 30-45 days after application at the early flowering stage (30 DAS). Irrespective of application timing, in general, M. anisopliae densities declined to less than the initial 10% in the late stages of peanut development. At harvest, larval densities in all M. anisopliae treatments were significantly less compared to the control, with the highest mortality (72%) in M. anisopliae treatment applied at early flowering (30 DAS). Relationship analysis showed that white grub density was significantly related to peanut yield. A regression of yield on number of damaged pods also supported that treatment at the early flowering caused the highest impact in terms of reducing damage to pods and improving yield. These results suggest that applying M. anisopliae at the early flowering stage optimizes survival of M. anisopliae in the soil profile, meaning greater probability of larvae contacting the pathogen, leading to greater mortality.

14.
J Environ Manage ; 262: 110318, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250801

RESUMO

Groundwater with an excessive level of Arsenic (As) is a threat to human health. In Bangladesh, out of 64 districts, the groundwater of 50 and 59 districts contains As exceeding the Bangladesh (50 µg/L) and WHO (10 µg/L) standards for potable water. This review focuses on the occurrence, origin, plausible sources, and mobilization mechanisms of As in the groundwater of Bangladesh to better understand its environmental as well as public health consequences. High As concentrations mainly was mainly occur from the natural origin of the Himalayan orogenic tract. Consequently, sedimentary processes transport the As-loaded sediments from the orogenic tract to the marginal foreland of Bangladesh, and under the favorable biogeochemical circumstances, As is discharged from the sediment to the groundwater. Rock weathering, regular floods, volcanic movement, deposition of hydrochemical ore, and leaching of geological formations in the Himalayan range cause As occurrence in the groundwater of Bangladesh. Redox and desorption processes along with microbe-related reduction are the key geochemical processes for As enrichment. Under reducing conditions, both reductive dissolution of Fe-oxides and desorption of As are the root causes of As mobilization. A medium alkaline and reductive environment, resulting from biochemical reactions, is the major factor mobilizing As in groundwater. An elevated pH value along with decoupling of As and HCO3- plays a vital role in mobilizing As. The As mobilization process is related to the reductive solution of metal oxides as well as hydroxides that exists in sporadic sediments in Bangladesh. Other mechanisms, such as pyrite oxidation, redox cycling, and competitive ion exchange processes, are also postulated as probable mechanisms of As mobilization. The reductive dissolution of MnOOH adds dissolved As and redox-sensitive components such as SO42- and oxidized pyrite, which act as the major mechanisms to mobilize As. The reductive suspension of Mn(IV)-oxyhydroxides has also accelerated the As mobilization process in the groundwater of Bangladesh. Infiltration from the irrigation return flow and surface-wash water are also potential factors to remobilize As. Over-exploitation of groundwater and the competitive ion exchange process are also responsible for releasing As into the aquifers of Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Bangladesh , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos
15.
Cureus ; 12(3): e7354, 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328366

RESUMO

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is chronic inflammation of hepatocytes due to immune cells attacking the patient's own hepatocytes, histologically characterized by interface hepatitis. The disease can be serious, and if left untreated, it can lead to cirrhosis of the liver and eventual liver failure. It occurs more frequently in females. The standard treatment for AIH includes corticosteroids. There are two main treatment regimens, which include either prednisolone alone or prednisone and azathioprine. Although, liver transplantation is certainly the treatment of choice, it has not yet been established on a large scale worldwide. We present here the case of a 22-year-old male, with autoimmune hepatitis and unspecified vasculitis.

16.
3 Biotech ; 10(3): 124, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140376

RESUMO

We detected and compared the mRNA and protein expression levels of immunity-associated and symbiosis-associated genes in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) roots inoculated with entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae or the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum, by RT-qPCR and parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). The selected genes were mainly associated with plant-fungus interactions, signal transduction, regulation of cell death, nitrogen or iron metabolism, nutrient acquisition or transport, and compound synthesis based on previous transcriptome analysis. The results showed that the host basal defense responses were significantly inhibited by both M. anisopliae and F. oxysporum, which suggests that both fungi actively suppress the host immunity for successful colonization and infection. However, only F. oxysporum induced a strong host hypersensitivity, which indicates that the host is strongly resisting F. oxysporum but potentially allowing M. anisopliae. Additionally, the genes (SYMRK, CaM, CCaMK, FRI2, ABCC2, F6H1, SCT, NRT24 and LTP1) related to symbiosis and growth were distinctively observed with an up-regulated expression following M. anisopliae treatment, which implies that the host was actively initiating the establishment of symbiosis with the fungus. This study revealed a synergistic relationship between host immunosuppression and the promotion of symbiosis during interactions with M. anisopliae. It suggested that M. anisopliae benefited plant for symbiotic relationship, in addition to controlling herbivorous insects as an entomopathogen.

17.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174952

RESUMO

Extreme environmental conditions seriously affect crop growth and development, resulting in substantial reduction in yield and quality. However, chitin-binding proteins (CBP) family member CaChiVI2 plays a crucial role in eliminating the impact of adverse environmental conditions, such as cold and salt stress. Here, for the first time it was discovered that CaChiVI2 (Capana08g001237) gene of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) had a role in resistance to heat stress and physiological processes. The full-length open-reading frame (ORF) of CaChiVI2 (606-bp, encoding 201-amino acids), was cloned into TRV2:CaChiVI2 vector for silencing. The CaChiVI2 gene carries heat shock elements (HSE, AAAAAATTTC) in the upstream region, and thereby shows sensitivity to heat stress at the transcriptional level. The silencing effect of CaChiVI2 in pepper resulted in increased susceptibility to heat and Phytophthora capsici infection. This was evident from the severe symptoms on leaves, the increase in superoxide (O2 -) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation, higher malondialdehyde (MDA), relative electrolyte leakage (REL) and lower proline contents compared with control plants. Furthermore, the transcript level of other resistance responsive genes was also altered. In addition, the CaChiIV2-overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana showed mild heat and drought stress symptoms and increased transcript level of a defense-related gene (AtHSA32), indicating its role in the co-regulation network of the plant. The CaChiVI2-overexpressed plants also showed a decrease in MDA contents and an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity and proline accumulation. In conclusion, the results suggest that CaChiVI2 gene plays a decisive role in heat and drought stress tolerance, as well as, provides resistance against P. capsici by reducing the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and modulating the expression of defense-related genes. The outcomes obtained here suggest that further studies should be conducted on plants adaptation mechanisms in variable environments.

18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 154: 683-697, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194112

RESUMO

Chitosan has been termed as the most well-known among biopolymers, receiving widespread attention from researchers in various fields mainly, agriculture, food, and health. Chitosan is a deacetylated derivative of chitin, mainly isolated from waste shells of the phylum Arthropoda after their consumption as food. Chitosan molecules can be easily modified for adsorption and slow release of plant growth regulators, herbicides, pesticides, and fertilizers, etc. Chitosan as a carrier and control release matrix that offers many benefits including; protection of biomolecules from harsh environmental conditions such as pH, light, temperatures and prolonged release of active ingredients from its matrix consequently protecting the plant's cells from the hazardous effects of burst release. In the current review, tends to discuss the recent advances in the area of chitosan application as a control release system. Also, future recommendations will be made in light of current advancements and major gaps.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Quitosana/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Controle de Pragas , Agroquímicos , Plantas
19.
Insects ; 11(3)2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164277

RESUMO

We analyzed the transcriptomes of Romalea microptera grasshoppers after 8 years of artificial selection for either long or short thoraces. Evolution proceeded rapidly during the experiment, with a 13.3% increase and a 32.2% decrease in mean pronotum lengths (sexes combined) in the up- and down-selected colonies, respectively, after only 11 generations. At least 16 additional traits also diverged between the two colonies during the selection experiment. Transcriptomic analysis identified 693 differentially expressed genes, with 386 upregulated and 307 downregulated (55.7% vs. 44.3%), including cellular process, metabolic process, binding, general function prediction only, and signal transduction mechanisms. Many of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are known to influence animal body size.

20.
FEBS Open Bio ; 10(5): 707-717, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107869

RESUMO

Diapause is a state of arrested growth, which allows insects to adapt to diverse environments. Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) play an important role in various physiological processes, including blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, development, complement activation and extracellular matrix remodeling. We hypothesized that serpin may affect energy metabolism and thereby control diapause of migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) embryos by regulating protease cascades. A total of seven nonredundant serpin genes (named serpin1-serpin7) of L. migratoria were obtained through transcriptomic analysis. We further performed label-free proteomic sequencing and analysis of diapause and nondiapause eggs of L. migratoria, revealing significant differences in serpin7 expression. A significant reduction in diapause rate under the short photoperiod was observed in insects treated with serpin7 double-stranded RNA. Furthermore, knockdown of the serpin7 gene resulted in significant upregulation of the activity of polyphenol oxidase. We therefore propose that the observed serpin7 gene plays a crucial role in diapause, suggesting that control of energy metabolism may have potential as a future strategy for the reproductive control of insect pests.


Assuntos
Diapausa/fisiologia , Óvulo/metabolismo , Serpinas/metabolismo , Animais , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Locusta migratoria/metabolismo , Locusta migratoria/fisiologia , Proteômica/métodos , Reprodução/fisiologia , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/metabolismo , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/fisiologia , Serpinas/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/genética
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