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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250373, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339376

RESUMO

Abstract Honey is a suitable matrix for the evaluation of environmental contaminants including organochlorine insecticides. The present study was conducted to evaluate residues of fifteen organochlorine insecticides in honey samples of unifloral and multifloral origins from Dir, Pakistan. Honey samples (5 g each) were extracted with GC grade organic solvents and then subjected to Rotary Evaporator till dryness. The extracts were then mixed with n-Hexane (5 ml) and purified through Column Chromatography. Purified extracts (1μl each) were processed through Gas Chromatograph coupled with Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) for identification and quantification of the insecticides. Of the 15 insecticides tested, 46.7% were detected while 53.3% were not detected in the honey samples. Heptachlor was the most prevalent insecticide with a mean level of 0.0018 mg/kg detected in 80% of the samples followed by β-HCH with a mean level of 0.0016 mg/kg detected in 71.4% of the honey samples. Honey samples from Acacia modesta Wall. were 100% positive for Heptachlor with a mean level of 0.0048 mg/kg followed by β-HCH with a mean level of 0.003 mg/kg and frequency of 83.3%. Minimum levels of the tested insecticides were detected in the unifloral honey from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Methoxychlor, Endosulfan, Endrin and metabolites of DDT were not detected in the studied honey samples. Some of the tested insecticides are banned in Pakistan but are still detected in honey samples indicating their use in the study area. The detected levels of all insecticides were below the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) and safe for consumers. However, the levels detected can cause mortality in insect fauna. The use of banned insecticides is one of the main factors responsible for the declining populations of important insect pollinators including honeybees.


Resumo O mel é uma matriz adequada para a avaliação de contaminantes ambientais, incluindo inseticidas organoclorados. O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar resíduos de 15 inseticidas organoclorados em amostras de mel de origem unifloral e multifloral de Dir, Paquistão. Amostras de mel (5 g cada) foram extraídas com solventes orgânicos de grau GC e, em seguida, submetidas ao evaporador rotativo até a secura. Os extratos foram então misturados com n-hexano (5 ml) e purificados por cromatografia em coluna. Os extratos purificados (1μl cada) foram processados através de cromatógrafo gasoso acoplado a detector de captura de elétrons (GC-ECD) para identificação e quantificação dos inseticidas. Dos 15 inseticidas testados, 46,7% foram detectados enquanto 53,3% não foram detectados nas amostras de mel. O heptacloro foi o inseticida mais prevalente com um nível médio de 0,0018 mg / kg detectado em 80% das amostras, seguido por β-HCH com um nível médio de 0,0016 mg / kg detectado em 71,4% das amostras de mel. Amostras de mel da parede de Acacia modesta foram 100% positivos para heptacloro com um nível médio de 0,0048 mg / kg seguido por β-HCH com um nível médio de 0,003 mg / kg e frequência de 83,3%. Níveis mínimos dos inseticidas testados foram detectados no mel unifloral de Ziziphus jujuba da usina. Metoxicloro, Endosulfan, Endrin e metabólitos do DDT não foram detectados nas amostras de mel estudadas. Alguns dos inseticidas testados são proibidos no Paquistão, mas ainda são detectados em amostras de mel, indicando seu uso na área de estudo. Os níveis detectados de todos os inseticidas estavam abaixo dos Níveis Máximos de Resíduos (MRLs) e seguros para os consumidores. No entanto, os níveis detectados podem causar mortalidade na fauna de insetos. O uso de inseticidas proibidos é um dos principais fatores responsáveis pelo declínio das populações de importantes insetos polinizadores, incluindo as abelhas.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243774, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278468

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was conducted for the taxonomic, morphometric and limnological assessment of the commercially important ichthyofauna of Sakhakot Stream, Malakand, Pakistan. The study area was divided into three sites along the water course namely Dargai Stream, Sakhakot Stream and Shergarh Stream. Fish samples were collected randomly during January to August 2017 with the help of fish gears. A taxonomic key was designed for the collected fish specimens. Ten fish species were identified belonging to 3 orders and 4 families. Family Cyprinidae was the dominant family with seven representative species while families Siluridae, Nemacheilidae and Mastacembelidae were represented by one species each. Lower mean total length and standard length was recorded in Puntius conchonius (Hamilton, 1822) as 9.2 ± 0.6 cm and 7.3 ± 0.6 cm respectively, while highest mean total length and standard length was recorded in Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepede, 1800) as 28.1 ± 1.7 cm and 15.9 ± 2.4 cm respectively. Mean pH of the water ranged from 6.1 at Shergarh Stream in August to 8.7 at Sakhakot Stream in January. Average temperature range was recorded from 10.9 °C in January at Dargai Stream to 18.7 °C in August at Shergarh Stream. No statistically significant difference was found for temperature (p = 0.96) and pH (p = 0.14) in the three water streams. The present study will provide a baseline for the rearing and enhancement of wild stock of the commercially important ichthyofauna in the field of aquaculture and fisheries.


Resumo O presente estudo foi realizado para a avaliação taxonômica, morfométrica e limnológica da ictiofauna comercialmente importante do Riacho Sakhakot, Malakand, Paquistão. A área de estudo foi dividida em três locais ao longo do curso de água, nomeadamente Riacho Dargai, Riacho Sakhakot e Riacho Shergarh. As amostras de peixes foram coletadas aleatoriamente durante janeiro e agosto de 2017, com a ajuda de artes de peixes. Uma chave taxonômica foi projetada para os espécimes de peixes coletados. Foram identificadas dez espécies de peixes pertencentes a 3 ordens e 4 famílias. A família Cyprinidae foi a família dominante, com sete espécies representativas, enquanto as famílias Siluridae, Nemacheilidae e Mastacembelidae foram representadas por uma espécie cada. O comprimento total médio mais baixo e o comprimento padrão foram registrados em Puntius conchonius (Hamilton, 1822) como 9.2 ± 0.6 cm e 7.3 ± 0.6 cm, respectivamente, enquanto o comprimento total médio e o comprimento padrão mais altos foram registrados em Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepede, 1800) como 28.1 ± 1.7 cm e 15.9 ± 2.4 cm, respectivamente. O pH médio da água variou de 6.1 no Riacho Shergarh em agosto a 8.7 no Riacho Sakhakot em janeiro. A faixa de temperatura média foi registrada de 10.9 °C em janeiro no Riacho Dargai a 18.7 °C em agosto no Riacho Shergarh. Não foi encontrada diferença estatisticamente significativa para temperatura (p = 0,96) e pH (p = 0,14) nos três cursos de água. O presente estudo fornecerá uma linha de base para a criação e aprimoramento do estoque selvagem da ictiofauna comercialmente importante no campo da aquicultura e pesca.

3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e250373, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550295

RESUMO

Honey is a suitable matrix for the evaluation of environmental contaminants including organochlorine insecticides. The present study was conducted to evaluate residues of fifteen organochlorine insecticides in honey samples of unifloral and multifloral origins from Dir, Pakistan. Honey samples (5 g each) were extracted with GC grade organic solvents and then subjected to Rotary Evaporator till dryness. The extracts were then mixed with n-Hexane (5 ml) and purified through Column Chromatography. Purified extracts (1µl each) were processed through Gas Chromatograph coupled with Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) for identification and quantification of the insecticides. Of the 15 insecticides tested, 46.7% were detected while 53.3% were not detected in the honey samples. Heptachlor was the most prevalent insecticide with a mean level of 0.0018 mg/kg detected in 80% of the samples followed by ß-HCH with a mean level of 0.0016 mg/kg detected in 71.4% of the honey samples. Honey samples from Acacia modesta Wall. were 100% positive for Heptachlor with a mean level of 0.0048 mg/kg followed by ß-HCH with a mean level of 0.003 mg/kg and frequency of 83.3%. Minimum levels of the tested insecticides were detected in the unifloral honey from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Methoxychlor, Endosulfan, Endrin and metabolites of DDT were not detected in the studied honey samples. Some of the tested insecticides are banned in Pakistan but are still detected in honey samples indicating their use in the study area. The detected levels of all insecticides were below the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) and safe for consumers. However, the levels detected can cause mortality in insect fauna. The use of banned insecticides is one of the main factors responsible for the declining populations of important insect pollinators including honeybees.


Assuntos
Mel , Inseticidas , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Animais , Abelhas , Endossulfano/análise , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Mel/análise , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade
4.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 92(4): 043706, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243365

RESUMO

We describe an oblique-incidence zero-area Sagnac interferometric microscope for studying spatial and temperature dependence of magneto-optic (MO) effects in samples under cryogenic conditions. The microscope is capable of independently measuring Kerr effects from three Cartesian components of a magnetization and thus can be used to map out the magnetization vector across the sample. For illustration, we present MO Kerr effect images of magnetic domains at 77 K of a LaCrGe3 crystal terminated with an a-c plane (the plane that contains the lattice a-axis and c-axis). We further present measurements of magnetization in these domains from 90 to 77 K during zero-field cooling and field cooling in an external magnetic field from 20 to 150 Oe. The inherently high sensitivity and the capability of detecting a magnetization without external modulation makes such a Sagnac interferometric microscope particularly useful for studying magnetic effects in novel materials at low temperatures.

5.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(9): 815-819, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294168

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review patient satisfaction with the change in practice towards telephone consultations during and after the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic for head and neck cancer follow up. METHOD: A retrospective analysis was conducted of head and neck cancer telephone appointments during a six-month period in a tertiary referral centre. RESULTS: Patients found the telephone consultations beneficial (98 per cent), with 30 per cent stating they were relieved to not have to attend hospital. Patients who travelled further, those with lower stage disease and patients with a greater interval from initial treatment were most satisfied with the telephone consultations. Sixty-eight per cent of patients stated they would be happy to have telephone consultations as part of their regular follow up after the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Patients found the telephone consultations beneficial and 30 per cent considered them preferable to face-to-face appointments. This study demonstrates that telephone consultations can be used as an adjunct to face-to-face appointments in an effort to reduce hospital attendances whilst maintaining close follow up.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Satisfação do Paciente , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente/métodos , Assistência ao Convalescente/psicologia , Assistência ao Convalescente/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Telefone , Centros de Atenção Terciária
6.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243774, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161430

RESUMO

The present study was conducted for the taxonomic, morphometric and limnological assessment of the commercially important ichthyofauna of Sakhakot Stream, Malakand, Pakistan. The study area was divided into three sites along the water course namely Dargai Stream, Sakhakot Stream and Shergarh Stream. Fish samples were collected randomly during January to August 2017 with the help of fish gears. A taxonomic key was designed for the collected fish specimens. Ten fish species were identified belonging to 3 orders and 4 families. Family Cyprinidae was the dominant family with seven representative species while families Siluridae, Nemacheilidae and Mastacembelidae were represented by one species each. Lower mean total length and standard length was recorded in Puntius conchonius (Hamilton, 1822) as 9.2 ± 0.6 cm and 7.3 ± 0.6 cm respectively, while highest mean total length and standard length was recorded in Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepede, 1800) as 28.1 ± 1.7 cm and 15.9 ± 2.4 cm respectively. Mean pH of the water ranged from 6.1 at Shergarh Stream in August to 8.7 at Sakhakot Stream in January. Average temperature range was recorded from 10.9 °C in January at Dargai Stream to 18.7 °C in August at Shergarh Stream. No statistically significant difference was found for temperature (p = 0.96) and pH (p = 0.14) in the three water streams. The present study will provide a baseline for the rearing and enhancement of wild stock of the commercially important ichthyofauna in the field of aquaculture and fisheries.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Rios , Animais , Peixes , Humanos , Limnologia , Paquistão
7.
New Microbes New Infect ; 38: 100804, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294196

RESUMO

The marine ecosystem is a growing reservoir of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, and thus an emerging risk to human health. In this study, we report the first draft genome sequence of multidrug-resistant Vibrio alginolyticus strain OS1T-47, isolated from an offshore site in the Red Sea. The draft genome of V. alginolyticus OS1T-47 is 5 157 150 bp in length and has DNA G + C content of 44.83%. Strain OS1T-47 possesses 22 antimicrobial resistance genes, including those associated with multidrug-resistant efflux pumps.

8.
Folia Biol (Praha) ; 66(1): 24-35, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512656

RESUMO

Microbial mats in hot springs form a dynamic ecosystem and support the growth of diverse communities with broad-ranging metabolic capacity. In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to analyse microbial communities in mat samples from two hot springs in Al Aridhah, Saudi Arabia. Putative metabolic pathways of the microbial communities were identified using phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt). Filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria associated with phylum Chloroflexi were abundant (> 50 %) in both hot springs at 48 °C. Chloroflexi were mainly represented by taxa Chloroflexus followed by Roseiflexus. Cyanobacteria of genus Arthrospira constituted 3.4 % of microbial mats. Heterotrophic microorganisms were mainly represented by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. Archaea were detected at a lower relative abundance (< 1 %). Metabolic pathways associated with membrane transport, carbon fixation, methane metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, and degradation of aromatic compounds were commonly found in microbial mats of both hot springs. In addition, pathways for production of secondary metabolites and antimicrobial compounds were predicted to be present in microbial mats. In conclusion, microbial communities in the hot springs of Al Aridhah were composed of diverse bacteria, with taxa of Chloroflexus being dominant.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Biodiversidade , Fontes Termais/microbiologia , Filogenia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Arábia Saudita
9.
New Microbes New Infect ; 35: 100685, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454980

RESUMO

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a global epidemic that impacts the lives of many individuals each year. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that infects human CD4+ T helper cells and macrophages thereby causing severe immune disease. The current study aimed to examine the prevalence of HIV among the blood donors of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa at Peshawar. In this study, a total of 8634 volunteers who donated blood were carefully screened for HIV using ELISA and RT-PCR techniques. Among the volunteers (n = 8634), 63 were positive by both ELISA and RT-PCR; which shows a prevalence of 0.73%. Both diagnostic techniques exhibited similar results. All the positive individuals were informed immediately and advised to start treatment to control the progression of the infection. It was concluded that HIV is on the rise in Peshawar, and routine screening and preventive measures are immediately required to address the urgent situation of HIV infection.

10.
J Laryngol Otol ; : 1-6, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668148

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the incidence of second primary lung cancer following treatment for laryngeal cancer and to identify risk factors for its development. METHOD: Retrospective case series. RESULTS: The five-year actuarial incidence of second primary lung cancer was 8 per cent (1.6 per cent per year). This was associated with a very poor median survival of seven months following diagnosis. Supraglottic tumours were associated with an increased risk of second primary lung cancer compared to glottic tumours in both univariate (hazard ratio = 4.32, p = 0.005) and multivariate analyses (hazard ratio = 4.14, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Second primary lung cancer occurs at a rate of 1.6 per cent per year following a diagnosis of laryngeal cancer, and this is associated in a statistically significant manner with supraglottic primary tumour. The recent National Lung Cancer Screening Trial suggests a survival advantage of 20 per cent at five years with annual screening using low-dose computed tomography scanning of the chest in a comparable cohort to ours. These findings have the potential to inform post-treatment surveillance protocols in the future.

11.
12.
J Appl Microbiol ; 124(3): 779-796, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29280555

RESUMO

AIMS: To examine the biocontrol activities of five rhizobacterial strains (i.e. Alcaligenes faecalis strains Bk1 and P1, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Bk7 and Brevibacillus laterosporus stains B4 and S5), to control the rice blast and sheath blight diseases in greenhouse and to study their possible modes of action. METHODS AND RESULTS: Five potential plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains isolated from rice rhizospheres were tested for in vitro antifungal activities against Magnaporthe oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium graminearum. In vitro trials showed that three strains, Bk1, P1 and Bk7, were able to unanimously suppress the mycelial growth of the target pathogens. In greenhouse, the application of these three PGPR strains significantly suppressed the incidences of rice blast and sheath blight diseases. At 2 weeks after pathogen inoculation, the highest percentages of disease suppression were noted for Alc. faecalis strain Bk1 (72%) for rice blast, Alc. faecalis strain P1 (71%) for sheath blight, followed by B. amyloliquefaciens strain Bk7. Moreover, these strains significantly improved the plant growth, enriched the content of mineral nutrients in seedlings and increased the expression of major defence-related rice genes. All three strains were marked positive for phosphate solubilization, the production of indoleacetic acid, ammonia and siderophores and catalase activity. In addition, these strains were able to form biofilms and carried multiple lipopeptide biosynthetic genes as revealed by multiplex PCR. CONCLUSION: This study reports new potential biocontrol agents for blast and sheath blight diseases of rice. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study contributes to better understanding of the mechanisms involved in interaction between beneficial rhizobacteria, fungal pathogens and host plants.


Assuntos
Alcaligenes/fisiologia , Bacillus/fisiologia , Minerais/análise , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Brevibacillus/fisiologia , Magnaporthe/fisiologia , Oryza/química , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Rhizoctonia/fisiologia , Rizosfera , Plântula/química , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/imunologia , Plântula/microbiologia , Sideróforos/metabolismo
13.
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 53(2): 153-7, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25432431

RESUMO

Prediction of postoperative facial appearance after orthognathic surgery can be used for communication, managing patients' expectations,avoiding postoperative dissatisfaction and exploring different treatment options. We have assessed the accuracy of 3dMD Vultus in predicting the final 3-dimensional soft tissue facial morphology after Le Fort I advancement osteotomy. We retrospectively studied 13 patients who were treated with a Le Fort I advancement osteotomy alone. We used routine cone-beam computed tomographic (CT) images taken immediately before and a minimum of 6 months after operation, and 3dMD Vultus to virtually reposition the preoperative maxilla and mandible in their post operative positions to generate a prediction of what the soft tissue would look like. Segmented anatomical areas of the predicted mesh were then compared with the actual soft tissue. The means of the absolute distance between the 90th percentile of the mesh points for each region were calculated, and a one-sample Student's t test was used to calculate if the difference differed significantly from 3 mm.The differences in the mean absolute distances between the actual soft tissue and the prediction were significantly below 3 mm for all segmented anatomical areas (p < 0.001), and ranged from 0.65 mm (chin) to 1.17 mm (upper lip). 3dMD Vultus produces clinically satisfactory 3-dimensional facial soft tissue predictions after Le Fort I advancement osteotomy. The mass-spring model for prediction seems to be able to predict the position of the lip and chin, but its ability to predict nasal and paranasal areas could be improved.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Imageamento Tridimensional/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Osteotomia de Le Fort/estatística & dados numéricos , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Cefalometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Queixo/diagnóstico por imagem , Desenho Assistido por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/estatística & dados numéricos , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Previsões , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Lábio/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Má Oclusão Classe III de Angle/cirurgia , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Nariz/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 44(1): 132-8, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25305699

RESUMO

Since the introduction of three-dimensional (3D) orthognathic planning software, studies have reported on their predictive ability. The aim of this study was to highlight the limitations of the current methods of analysis. The predicted 3D soft tissue image was compared to the postoperative soft tissue. For the full face, the maximum and 95th and 90th percentiles, the percentage of 3D mesh points ≤ 2 mm, and the root mean square (RMS) error, were calculated. For specific anatomical regions, the percentage of 3D mesh points ≤ 2 mm and the distance between the two meshes at 10 landmarks were determined. For the 95th and 90th percentiles, the maximum difference ranged from 7.7 mm to 2.2 mm and from 3.7 mm to 1.5 mm, respectively. The absolute mean distance ranged from 0.98 mm to 0.56 mm and from 0.91 mm to 0.50 mm, respectively. The percentage of mesh with ≤ 2 mm for the full face was 94.4-85.2% and 100-31.3% for anatomical regions. The RMS error ranged from 2.49 mm to 0.94 mm. The majority of mean linear distances between the surfaces were ≤ 0.8 mm, but increased for the mean absolute distance. At present the use of specific anatomical regions is more clinically meaningful than the full face. It is crucial to understand these and adopt a protocol for conducting such studies.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Face/anatomia & histologia , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos , Software , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Humanos , Osteotomia de Le Fort , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
15.
Horm Metab Res ; 46(13): 927-832, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25181419

RESUMO

Recently, hypothalamic RFRP-3 (a mammalian ortholog of avian GnIH) signaling has been proposed as an important negative modulator of the reproductive axis. The current study examined whether repression of reproductive hormonal expression during short-term fasting conditions in higher-order primate is influenced by altered RFRP-3 signaling. Eight intact postpubertal male macaques (Macaca mulatta) were administered a single intravenous bolus of RF-9 (n = 4), a potent and putative RFRP-3 receptor antagonist, or vehicle (n = 4) following a 48-h fasting condition. Intermittent blood samples were collected every 30 min during the 4-h post-bolus period, and blood glucose, plasma cortisol, and testosterone concentrations were measured. Relative to fed conditions, fasting reduced glucose and testosterone levels (p < 0.005) and increased cortisol levels (p < 0.05). Relative to baseline, mean testosterone levels were elevated 150 min after RF-9 (p < 0.05) but not vehicle administration. In addition, elevated mean plasma testosterone levels following RF-9 administration were equivalent to levels observed in normal fed monkeys. These results suggest an important role for RFRP-3 signaling in conveying metabolic state information to the reproductive axis in higher primates.


Assuntos
Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Dipeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Jejum/fisiologia , Gônadas/fisiologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Adamantano/administração & dosagem , Adamantano/farmacologia , Administração Intravenosa , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Jejum/sangue , Comportamento Alimentar , Gônadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Macaca , Masculino , Testosterona/sangue
16.
Br J Cancer ; 110(8): 1923-9, 2014 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24642620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our previous laboratory and clinical data suggested that one mechanism underlying the development of platinum resistance in ovarian cancer is the acquisition of DNA methylation. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the DNA hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytodine (decitabine) can reverse resistance to carboplatin in women with relapsed ovarian cancer. METHODS: Patients progressing 6-12 months after previous platinum therapy were randomised to decitabine on day 1 and carboplatin (AUC 6) on day 8, every 28 days or carboplatin alone. The primary objective was response rate in patients with methylated hMLH1 tumour DNA in plasma. RESULTS: After a pre-defined interim analysis, the study closed due to lack of efficacy and poor treatment deliverability in 15 patients treated with the combination. Responses by GCIG criteria were 9 out of 14 vs 3 out of 15 and by RECIST were 6 out of 13 vs 1 out of 12 for carboplatin and carboplatin/decitabine, respectively. Grade 3/4 neutropenia was more common with the combination (60% vs 15.4%) as was G2/3 carboplatin hypersensitivity (47% vs 21%). CONCLUSIONS: With this schedule, the addition of decitabine appears to reduce rather than increase the efficacy of carboplatin in partially platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer and is difficult to deliver. Patient-selection strategies, different schedules and other demethylating agents should be considered in future combination studies.


Assuntos
Azacitidina/análogos & derivados , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Metilação de DNA/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/sangue , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Azacitidina/administração & dosagem , Azacitidina/efeitos adversos , Carboplatina/efeitos adversos , Decitabina , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Proteínas Nucleares/sangue , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Platina/administração & dosagem
17.
Br J Cancer ; 101(3): 410-7, 2009 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19603019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasma biomarkers may be particularly useful as a predictor or early marker of clinical response to treatment in addition to radiological imaging. Cytokeratin 18 (CK18) is an epithelial-specific cytokeratin that undergoes cleavage by caspases during apoptosis. Measurement of caspase-cleaved (CK18-Asp396) or total cytokeratin 18 (CK18) from epithelial-derived tumours could be a simple, non-invasive way to monitor or predict responses to treatment. METHODS: Soluble plasma CK18-Asp396 and CK18 were measured by ELISA from 73 patients with advanced gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas before treatment and during chemotherapy, as well as 100 healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Both CK18-Asp396 and total CK18 plasma levels were significantly higher in patients compared with the healthy volunteers (P=0.015, P<0.001). The total CK18 baseline plasma levels before treatment were significantly higher (P=0.009) in patients who develop progressive disease than those who achieve partial response or stable disease and this correlation was confirmed in an independent validation set. The peak plasma levels of CK18 occurring in any cycle following treatment were also found to be associated with tumour response, but peak levels of CK18-Asp396 did not reach significance (P=0.01, and P=0.07, respectively). CONCLUSION: Plasma levels CK18 are a potential marker of tumour response in patients with advanced gastrointestinal malignancy.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Queratina-18/sangue , Adenocarcinoma/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Anaesthesia ; 61(12): 1161-5, 2006 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17090236

RESUMO

The efficacy of pharyngeal packing in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients undergoing nasal surgery was evaluated in a prospective randomised controlled study. The effect of the presence of the pharyngeal pack on the incidence of postoperative sore throat was also assessed. One hundred patients were randomly allocated to one of two groups; the first had packing and the second received no packing. The placement of a pharyngeal pack was found to have no effect on the incidence of PONV but was associated with a significantly increased incidence of sore throat. The absence of a pharyngeal pack was not associated with an increase in postoperative aspiration or vomiting. We conclude that the routine placement of pharyngeal packs during uncomplicated nasal surgery has no effect on the incidence of PONV and will increase the incidence of postoperative sore throat.


Assuntos
Nariz/cirurgia , Faringe , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/prevenção & controle , Tampões Cirúrgicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória , Faringite/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Tampões Cirúrgicos/efeitos adversos
19.
J Laryngol Otol ; 116(10): 826-30, 2002 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12437839

RESUMO

Pharyngo-laryngo-oesophagectomy and gastric pull-up (PLOGP) is a complex and relatively uncommon procedure. The aim of this study is to analyse the results of PLOGP in patients with post-cricoid and cervical oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas. This study was a retrospective review of 26 patients (11 males + 15 females, mean age 63.5 years) who underwent PLOGP from 1988 to 1997. Eighteen (69 per cent) patients were staged as T(3) and eight (31 per cent) T(4). Eighteen (69 per cent) patients had N(0), seven (27 per cent) N(1) and one (four per cent) N(2) disease. Multiple primary tumours were recorded in three (11.5 per cent) patients. Four (15 per cent) patients had pre-operative radiotherapy with poor response and two (eight per cent) required emergency tracheotomy prior to surgery. Feeding jejunostomy was performed on 19 (73 per cent) and neck lymph node dissection in eight (31 per cent) patients. The mean duration of surgery was five hours (range 3.5 to 7.5) with a mean blood loss of 840 ml (range 160 to 1800), a mean stay in ICU of 4.2 days and hospital stay ranged from nine to 84 days (mean 34). Three (11.5 per cent) patients died (pneumonia - one, congestive heart failure - one, pulmonary embolus - one) in the early post-operative period. Eight (31 per cent) patients remain alive from 30 to 136 months (mean 58 months). Two (eight per cent) patients died with no evidence of disease. Thirteen (50 per cent) patients died of their disease between two to 51 months (mean 17.3 months) post-operatively. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates for one year was 65 per cent, for three years 35 per cent and for five years 26 per cent (see Figure 1). Median survival in the whole series was 18 months. Post-operative speech was with an electrolarynx in 16 (62 per cent). One patient (four per cent) used gastric speech and one patient (four per cent) used a Blom-Singer valve effectively. Five (19 per cent) patients had no speech post-operatively. All patients maintained oral feeding. Gastric transposition constitutes a safe and reliable method of restoring the continuity of the upper digestive tract following pharyngo-laryngo-oesophagectomy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Estômago/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Esofagectomia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hipofaríngeas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hipofaríngeas/cirurgia , Laringectomia , Tempo de Internação , Excisão de Linfonodo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/cirurgia , Faringectomia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Voz Alaríngea , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci ; 27(5): 321-6, 2002 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12383289

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a course of dexamethasone on postoperative pain and morbidity after adult tonsillectomy. We report the results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 200 adult patients undergoing elective tonsillectomy. Patients were randomized to three groups: one group received the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug piroxicam for 8 days postoperatively, one group received dexamethasone for the same period and the third group received both drugs. Patients recorded their pain scores and analgesic requirements daily for 10 days. Patients treated with a combination of piroxicam and dexamethasone recorded consistently lower pain scores than those treated with either drug alone. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05) on all days except the day of surgery and the second postoperative day. Patients treated with piroxicam alone had significantly higher analgesic requirements than in either of the other groups. Dexamethasone given in this regime reduces postoperative pain and analgesic requirements after adult tonsillectomy.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Tonsilectomia , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Piroxicam/administração & dosagem , Piroxicam/uso terapêutico
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