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1.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(1): 143-146, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954040

RESUMO

Primitive epidermis develops the nail apparatus. Nails have a strong and inflexible nail plate at the end of each digit. Very few genes responsible for causing nonsyndromic form of nail dysplasia have been reported. In the current study, peripheral blood samples were collectedfrom three unaffected individuals and four affectedindividuals of Family A, while blood from two affected and three unaffected individuals were taken of Family B. Genotyping in both the families was performed using highly polymorphic short tandem repeat microsatellite markers. Sanger sequence of the FZD6 gene was performed and analysed for segregation analysis. A comparative modelling approach was used to predict the three-dimensional structures of FZD-6 protein using Modeller 4. Linkage analysis mapped a disease locus on chromosome 8q22.3, harbouring FZD6. Targeted Sanger sequencing of all the coding exons of FZD6 revealed a nonsense sequence variant in pedigree A, whereas a missense sequence variant in pedigree B. Finding and literature indicates the disease spectrum of Pakistani population with claw-shaped nail dysplasia, particularly in families of Pashtun origin.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31938959

RESUMO

Shigella flexneri is considered as an important causative agent of Shigellosis causing diarrhea in the countries with a low socioeconomic status. No study has been carried out on the molecular prevalence of S. flexneri in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. So this study was designed to evaluate the molecular prevalence of S. flexneri and their associated risk factors. A total of 2014 diarrheal stool samples were collected from January 2016 to May 2017 from pediatrics patients of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa followed by identification of S. flexneri through biochemical, serological, and molecular methods. The overall prevalence of Shigella species was found to be 7.9% (n = 160). The predominant Shigella specie was S. flexneri (n = 155, 96.8%) followed by S. boydii (n = 5, 3.1%). Interestingly, no sample was found positive for S. sonnei and S. dysenteriae. The majority of Shigellosis cases occurred from June to September. Potential risk factors related with Shigellosis were unhygienic latrine usage, bad hand washing, and consumption of unhygienic food and water, and pipe leakage in the sewage system. In this study, we have observed a high number of Shigellosis cases especially those caused by S. flexneri. It is suggested that effective health awareness programs should be organized by the regional health authorities to minimize the magnitude of pediatrics Shigellosis.

3.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 17(1): 53, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A is well known endocrine-disrupting chemical while Bisphenol S was considered a safe alternative. The present study aims to examine the comparative effects of xenobiotic bisphenol-A (BPA) and its substitute bisphenol-S (BPS) on spermatogenesis and development of sexually dimorphic nucleus population of dopaminergic neurons in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) of the hypothalamus in male pups. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rat's pups were administered subcutaneously at the neonatal stage from postnatal day PND1 to PND 27. Thirty animals were divided into six experimental groups (6 animals/group). The first group served as control and was provided with normal olive oil. The four groups were treated with 2 µg/kg and 200 µg/kg of BPA and BPS, respectively. The sixth group was given with 50 µg/kg of estradiol dissolved in olive oil as a standard to find the development of dopaminergic tyrosine hydroxylase neurons in AVPV regions. Histological analysis for testicular tissues and immunohistochemistry for brain tissues was performed. RESULTS: The results revealed adverse histopathological changes in testis after administration of different doses of BPA and BPS. These degenerative changes were marked by highly significant (p < 0.001) decrease in tubular and luminal diameters of seminiferous tubule and epithelial height among bisphenols treated groups as compared to control. Furthermore, significantly increased (p < 0.001) TH-ir cell bodies in the AVPV region of the brain with 200 µg/kg dose of BPA and BPS was evident. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that exposure of BPA and BPS during a critical developmental period can structural impairments in testes and affects sexual differentiation of a dimorphic dopaminergic population of AVPV region of hypothalamus in the male brain.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotálamo Anterior/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Diferenciação Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Disruptores Endócrinos/farmacologia , Poluentes Ambientais/farmacologia , Estradiol/farmacologia , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Feminino , Hipotálamo Anterior/patologia , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Túbulos Seminíferos/efeitos dos fármacos , Túbulos Seminíferos/patologia , Fatores Sexuais
4.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 121: 24-36, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120946

RESUMO

Bisphenol A an estrogen-mimic endocrine disrupting chemical, used to manufacture polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins with toxic effects for male reproduction. Due to its toxicity, industries have started to replace it with other bisphenols. In this study, the toxicity of BPA analogues (BPB, BPF and BPS) was evaluated in a chronic study. We investigated whether the chronic exposure to low bisphenols doses affects spermatogenesis with outcomes on oxidative stress and male reproductive system. Male rats (22 day old) were exposed to water containing 0.1% ethanol for control or different concentrations of BPA and its analogues BPB, BPF and BPS (5, 25 and 50 µg/L) in drinking water for 48 weeks. Results of the present study showed a significant alteration in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and relative reproductive organs weights. Oxidative stress in the testis was significantly elevated while sperm motility, Daily sperm production (DSP) and number of sperm in epididymis were reduced. Plasma testosterone, LH and FSH concentrations were reduced and estradiol levels were high in 50 µg/L exposed group. These results suggest that exposure to BPA and its analogues for chronic duration can induce structural changes in testicular tissue and endocrine alterations in the male reproductive system.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Sulfonas/toxicidade , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/administração & dosagem , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Disruptores Endócrinos/administração & dosagem , Estradiol/sangue , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/administração & dosagem , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfonas/administração & dosagem , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Testículo/enzimologia , Testículo/metabolismo , Testosterona/sangue
5.
Chemosphere ; 197: 336-343, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29407803

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) has been well documented for its endocrine disrupting potential however, very little is known about endocrine disrupting abilities of bisphenol S (BPS). The present study aimed to compare the endocrine disrupting potentials of BPS with BPA, using female rats as an experimental animal model. On postnatal day 1 (PND 1) female pups born were randomly assigned to seven different treatments. Control group received subcutaneous injection of castor oil (50 µL) from PND 1 to PND 10. Three groups of female pups were injected subcutaneously with different concentrations (0.5, 5 and 50 mg/kg in 50 µL castor oil) of BPS, while remaining three groups were treated with 0.5, 5 and 50 mg/kg BPA. Highest doses treatments of both compounds resulted in delayed puberty onset and altered estrous cyclicity. Final body weight was significantly high in the highest dose treated groups of both BPS and BPA. Gonadosomatic index, absolute and relative weight of uteri was significantly reduced in BPS (5 and 50 mg/kg) and BPA (5 and 50 mg/kg) treated groups than control. Plasma concentrations of testosterone and estradiol were significantly increased, while plasma progesterone, Luteinizing hormone (LH) and Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations were significantly reduced in highest doses treated groups. Dose dependent increase in the number of cystic follicles in the ovaries was evident along with an increase in the number of atratic follicles. The results suggest that neonatal exposure to higher concentrations of BPS can lead to BPA like structural and endocrine alterations in female rats.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/sangue , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Sulfonas/efeitos adversos , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/farmacologia , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Fenóis/farmacologia , Progesterona/sangue , Ratos , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Testosterona/sangue
6.
Ann Hum Genet ; 82(3): 171-176, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29282707

RESUMO

Primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (PHO) is a congenital multisystemic entity characterized by three major clinical symptoms: pachydermia, periostosis, and digital clubbing. Recently it has been reported that pathogenic mutations in two genes are known to be associated with PHO: HPGD and SLCO2A1. In the present study, a five-generation consanguineous Pakistani family harboring primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy in autosomal-recessive pattern was ascertained. Whole genome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyping and sequence analysis revealed a novel homozygous missense mutation (c.577T˃C) of the human HPGD gene in all affected members of the family. The study presented here demonstrate the first case of primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy reported in Pashtun population.


Assuntos
Hidroxiprostaglandina Desidrogenases/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Osteoartropatia Hipertrófica Primária/genética , Idoso , Criança , Consanguinidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
7.
Transplantation ; 101(11): 2739-2745, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28795982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and the leading indication for liver transplantation. In the Middle East, genotype 4 HCV infection is the most common genotype. However, limited data exists on the treatment of genotype-4 in the liver transplant setting. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of ledipasvir (LDV)-sofosbuvir (SOF) in treating HCV genotype-4 infected patients with cirrhosis or postliver transplantation. METHODS: This prospective, single-arm, observational study includes cohort of patients with cirrhosis before liver transplantation (cohort A) and a cohort of postliver transplantation patients (cohort B). Patients received LDV/SOF (90-400 mg) once daily for 12 to 24 weeks with or without ribavirin (RBV). Patients with creatinine clearance below 30 were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 111 patients (61 cirrhotic; 50 postliver transplants) with HCV genotype 4 were treated in King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center; 55% cohort A and 44% cohort B received RBV. Sustained virological response sustain virological response (SVR)12 was 91.8% and 86% of cohorts A and B, respectively. There were no treatment-related mortality or serious adverse effects. RBV dose reduction occurred in 25% without any treatment discontinuation. SVR12 rates in cohort A were significantly higher in patients with a viral load below 800 000 (100% vs 83.9%, P value = 0.022). Viral load did not impact SVR rates in cohort B. The use of RBV did not increase SVR12 and was associated with anemia. CONCLUSIONS: LDV/SOF without RBV is an effective and safe treatment option for patients with HCV genotype 4 infection in preliver and postliver transplant settings.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Fluorenos/administração & dosagem , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado , Uridina Monofosfato/análogos & derivados , Administração Oral , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Benzimidazóis/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Fluorenos/efeitos adversos , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Arábia Saudita , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Comprimidos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Uridina Monofosfato/administração & dosagem , Uridina Monofosfato/efeitos adversos , Carga Viral
8.
Microb Pathog ; 105: 240-244, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28258003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an emerging threat to public health worldwide due to their rapid development of drug resistance including beta-lactamases. The present study was designed to investigate the incidence of ß-lactamases and genotypic pattern of CTX and OXA in the clinical isolate of multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa. METHODS: In this study a total of 102 MDR P. aeruginosa isolates obtained from Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan were subjected to extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL), metallo beta lactamase (MBL) and plasmid mediated ß-lactamase (AmpC) detection using phenotypic and molecular methods. Furthermore, sequencing of CTX and OXA gene was performed. RESULTS: Out of 102 MDR P. aeruginosa isolates, 71 (69.6%) were beta lactamase producers. The incidence of ESBL, MBL and AmpC in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa was found to be 23.94%, 40.84% and 35.21% respectively. Co-production of ESBL and AmpC were also observed in some isolates. There were 14 (19.71%) CTX-M-15 harboring isolates which were ESBL (64.28%), MBL (21.42%) and AmpC (14.28%) producer. Co-production of ESBL/MBL (14.28%), ESBL/AmpC (14.28%) and MBL/AmpC (14.28%) were also observed in the CTX M-15 harboring isolates while 12.28% isolates were not ESBL, MBL or AmpC producer. OXA-10 was detected in 8 (11.26%) isolates which were ESBL (12.5%), MBL (37.5%) and AmpC (12.5%) producer. OXA 10 isolates also exhibit co-production of ESBL/AmpC (12.5%) and MBL/AmpC (12.5%). All CTX-M-15 carried the class A ß-lactamase conserved domain while OXA-10 harbored conserved domain of class D ß-lactamase. CONCLUSION: The current study for the first time reported and characterized the CTX-M-15 and OXA-10 among MDR P. aeruginosa isolates from Pakistan. Further efforts are needed to understand the molecular mechanism of drug resistance with CTX and OXA harboring P. aeruginosa isolates.


Assuntos
Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzimologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Infecções por Pseudomonas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Resistência beta-Lactâmica , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
9.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 80(5): 303-306, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28286058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella enteritidis infection is a frequently encountered zoonotic problem, occurring with concerning regularity in recent years on a worldwide basis. The study that we undertook for the first time detected S. enteritidis and associated antimicrobial resistance pattern in broiler chickens. METHODS: A total of 150 different poultry samples were first enriched and grown on selective media, and then processed for molecular detection of S. enteritidis by amplification of the spvb gene. RESULTS: The overall detection rate of S. enteritidis was 23.3% (n=35), while an increased detection rate of S. enteritidis was found in the chicken breast tissue (n=9; 30%). When antibiogram was tested for S. enteritidis against common antibiotics, increased resistance to ampicillin (n=29; 82.2%), tetracycline (n=28; 80%), augmentin (n=27; 77.14%), and chloramphenicol (n=19; 54.2%) was observed. Multidrug resistance was reported in 54.8% (n=19) of the S. enteritidis isolates, while 20% (n=07) of isolates were extensively drug resistant. CONCLUSION: The present study for the first time reports S. enteritidis on the basis of spvb gene detection. The increased drug resistance in S. enteritidis is an emerging problem that could negatively impact efforts to prevent and treat broiler-transmitted S. enteritidis.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Salmonella enteritidis/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Animais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Salmonella enteritidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella enteritidis/genética
10.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 80(3): 173-177, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28038909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes common infections in immunocompromised and cystic fibrosis patients. However, drug resistance capability and release of virulence factors play a key role in bacterial pathogenicity. METHODS: Beta-lactamase-producing clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were screened for biofilm formation and pigment production. Subsequently, all the isolates were subjected to the detection of six virulence genes (OprI, OprL, LasB, PlcH, ExoS, and ToxA). RESULTS: Among beta-lactamase-producing isolates (n=54), about 85.18% (n=46) were biofilm producers. Pigment production was observed in 92.59% (n=50) isolates. Clinical samples were subsequently screened for detection of virulence factors. Among them, 40.74% (n=22) isolates were found to be OprI positive, while 29.62% (n=16) were OprL producers. In the case of LasB and PlcH, 24% (n=13) and 18.5% (n=10) isolates produced these virulence genes, respectively. Among the isolates, 37.03% (n=20) and 33.33% (n=18) expressed virulence factors ExoS and ToxA, respectively. Furthermore, 42.59% (n=23) isolates coproduced more than one type of virulence factors. CONCLUSION: In the current study, pigment display, biofilm formation, and virulence genes were detected in P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. Such factors could be crucial in the development of drug resistance.


Assuntos
Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzimologia , beta-Lactamases/biossíntese , ADP Ribose Transferases/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Biofilmes , Exotoxinas/genética , Humanos , Fenótipo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética
11.
Microb Pathog ; 102: 160-165, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27914961

RESUMO

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a key enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway that ensures sufficient production of coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) by catalyzing the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH. Noteworthy, the latter mediates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by phagocytic cells such as neutrophils and monocytes. Therefore, patients with severe forms of G6PD deficiency may present impaired NADPH oxidase activity and become susceptible to recurrent infections. This fact, highlights the importance to characterize the immunopathologic mechanisms underlying the susceptibility to infections in patients with G6PD deficiency. Here we report the first two cases of G6PD deficiency with Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) adverse effect, besides jaundice, hemolytic anemia and recurrent infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The qualitative G6PD screening was performed and followed by oxidative burst analysis using flow cytometry. Genetic and in silico analyses were carried out by Sanger sequencing and mutation pathogenicity predicted using bioinformatics tools, respectively. Activated neutrophils and monocytes from patients displayed impaired oxidative burst. The genetic analysis revealed the novel missense mutation c.1157T>A/p.L386Q in G6PD. In addition, in silico analysis indicated that this mutation is pathogenic, thereby hampering the oxidative burst of neutrophils and monocytes from patients. Our data expand the clinical and genetic spectrum of G6PD deficiency, and suggest that impaired oxidative burst in this severe primary immune deficiency is an underlying immunopathologic mechanism that predisposes to mycobacterial infections.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/genética , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Vacina BCG/efeitos adversos , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Estudos de Associação Genética , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/química , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/complicações , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Mycobacterium bovis , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Linhagem , Conformação Proteica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Explosão Respiratória
12.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 26(9): 784-6, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27671186

RESUMO

Congenital constriction ring (CCR) and symbrachydactyly are two distinct, rare, and heterogeneous limb deficiency conditions which affect the digits. Here, we report on two different individuals with an unusual presentation of limb deficiency accompanying intellectual disability (ID) and certain other malformations. In the first index female, CCR occurred with mild ID, squint eyes, obesity, and metatarsus adductus. The second index male was presented with symbrachydactyly, profound ID, and speech/hearing impairments. The association of limb deficiency conditions with these anomalies is very rare. Differential diagnosis and literature survey have been offered to establish the rarity of these entities.


Assuntos
Constrição Patológica/congênito , Dedos/anormalidades , Deformidades Congênitas do Pé , Deficiência Intelectual , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/diagnóstico por imagem , Distúrbios da Fala/diagnóstico , Dedos do Pé/anormalidades , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Microb Pathog ; 97: 209-12, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27317858

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important pathogen of both community and hospital acquired infections, and a major threat to public health for continuous emergence of multi-drug resistance. Current prevalence and pattern of multidrug resistance in the clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa is reported here. Samples were collected from September 2013 to January 2014 tertiary care hospital, Peshawar. Samples were subjected to phenotypic and molecular based detection of P. aeruginosa and were further processed for multidrug resistance pattern. Out of 3700 samples, 102 were identified as MDR P. aeruginosa. Prevalence of MDR isolates were found in pus (34.3%), wounds (28.4%), urine (19.6%), blood (14.7%) and sputum (2.9%) respectively. Isolates were more resistant to Sulphamethoxazole/Trimethoprim (98.04%), Amoxycillin/Clavulanic acid, Doxycycline and Chloramphenicol (95.1%) each, while least resistant to Imipenem (43.1%), Cefoperazone/Sulbactam (50.98%) and Amikacin (53.9%). Extensive MDR pattern was observed in P. aeruginosa was found as (n = 17, 16.6%) isolates were resistant to all four classes of antibiotics. Increased burden of MDR P. aeruginosa was documented in the study. Moreover, some isolates were even resistant to four classes of antibiotics. Findings of the study will be helpful to devise an appropriate antibiotic treatment strategy against MDR P. aeruginosa to cope the chances of evolving resistant pathogens.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Pseudomonas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
14.
Pak J Med Sci ; 32(2): 519-22, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27182274

RESUMO

Terminal transverse deficiency of forearm is a very rare limb malformation. Most of the cases have traumatic etiology and congenital presentation is less common. A series of six individuals with transverse deficiency through the hands is presented in this communication. The cases were congenital, morphologically similar and showed loss of four fingers, most often postaxial. The affected arm was reduced in size compared to the contralateral limb and there was distortion of palmer creases. All cases were sporadic and non-syndromic in nature. The characteristics of these cases were concordant with the symbrachydactyly type III or monodactylous type, when classified according to the scheme proposed by Blauth and Gekeler (1973). The malformation resulted in permanent quality-of-life impairment in these subjects and warrant prosthetic management. Detailed physical and phenotypic features of the patients have been presented.

15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 23(15): 15551-64, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27126868

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) pollution is present in the world over especially in the industrialized parts of the world. To reduce Cd accumulation in various crops especially food crops, alleviating agents such as reduced glutathione (GSH) can be applied, which are capable either to exclude or to sequester Cd contamination. This study investigated the leaf-based spatial distribution of physiological, metabolic, and microstructural changes in two cotton cultivars (Coker 312 and TM-1) under GSH-mediated Cd stress using single levels of Cd (50 µM) and GSH (50 µM) both separately and in mix along with control. Results showed that GSH revived the morphology and physiology of both cotton cultivars alone or in mix with Cd. Cd uptake was enhanced in all segments of leaf and whole leaf upon the addition of GSH. GSH alleviated Cd-induced reduction in the photosynthetic pigment compositions and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters. Mean data of biomarkers (2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium (TTC), total soluble protein (TSP), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)) revealed the adverse effects of Cd stress on leaf segments of both cultivars, which were revived by GSH. The oxidative metabolism induced by Cd stress was profoundly influenced by exogenous GSH application. The microstructural alterations were mainly confined to chloroplastic regions of leaves under Cd-stressed conditions, which were greatly revived upon the GSH addition. As a whole, Cd stress greatly affected TM-1 as compared to Coker 312. These results suggest a positive role of GSH in alleviating Cd-mediated changes in different leaf sections of cotton cultivars.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Gossypium/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gossypium/ultraestrutura , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
16.
Parasitol Res ; 113(12): 4321-6, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25316581

RESUMO

Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral infection, is one of the major public health concerns in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Approximately, 2.5 billion people across the world are at risk from dengue and 50 to 100 million new infections of dengue occur annually. There is yet no vaccine or medicine available against dengue, and treatment remains only supportive. Targeting its vector by a combination of biological and chemical approaches and management of breeding sites are currently the only existing approaches to control or eliminate dengue. Chlorophyll derivatives like chlorophyllin and pheophorbide have been reported as effective natural photosensitizers against larvae of several insects including flies. Chlorophyll derivatives were also reported effective against larval stages of freshwater snails as well as against certain parasites of fish. This article briefly discusses the possible application of chlorophyll derivatives in controlling dengue vectors and hence the disease itself. Chlorophyll derivatives can prove to be a good contributor in an integrated approach against dengue.


Assuntos
Clorofila/química , Culicidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Animais , Humanos , Larva
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 21(24): 13929-42, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25056753

RESUMO

Water pollution with pathogenic microorganisms is one of the serious threats to human health, particularly in developing countries. The main objective of this article is to highlight microbial contamination of drinking water, the major factors responsible for microbial contamination, and the resulting health problems in Pakistan. Furthermore, this study will be helpful for researchers and administrative agencies to initiate relevant studies and develop new policies to protect further deterioration of water supply with pathogenic microbes and ensure clean and safe drinking water to the public in Pakistan. In Pakistan, water at the source, in the distribution network, and at the consumer tap is heavily polluted with coliforms and fecal coliforms all over the country. An overview of more than 7,000 water samples reviewed here reveals that an average of over 71 and 58 % samples in the country was contaminated with total coliforms and fecal coliforms, respectively. Drinking water contamination accounts for 20 to 40 % of all diseases in the country, which causes national income losses of Rs 25-58 billion annually (US$0.25-0.58 billion, approximately 0.6-1.44 % of the country's GDP). Improper disposal of industrial and municipal wastes is the most important factor responsible for water pollution in the country followed by cross-contamination due to old and leaking pipes and lack of water filtration and disinfection facilities. There is an urgent need for emergency steps to stop further deterioration of water quality and improve the existing water quality so as to protect the public from widespread waterborne diseases.


Assuntos
Água Potável/microbiologia , Água Doce/microbiologia , Poluição da Água , Humanos , Paquistão , Poluição da Água/economia , Abastecimento de Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água/economia
18.
Ecotoxicology ; 22(6): 1043-52, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23783251

RESUMO

Synthetic detergents are common pollutants reaching aquatic environments in different ways after usage at homes, institutions and industries. In this study a liquid detergent, used for dish washing, was evaluated for its toxicity during long- and short-term tests using the automatic biotest ECOTOX. Different parameters of Euglena gracilis like motility, swimming velocity, gravitactic orientation, cell compactness and cell growth were used as end points. In short-term experiments, the maximum adverse effects on motility, velocity, cell shape and gravitaxis were observed after 1 h of exposure. With further increase in exposure time to the detergent a slight recovery of these parameters was observed. In long-term experiments, the detergent caused severe disturbances to E. gracilis. Motility, cell growth and cell compactness (shape) with EC50 values of 0.064, 0.18 and 2.05 %, respectively, were found as the most sensitive parameters to detergent stress. There was a slight positive effect on gravitactic orientation at the lowest two concentrations; at higher concentrations of the detergent cells orientation was highly impaired giving EC50 values of 1.75 and 2.52 % for upward swimming and r-value, respectively.


Assuntos
Detergentes/toxicidade , Euglena gracilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Euglena gracilis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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