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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The management of patients with severe but asymptomatic aortic stenosis is challenging. Evidence on early aortic valve replacement (AVR) versus symptom-driven intervention in these patients is unknown. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched, articles comparing early-AVR with conservative management for severe aortic stenosis were identified. Pooled adjusted odds ratio (OR) was computed using a random-effect model to determine all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. RESULTS: A total of eight studies consisting of 2201 patients were identified. Early-AVR was associated with lower all-cause mortality [OR 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13-0.45, P ≤ 0.00001] and cardiovascular mortality (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06-0.70, P = 0.01) compared with conservative management. The number needed to treat to prevent 1 all-cause and cardiovascular mortality was 4 and 9, respectively. The odds of all-cause mortality in a selected patient population undergoing surgical AVR (SAVR) (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.09-0.29, P ≤ 0.00001) and SAVR or transcatheter AVR (TAVR) (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.35-0.81, P = 0.003) were significantly lower compared with patients who are managed conservatively. A subgroup sensitivity analysis based on severe aortic stenosis (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.11-0.52, P = 0.0004) versus very severe aortic stenosis (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.08-0.51, P = 0.0008) also mirrored the findings of overall results. CONCLUSION: Patients with asymptomatic aortic valve stenosis have lower odds of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality when managed with early-AVR compared with conservative management. However, because of significant heterogeneity in the classification of asymptomatic patients, large scale studies are required.

2.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; : 1-7, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) and its differentiation from anterior wall ST-elevation myocardial infarction on electrocardiography (ECG) has been a debate. METHODS: Six studies comparing ECG changes in TTS and AW-STEMI were identified. The primary endpoint was reciprocal changes, presence of Q-waves, and QT-interval. An unadjusted odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using Review Manager (RevMan) 5.3. RESULTS: Six studies consisting of 1090 patients (TTS = 220, AW-STEMI = 870) were included. Reciprocal changes on ECG were less commonly associated with TTS than AW STEMI with OR of 0.05 and 95%CI- 0.02-0.11 (P-<0.00001). Q-wave presence on ECG was comparable between the groups with OR-0.68, 95%CI-0.08-5.63 (p-0.72). QT interval on ECG was comparable between the two groups with OR-1.09, 95%CI-0.63-1.54 (p-<0.00001). There was minimal publication bias among the studies. CONCLUSION: AW STEMI is associated with reciprocal changes. Q-waves and QT interval has no differentiating significance between AW STEMI and TTS.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transradial coronary intervention (TR) has been shown to be associated with lower bleeding and length of stay compared to femoral artery access for coronary artery interventions. There is limited data on the efficacy and the safety of the TR for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO), particularly in comparison with the transfemoral approach (TF). Objectives: We sought to study the outcome and complications associated with TR compared with TF for CTO interventions. METHODS: After a systematic literature search was done in PubMed and EMBASE, we performed a meta-analysis of studies comparing TF and TR for CTO PCI. Results: Twelve studies with 19,309 patients were included. Compared to those who has TF access, individuals who were treated via TR approach had statistically significant lower access complication rates [odds ratio (OR): 0.33; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22 to 0.49; p < 0.0001]. The procedural success was in the favor of TR method (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.31-1. 51; p < 0.0001). The incidence of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and contrast-induced nephropathy were similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: When compared with TF access interventions in CTO PCI; the TR approach appears to be associated with far less access-site complications, higher procedural success, and comparable MACCE.

5.
Am J Cardiol ; 132: 22-28, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771221

RESUMO

Prasugrel and ticagrelor are preferred over clopidogrel for patients with acute coronary syndrome who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. We sought to determine the relative merits of 1 agent over the other. Multiple databases were queried to identify relevant randomized control trials (RCTs) and observational cohort studies. Random-effects model was used to calculate an unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for major adverse cardiovascular and cerbrovascular events (MACCE) and its components. A total of 27 (7 RCTs, 20 observational cohort studies) studies comprising 118,266 (prasugrel 62,716, ticagrelor 51,196) patients were included. At 30 days, prasugrel was associated with a significantly lower odds of MACCE (OR 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67 to 0.85, p ≤0.0001) and mortality (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.71, p ≤0.0001). At 1 year, the overall odds of mortality favored prasugrel (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.92, p = 0.002), but no significant interdrug difference was seen in terms of MACCE (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.05, p = 0.16). There was no significant difference in the odds of overall myocardial infarction, revascularization, stent thrombosis, stroke, and major bleeding events between the 2 groups on both 30-day and 1-year follow-up. A subgroup analysis of RCTs data showed no significant difference between prasugrel and ticagrelor in terms of any end point at all time points. In conclusion, prasugrel might have lower odds of MACCE and mortality at 30 days. However, there was no difference in the safety and efficacy end points of 2 drugs at 1 year. The observed transient prasugrel-related mortality benefits were subject to the bias of nonrandomized assignment.

6.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; : 1-7, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic total occlusion (CTO) is defined as coronary artery obstruction with no luminal continuity. Comparative outcomes of PCI in patients with in-stent CTO (IS-CTO) versus de-novo CTO are unclear. METHODS: An extensive literature search was done for outcomes of PCI in patients undergoing IS-CTO and de-novo CTO. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and secondary endpoints were cardiovascular mortality, MI, and procedural success. Odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using RevMan 5.3. RESULTS: Five studies consisting of 3,681 patients (IS-CTO = 464, de-novo CTO = 3,217) were included. PCI in IS-CTO was associated with a significantly higher odds of MACE (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.32-3.68, p = 0.002) and MI (OR 4.31, 95% CI 1.94-9.58, p = 0.0003) compared to patients with de-novo CTO. Mortality outcome (OR 1.49, 95% CI 0.93-2.39, p = 0.10) between the two groups was similar. Overall odds of procedural-success were similar among the groups (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.84-1.46, p = 0.47). CONCLUSION: PCI for in-stent CTO might be associated with higher odds of MACE and MI compared to PCI for de-novo CTO. However, cardiovascular mortality or failure of procedure are similar.

7.
J Interv Cardiol ; 2020: 4081642, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32774183

RESUMO

Background: The safety and efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for stable left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) remains controversial. Methods: Digital databases were searched to compare the major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and its components. A random effect model was used to compute an unadjusted odds ratio (OR). Results: A total of 43 studies (37 observational and 6 RCTs) consisting of 29,187 patients (PCI 13,709 and CABG 15,478) were identified. The 30-day rate of MACCE (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.42-0.76; p = 0.0002) and all-cause mortality (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.30-0.91; p = 0.02) was significantly lower in the PCI group. There was no significant difference in the rate of myocardial infarction (MI) (p = 0.17) and revascularization (p = 0.12). At 5 years, CABG was favored due to a significantly lower rate of MACCE (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.18-2.36; p = <0.04), MI (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.35-2.06; p = <0.00001), and revascularization (OR, 2.80; 95% CI, 2.18-3.60; p = <0.00001), respectively. PCI was associated with a lower overall rate of a stroke, while the risk of all-cause mortality was not significantly different between the two groups at 1- (p = 0.75), 5- (p = 0.72), and 10-years (p = 0.20). The Kaplan-Meier curve reconstruction revealed substantial variations over time; the 5-year incidence of MACCE was 38% with CABG, significantly lower than 45% with PCI (p = <0.00001). Conclusion: PCI might offer early safety advantages, while CABG provides greater durability in terms of lower long-term risk of ischemic events. There appears to be an equivalent risk for all-cause mortality.

9.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e21758, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was an unfounded fervor surrounding the use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and tocilizumab (TCZ); however, evidence on their efficacy and safety have been controversial. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the overall clinical effectiveness of HCQ and TCZ in patients with COVID-19. We hypothesize that HCQ and TCZ use in these patients will be associated with a reduction in in-hospital mortality, upgrade to intensive medical care, invasive mechanical ventilation, or acute renal failure needing dialysis. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed to determine the impact of HCQ and TCZ use on hard clinical outcomes during hospitalization. A total of 176 hospitalized patients with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis was included. Patients were divided into two comparison groups: (1) HCQ (n=144) vs no-HCQ (n=32) and (2) TCZ (n=32) vs no-TCZ (n=144). The mean age, baseline comorbidities, and other medications used during hospitalization were uniformly distributed among all the groups. Independent t tests and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to calculate mean differences and adjusted odds ratios with 95% CIs, respectively. RESULTS: The unadjusted odds ratio for patients upgraded to a higher level of care (ie, intensive care unit) (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.19-5.69; P=.003) and reductions in C-reactive protein (CRP) level on day 7 of hospitalization (21% vs 56%, OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.08-0.55; P=.002) were significantly higher in the TCZ group compared to the control group. There was no significant difference in the odds of in-hospital mortality, upgrade to intensive medical care, need for invasive mechanical ventilation, acute kidney failure necessitating dialysis, or discharge from the hospital after recovery in both the HCQ and TCZ groups compared to their respective control groups. Adjusted odds ratios controlled for baseline comorbidities and medications closely followed the unadjusted estimates. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of patients with COVID-19, neither HCQ nor TCZ offered a significant reduction in in-hospital mortality, upgrade to intensive medical care, invasive mechanical ventilation, or acute renal failure needing dialysis. These results are similar to the recently published preliminary results of the HCQ arm of the Recovery trial, which showed no clinical benefit from the use of HCQ in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (the TCZ arm is ongoing). Double-blinded randomized controlled trials are needed to further evaluate the impact of these drugs in larger patient samples so that data-driven guidelines can be deduced to combat this global pandemic.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 29: 100589, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724831

RESUMO

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly progressing global pandemic that may present with a variety of cardiac manifestations including, but not limited to, myocardial injury, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, heart failure, cardiomyopathy, shock, thromboembolism, and cardiac arrest. These cardiovascular effects are worse in patients who have pre-existing cardiac conditions such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coagulation abnormalities. Other predisposing risk factors include advanced age, immunocompromised state, and underlying systemic inflammatory conditions. Here we review the cellular pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and treatment modalities of the cardiac manifestations seen in patients with COVID-19.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A novel active fixation coronary sinus (CS) lead, Attain Stability (AS), has been released aiming to improve targeted lead positioning. Rather than being wedged into the distal vessel, it relies on a side helix for fixation. We aimed to compare implant procedure parameters and electromechanical stability of the AS lead with passive CS leads. METHODS: A retrospective study involving six major UK cardiac centers. Patients who received active fixation leads were compared with passive fixation lead recipients in a 1:2 ratio. The primary outcome was total lead displacements (combined macrodisplacement/microdisplacement, defined as displacements requiring repositioning procedures, an increase in threshold ≥0.5 V or pulse width ≥0.5 ms, or a change in pacing polarity). RESULTS: A total of 761 patients were included (253 AS leads and 508 passive fixation leads), of which 736 had follow-up data. The primary endpoint rate was 31% (75/241) in the active and 43% (214/495) in the passive group (p = .002). Six patients (2.5%) in the active group and 14 patients (2.8%) in the passive group required CS lead repositioning procedures (p = 0.981). On multivariable analysis, active leads were associated with a reduction in lead displacements, odds ratio 0.66 (95% confidence interval: 0.46-0.95), p = .024. There were differences in favor of passive leads in procedure duration, 120 (96-149) versus 127 (105-155) min (p = .008), and fluoroscopy time, 17 (11-26) versus 18.5 (13-27) min (p = .0022). The median follow-up duration was similar (active vs. passive): 31 (17-47) versus 34 (16-71) weeks, (p = .052). CONCLUSION: AS CS leads had improved electromechanical stability compared with passive fixation leads, with only minimal increases in implant procedure and fluoroscopy times.

12.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjunctive use of oral anticoagulant (OAC) and antiplatelet therapy (APT) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) is a challenge of daily practice. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of databases was performed to identify studies comparing the safety and efficacy of OAC monotherapy and combined therapy (OAC plus single (S) APT). Events including major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), all-cause mortality, stroke and major bleeding were analyzed. RESULTS: Seven articles comprising 11,070 subjects were identified. Combined therapy was associated with a significantly higher risk of major bleeding (pooled hazard ratio (HR) of 1.62, 95% CI 1.40-1.86, p=<0.0001) compared to the OAC monotherapy. There was no significant difference between the two comparison arms in terms of MACE (HR 1.14; 95% CI 0.97-1.34, p = 0.11), stroke (HR 1.05; 95% CI 0.77-1.43, p = 0.78) and all-cause mortality (HR 1.15; 95% CI 0.94-1.40, p = 0.16). Stratified analysis by inclusion of only patients with coronary stents attenuated the safety effect of monotherapy. Subgroup analysis based on the study design, type of OAC, major bleeding criteria and APT revealed findings consistent with the pooled HR. The combined therapy group had a 19% and 38% higher risk of MACE in studies with a history of MI (p = 0.03) and with the use of rivaroxaban (p = 0.02), respectively. CONCLUSION: OAC monotherapy might have a lower incidence of major bleeding events with no higher overall risk of MACE, ischemic stroke and all-cause mortality compared to the combined therapy group.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given current evidence, the use of colchicine for the prevention of adverse cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) remains controversial. METHODS: Multiple databases were queried to identify studies comparing the safety and efficacy of colchicine in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or stable angina. The relative risk (RR) of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events were calculated using a random-effect model. RESULTS: Six clinical trials comprising a total of 5820 patients were identified. The pooled RR of MACE (0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36-1.14, p = 0.13), ACS (0.62, 95% CI 0.27-1.41, p = 0.25), cardiac arrest (0.74, 95% CI 0.26-2.14, p = 0.58), stent restenosis (0.71, 95% CI 0.41-1.23, p = 0.22) and mortality (0.95, 95% CI 0.63-1.42, p = 0.79) with colchicine was not significantly different from placebo or control groups. The overall RR of revascularization (0.53, 95% CI 0.34-0.83, p = 0.005) and stroke (0.26, 95% CI 0.11-0.62, p = 0.002) was significantly lower while the net RR of GI adverse events was significantly higher (HR 2.66, 95% CI 1.21-5.87, p = 0.02) in the colchicine group. Propensity matched cohort, sensitivity and subgroup analysis based on adjusted MACE and dosages of colchicine all mirrored the overall results. CONCLUSION: In patients with CAD presenting with an acute coronary syndrome or stable angina, colchicine might offer no significant reduction in MACE and could potentially be harmful due to a significantly higher risk of GI-related adverse events.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) in patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is presumed to be high. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify articles comparing the rate of PVE in post-TAVR and post-surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) patients. Pooled adjusted odds ratio (OR) was computed using a random-effects model. RESULTS: A total of 19 studies consisting of 84,288 patients, were identified. There was no significant difference in the odds of PVE between patients undergoing TAVR and SAVR, at 30-day (OR 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20-1.92, p = 0.41), 1-year (OR 0.99 95% CI 0.89-1.11, p = 0.84), 2-year (OR 1.02 95% CI 0.68-1.54, p = 0.92) and 5-year (OR 1.03 95% CI 0.80-1.33, p = 0.81). A subgroup sensitivity analysis also showed no significant inter-group differences in the rate of PVE at all time points, when stratified by the study design (clinical trial vs. observational), type of TAVR valves used (self-expanding bioprosthetic valves vs. balloon expanded bioprosthetic valves) and surgical risk of patients (high vs. intermediate vs. low). There was no heterogeneity (I2 = 0%) in the outcomes of the included studies at 30-day, 1-year and 2-year, while the heterogeneity in studies at 5-year was minimal (I2 = 22%). CONCLUSIONS: In comparison to SAVR, both short and long-term risk of prosthetic valve endocarditis appears to be identical in patients undergoing TAVR. This risk is unaffected by the type of valve, duration of follow-up, study design and surgical risk of the patients.

15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(25): e20306, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine cost-effectiveness and the diagnostic accuracy of teleophthalmology (TO) in the detection of macular edema (ME) and various grades of diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched for TO, ME, and DR on May 25, 2016. The search was updated on April 2, 2019. Pooled sensitivity and specificity for ME and various grades of DR were determined using Meta-Disc software. A systematic review of the articles discussing the cost-effectiveness of TO screening was also performed. RESULTS: Thirty-three articles on the diagnostic accuracy and 28 articles on the cost-effectiveness were selected. CONCLUSIONS: Telescreening is moderately sensitive but very specific for the diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. Non-mydriatic Teleretinal screening services are cost-effective, decrease clinics workload, and increase patient compliance if provided free of cost in remote low socioeconomic regions.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Edema Macular/diagnóstico , Telemedicina/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos
18.
JACC Case Rep ; 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72215

RESUMO

A patient with Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) developed sudden shortness of breath and hypoxia. She was diagnosed with a massive pulmonary embolism (PE) complicated by right sided heart failure, which was successfully managed conservatively. This marks the first report of COVID-19 induced PE in association with acute heart failure.

19.
Int J Cardiol ; 315: 51-56, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32291170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited evidence is available to determine the efficacy of an antibacterial enveloped (AE) cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED). OBJECTIVE: To assess if the use of antibacterial enveloped devices in high-risk patients are associated with lower chances of major CIED infections and mortality compared to non-enveloped devices. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search on multiple databases was performed. The relative odds ratio (OR) of major CIED infection and mortality was calculated using a random-effect model. RESULTS: A total of six studies consisting of 11,897 patients, were included; 5844 with an AE-CIED and 6053 with conventional CIED. In the pooled cohort, patients with AE-CIED had a 66% lower odds of major CIED infection (OR 0.34, 0.13, 0.86, CI 95%, p = 0.02) compared to CIED. Propensity matched analysis showed a 71% lower odds of major infection in the AE-CIED group (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.10-0.82, p = 0.02). Stratified analysis based on the type of study (retrospective vs. prospective) and duration of follow up (6 months vs. greater than six months) also showed numerically lower infection odds in the AE-CIED. Similarly, the relative odds of mortality were lower in patients with AE-CIED (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.16-1.91, p = 0.34) compared to CIED patients; however, this difference was statistically non-significant. CONCLUSION: In high-risk patients, AE-CIED might offer lower odds of CIED infections. It has numerically lower (45%) but statistically non-significant odds of mortality if used in conjunction with the standard infection prevention protocol. More large scale studies and long-term follow-ups are required to validate our findings.

20.
JACC Case Rep ; 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313884

RESUMO

A patient with Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) developed sudden shortness of breath and hypoxia. She was diagnosed with a massive pulmonary embolism (PE) complicated by right sided heart failure, which was successfully managed conservatively. This marks the first report of COVID-19 induced PE in association with acute heart failure.

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