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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247018, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285617

RESUMO

Abstract The Rufous treepie (Dendrocitta vagabunda) belongs to family corvidae, order Passeriformes which includes about 100 species. The current study was conducted to gather information about the Population distribution and habitat analysis of D. vagabunda at District Abbottabad, Pakistan. The data were collected on monthly basis both morning and evening times (2018-2019). "The ''Point count Method" was used for population estimation and ''Quadrates Method" for habitat analysis of study area. The result shows an average month-wise population density of D. vagabunda was maximum at Jhangra 0.14±0.039/ha, whereas minimum at Havelian 0.11±0.022/ha. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) among monthly population densities of D. vagabunda, however, a significant difference (p<0.05) was found between morning and evening times population of the specie. The present study revealed that importance value index (IVI) of plants species at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 59.6±12.6, 50.1±6.9, 53.4±6.3, 66.8±10 and 60.1±7.7. Likewise, the frequency of shrubs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 33.3±4.2, 45±9.4, 46.7±8.2, 55.6±22.2 and 37.5±8.5. Similarly, the frequency of herbs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 40.4±6.0, 37.5±5.6, 53.3±7.4, 48.5±5.2 and 46.9±7.4 respectively. Our results show the study area as suitable habitat for D. vagabunda.


Resumo A trepadeira Rufous (Dendrocitta vagabunda) pertence à família corvidae, ordem Passeriformes que inclui cerca de 100 espécies. O estudo atual foi realizado para reunir informações sobre a distribuição da população e análise do habitat de D. vagabunda no distrito de Abbottabad, Paquistão. Os dados foram coletados mensalmente pela manhã e à noite (2018-2019). O "método de contagem de pontos" foi usado para estimativa da população e o "método dos quadrados" para análise de habitat da área de estudo. O resultado mostra que uma densidade populacional média mensal de D. vagabunda foi máxima em Jhangra 0,14 ± 0,039 / ha, enquanto a mínima em Havelian 0,11 ± 0,022/ha. Não houve diferença significativa (p> 0,05) entre as densidades populacionais mensais de D. vagabunda, entretanto foi encontrada diferença significativa (p <0,05) entre os períodos matutino e noturno da população da espécie. O presente estudo revelou que o índice de valor de importância (IVI) das espécies de plantas em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi de: 59,6 ± 12,6, 50,1 ± 6,9, 53,4 ± 6,3, 66,8 ± 10 e 60,1 ± 7,7. Da mesma forma, a frequência de arbustos em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi de: 33,3 ± 4,2, 45 ± 9,4, 46,7 ± 8,2, 55,6 ± 22,2 e 37,5 ± 8,5. Da mesma forma, a frequência de ervas em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi: 40,4 ± 6,0, 37,5 ± 5,6, 53,3 ± 7,4, 48,5 ± 5,2 e 46,9 ± 7,4, respectivamente. Nossos resultados mostram a área de estudo como habitat adequado para D. vagabunda.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247374, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285623

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity, distribution (C) and relative abundance (RA) of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) of Malakand and Dir Lower, Pakistan. Collection of specimens (n = 1087) was made during September 2018 to July 2019 at six different habitats including freshwater bodies, rice fields, animal sheds, indoors, drains and sewage waters. Specimens were collected through light traps, pyrethrum spray, aspirators and nets and subsequently killed, preserved and then arranged in entomological boxes for identification. Three genera were identified namely Culex, Anopheles and Aedes. A total of fourteen species were identified namely: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) and An. annularis (van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus was found constantly distributed in the study area with RA = 16.5% and C = 100%. An. annularis was found as a satellite species, sporadically distributed in the study area having RA = 0.9% and C = 17%. Diversity indices of mosquitoes in the studied habitats were found as, Shannon-Wiener Index (2.415), Simpson Index (9.919), Fisher's Index (2.269) and Margalef's Index (1.859). A statistically significant difference was recorded in mosquito diversity in the six habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared, H = 17.5, df = 5, P = 0.003 at α = 0.05). The present study encompasses mosquito fauna of Malakand, Pakistan with respect to diversity, relative abundance and distribution in diverse habitats and all seasons of the year. This will assist scientists working in various fields related with epidemiology, medical and veterinary entomology, ecology and allied areas of biological sciences.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a diversidade, distribuição (C) e abundância relativa (RA) da fauna de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) de Malakand e Dir Lower, Paquistão. A coleta de espécimes (n = 1087) foi feita durante o período de setembro de 2018 a julho de 2019 em seis habitats diferentes, incluindo corpos d'água, campos de arroz, galpões de animais, ambientes internos, ralos e águas residuais. Os espécimes foram coletados por meio de armadilhas luminosas, spray de piretro, aspiradores e redes e posteriormente mortos, preservados e depois dispostos em caixas entomológicas para identificação. Três gêneros foram identificados, nomeadamente Culex, Anopheles e Aedes. Um total de 14 espécies foi identificado, a saber: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) e An. annularis (Van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus foi encontrado constantemente distribuído na área de estudo com AR = 16,5% e C = 100%. A. annularis foi encontrada como espécie satélite, distribuída esporadicamente na área de estudo com RA = 0,9% e C = 17%. Os índices de diversidade de mosquitos nos habitats estudados foram encontrados como índice de Shannon-Wiener (2,415), índice de Simpson (9,919), índice de Fisher (2,269) e índice de Margalef (1,859). Uma diferença estatisticamente significativa foi registrada na diversidade de mosquitos nos seis habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, qui-quadrado, H = 17,5, df = 5, P = 0,003 em α = 0,05). O presente estudo abrange a fauna de mosquitos de Malakand, Paquistão, com respeito à diversidade, abundância relativa e distribuição em diversos habitats e em todas as estações do ano. Isso ajudará os cientistas que trabalham em vários campos relacionados com a epidemiologia, entomologia médica e veterinária, ecologia e áreas afins das ciências biológicas.

3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247890, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468530

RESUMO

Asiatic black bear is present in variety of habitats like broad-leaves and coniferous forests, extending form sea level to 4300m elevation and change their habitat for food purpose seasonally. The present study was conducted at Kaghan and Siran Valleys, District Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan to assess habitat of black bear. Line transect method was used for observation of bear signs. Twelve meter circular radius plots were selected for the concern vegetation's i.e. (trees, shrubs and herbs) and three to six plots were placed in each transect. At the result of sign survey, thirteen different categories of bear signs were recorded and encounter rate was calculated for each sign. A total of 1858 signs were observed during field surveys. Total (81%) coniferous species were recoded among trees, with the highest appearance of Pinus wallichiana (34.22%) and Spruce spp (27.76%), similarly broad leaves trees (18.56%) were also recoded from habitat plots. Most of the signs were encountered in bushy areas, whereas high number of Viburnum Spp (60.29%) was present. It is indicated that black bear prefers blend of Coniferous Trees, Viburnum and Ferns Species; probably because these plants provide enough food, protection, and meticulous shelter because more than 80% of habitat composed of these three species. Currently habitat destruction and increase in human population are the up-growing issues for wild animals (especially Asiatic black bear), which is highly sensitive to such problems. High levels of conservation efforts are recommended for the protection of black bear habitat and to avoid human interference in their territory.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Acetilcisteína , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Paquistão , Árvores
4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e250373, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550295

RESUMO

Honey is a suitable matrix for the evaluation of environmental contaminants including organochlorine insecticides. The present study was conducted to evaluate residues of fifteen organochlorine insecticides in honey samples of unifloral and multifloral origins from Dir, Pakistan. Honey samples (5 g each) were extracted with GC grade organic solvents and then subjected to Rotary Evaporator till dryness. The extracts were then mixed with n-Hexane (5 ml) and purified through Column Chromatography. Purified extracts (1µl each) were processed through Gas Chromatograph coupled with Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) for identification and quantification of the insecticides. Of the 15 insecticides tested, 46.7% were detected while 53.3% were not detected in the honey samples. Heptachlor was the most prevalent insecticide with a mean level of 0.0018 mg/kg detected in 80% of the samples followed by ß-HCH with a mean level of 0.0016 mg/kg detected in 71.4% of the honey samples. Honey samples from Acacia modesta Wall. were 100% positive for Heptachlor with a mean level of 0.0048 mg/kg followed by ß-HCH with a mean level of 0.003 mg/kg and frequency of 83.3%. Minimum levels of the tested insecticides were detected in the unifloral honey from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Methoxychlor, Endosulfan, Endrin and metabolites of DDT were not detected in the studied honey samples. Some of the tested insecticides are banned in Pakistan but are still detected in honey samples indicating their use in the study area. The detected levels of all insecticides were below the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) and safe for consumers. However, the levels detected can cause mortality in insect fauna. The use of banned insecticides is one of the main factors responsible for the declining populations of important insect pollinators including honeybees.

5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247018, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431914

RESUMO

The Rufous treepie (Dendrocitta vagabunda) belongs to family corvidae, order Passeriformes which includes about 100 species. The current study was conducted to gather information about the Population distribution and habitat analysis of D. vagabunda at District Abbottabad, Pakistan. The data were collected on monthly basis both morning and evening times (2018-2019). "The ''Point count Method" was used for population estimation and ''Quadrates Method" for habitat analysis of study area. The result shows an average month-wise population density of D. vagabunda was maximum at Jhangra 0.14±0.039/ha, whereas minimum at Havelian 0.11±0.022/ha. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) among monthly population densities of D. vagabunda, however, a significant difference (p<0.05) was found between morning and evening times population of the specie. The present study revealed that importance value index (IVI) of plants species at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 59.6±12.6, 50.1±6.9, 53.4±6.3, 66.8±10 and 60.1±7.7. Likewise, the frequency of shrubs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 33.3±4.2, 45±9.4, 46.7±8.2, 55.6±22.2 and 37.5±8.5. Similarly, the frequency of herbs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 40.4±6.0, 37.5±5.6, 53.3±7.4, 48.5±5.2 and 46.9±7.4 respectively. Our results show the study area as suitable habitat for D. vagabunda.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Animais , Paquistão , Densidade Demográfica
6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247374, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431916

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity, distribution (C) and relative abundance (RA) of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) of Malakand and Dir Lower, Pakistan. Collection of specimens (n = 1087) was made during September 2018 to July 2019 at six different habitats including freshwater bodies, rice fields, animal sheds, indoors, drains and sewage waters. Specimens were collected through light traps, pyrethrum spray, aspirators and nets and subsequently killed, preserved and then arranged in entomological boxes for identification. Three genera were identified namely Culex, Anopheles and Aedes. A total of fourteen species were identified namely: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) and An. annularis (van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus was found constantly distributed in the study area with RA = 16.5% and C = 100%. An. annularis was found as a satellite species, sporadically distributed in the study area having RA = 0.9% and C = 17%. Diversity indices of mosquitoes in the studied habitats were found as, Shannon-Wiener Index (2.415), Simpson Index (9.919), Fisher's Index (2.269) and Margalef's Index (1.859). A statistically significant difference was recorded in mosquito diversity in the six habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared, H = 17.5, df = 5, P = 0.003 at α = 0.05). The present study encompasses mosquito fauna of Malakand, Pakistan with respect to diversity, relative abundance and distribution in diverse habitats and all seasons of the year. This will assist scientists working in various fields related with epidemiology, medical and veterinary entomology, ecology and allied areas of biological sciences.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Animais , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Paquistão , Estações do Ano
7.
Poult Sci ; 97(11): 3884-3890, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107574

RESUMO

Floor type management is an important factor in turkey production in hot climates exceeding 30°C. In this study, a total of 360 turkeys aged 4 wk were randomly distributed to investigate growth performance, carcass characteristics, certain health aspects (breast blisters score, footpad burns, hock discoloration, and plumage condition), and airborne conditions. Birds in the first group were raised on a littered floor (control; C), whereas birds in the other groups (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5) were raised on cement, wire net, rubber mat, plastic and wooden slatted floors, respectively. The results indicated that growth performance and meat quality were improved, with increases in body weight, daily body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and tenderness and juiciness values, when plastic and wooden slatted floors were used. Moreover, the use of plastic and wooden slatted floors attenuated body temperature, airborne dust particulates, and ammonia concentrations. In conclusion, placing plastic, wooden slatted, or wire floors reduced the incidence of health disorders and alleviated heat stress effects by decreasing body temperature and the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Thus, plastic and wooden slatted floors are suitable for growing turkeys under the conditions of this study.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos/classificação , Abrigo para Animais/classificação , Clima Tropical , Perus/fisiologia , Animais , Egito , Distribuição Aleatória
8.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 102(1): e395-e402, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28612954

RESUMO

This experiment was conducted to assess nutritional potential of corn steep liquor (CSL) as an alternative protein source in broiler's diet. A total of 280-day-old unsexed broiler chicks were randomly distributed into four experimental groups in a simple randomised experimental design (each group had seven replicates; 10 birds per each). Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric broiler starter and finisher diets (C, LCSL, MCSL and HCSL) were formulated containing 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% CSL respectively. Results revealed that chicks fed MCSL diet had significantly (p ≤ .05) the heaviest Body weight, highest Body weight gain and the lowest feed conversion ratio followed by those fed HCSL diet. In the starter period, LCSL and MCSL diets resulted in better (p ≤ .05) dry matter (DM) (89.57%) and crude protein (67.67%) digestibilities respectively. In the finisher period, DM, crude fibre and fat digestibilities were not affected by CSL inclusion levels; while crude protein digestibility was significantly (p ≤ .05) high in the groups fed LCSL and HCSL diets. The CSL inclusion had no effect on blood haematology except serum uric acid, which tended to increase with increasing CSL levels. No microscopic changes were exhibited on liver, heart, kidneys and intestine of birds across all dietary treatments. However, crops in birds fed HCSL diet showed moderate to severe hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the mucosal lining. The study showed that CSL could be added up to 15% in broiler's diet without any adverse effect on bird's performance.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Zea mays/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Galinhas/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Ganho de Peso
10.
Drug Discov Ther ; 5(1): 53-9, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22466096

RESUMO

Matrix type transdermal therapeutic systems (TTS) of glibenclamide were formulated using polymers Eudragit RL 100, ethyl cellulose, PVP K-30, and polyvinyl acetate, and citral was used as the penetration enhancer. The polymer films were formulated with Eudragit RL 100 and PVP K-30 in different ratios and subsequently subjected to ex vivo studies (drug permeation through rat skin) followed by interaction studies, skin irritation studies, accelerated stability analysis, and in vivo studies (determination of blood glucose level in rabbits). The drug content of the formulations was found to be 99.1-99.2%. The cumulative percentages of drug permeated through rat skin from the three selected formulations in 48 h were 95.3%, 98.8%, and 99%, respectively. A plot between cumulative percent of drug permeated and square root of time exhibited linear curves, which suggests the Higuchian matrix mechanism of drug release. The formulation containing Eudragit RL 100 and PVP K-30 showed better improvement in hypoglycemic activity in rabbits (56.2-60.8% reduction in blood glucose level, p < 0.05). There were fewer fluctuations in blood glucose level as compared to oral therapy due to controlled release of the active pharmaceutical ingredient, and no interaction was found between the drug and excipients of the formulation. Accelerated stability analysis showed that the formulation was stable up to 5.5 years, with negligible skin irritation. The formulation precluded severe hypoglycemic reactions (side effect of sulfonylureas) and was effective for management of diabetes mellitus up to 48 h, with a single TTS.

11.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 87(1): F52-4, 2002 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12091293

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the spectrum of organisms causing neonatal sepsis in Peshawar, Pakistan and to assess their sensitivity to various groups of drugs. METHODS: Blood taken from newborn babies admitted to the special care baby unit at the Khyber Teaching Hospital with a clinical diagnosis of neonatal sepsis was cultured. The data obtained from October 1997 to December 2000 were analysed and the results tabulated. RESULTS: A total of 1598 blood cultures were taken; 1003 were positive (positivity rate 62.8%). Escherichia coli was the most common organism found (36.6%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (29.5%), Pseudomonas (22.4%), Klebsiella (7.6%), and Proteus (3.8%). No group B streptococcus was grown. Listeria monocytogenes was found in one cerebrospinal fluid culture. E coli and Pseudomonas showed a high degree of resistance to commonly used antibiotics (ampicillin, augmentin, and gentamicin), a moderate degree of resistance to cephalosporin (cefotaxime, ceftzidime, and ceftrioxone), and low resistance to drugs not used for newborn babies (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and enoxabid). S aureus showed a low resistance to all three groups of antibiotics. CONCLUSION: Neonatal sepsis remains one of the leading causes of neonatal admission, morbidity, and mortality in developing countries. Gram negative organisms are the major cause of neonatal sepsis in Peshawar. Such organisms have developed multidrug resistance, and management of patients infected with them is becoming a problem in developing countries.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia
12.
Virology ; 275(2): 433-43, 2000 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10998341

RESUMO

Viral replication depends on compatible interactions between a virus and its host. For RNA viruses, the viral replicases (RNA-dependent RNA polymerases; RdRps) often associate with components of the host translational apparatus. To date, host factors interacting with potyvirus replicases have not been identified. The Potyviridae, which form the largest and most economically important plant virus family, have numerous similarities with the animal virus family, the Picornaviridae. Potyviruses have a single-stranded, plus sense genome; replication initiates at the viral-encoded, 3' poly-(A) terminus. The yeast two-hybrid system was used to identify host plant proteins associating with the RdRp of zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus (ZYMV). Several cDNA clones representing a single copy of a poly-(A) binding protein (PABP) gene were isolated from a cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaf cDNA library. Deletion analysis indicated that the C-terminus of the PABP is necessary and sufficient for interaction with the RdRp. Full-length cucumber PABP cDNA was obtained using 5' RACE; in vitro and Escherichia coli-expressed PABP bound to poly-(A)-Sepharose and ZYMY RdRp with or without the presence of poly-(A). This is the first report of an interaction between a viral replicase and PABP and may implicate a role for host PABP in the potyviral infection process.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus/virologia , Potyvirus/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , DNA Complementar/isolamento & purificação , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli(A) , Potyvirus/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
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