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2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1893, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015461

RESUMO

Birthweight is associated with health outcomes across the life course, DNA methylation may be an underlying mechanism. In this meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of 8,825 neonates from 24 birth cohorts in the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium, we find that DNA methylation in neonatal blood is associated with birthweight at 914 sites, with a difference in birthweight ranging from -183 to 178 grams per 10% increase in methylation (PBonferroni < 1.06 x 10-7). In additional analyses in 7,278 participants, <1.3% of birthweight-associated differential methylation is also observed in childhood and adolescence, but not adulthood. Birthweight-related CpGs overlap with some Bonferroni-significant CpGs that were previously reported to be related to maternal smoking (55/914, p = 6.12 x 10-74) and BMI in pregnancy (3/914, p = 1.13x10-3), but not with those related to folate levels in pregnancy. Whether the associations that we observe are causal or explained by confounding or fetal growth influencing DNA methylation (i.e. reverse causality) requires further research.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Genoma Humano , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Ilhas de CpG , DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Feto , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/genética
3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 665-684, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929738

RESUMO

The extent to which genetic risk factors are shared between childhood-onset (COA) and adult-onset (AOA) asthma has not been estimated. On the basis of data from the UK Biobank study (n = 447,628), we found that the variance in disease liability explained by common variants is higher for COA (onset at ages between 0 and 19 years; h2g = 25.6%) than for AOA (onset at ages between 20 and 60 years; h2g = 10.6%). The genetic correlation (rg) between COA and AOA was 0.67. Variation in age of onset among COA-affected individuals had a low heritability (h2g = 5%), which we confirmed in independent studies and also among AOA-affected individuals. To identify subtype-specific genetic associations, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in the UK Biobank for COA (13,962 affected individuals) and a separate GWAS for AOA (26,582 affected individuals) by using a common set of 300,671 controls for both studies. We identified 123 independent associations for COA and 56 for AOA (37 overlapped); of these, 98 and 34, respectively, were reproducible in an independent study (n = 262,767). Collectively, 28 associations were not previously reported. For 96 COA-associated variants, including five variants that represent COA-specific risk factors, the risk allele was more common in COA- than in AOA-affected individuals. Conversely, we identified three variants that are stronger risk factors for AOA. Variants associated with obesity and smoking had a stronger contribution to the risk of AOA than to the risk of COA. Lastly, we identified 109 likely target genes of the associated variants, primarily on the basis of correlated expression quantitative trait loci (up to n = 31,684). GWAS informed by age of onset can identify subtype-specific risk variants, which can help us understand differences in pathophysiology between COA and AOA and so can be informative for drug development.

4.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(5): 855-865, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze how parental education modifies the genetic and environmental variances of BMI from infancy to old age in three geographic-cultural regions. METHODS: A pooled sample of 29 cohorts including 143,499 twin individuals with information on parental education and BMI from age 1 to 79 years (299,201 BMI measures) was analyzed by genetic twin modeling. RESULTS: Until 4 years of age, parental education was not consistently associated with BMI. Thereafter, higher parental education level was associated with lower BMI in males and females. Total and additive genetic variances of BMI were smaller in the offspring of highly educated parents than in those whose parents had low education levels. Especially in North American and Australian children, environmental factors shared by co-twins also contributed to the higher BMI variation in the low education level category. In Europe and East Asia, the associations of parental education with mean BMI and BMI variance were weaker than in North America and Australia. CONCLUSIONS: Lower parental education level is associated with higher mean BMI and larger genetic variance of BMI after early childhood, especially in the obesogenic macro-environment. The interplay among genetic predisposition, childhood social environment, and macro-social context is important for socioeconomic differences in BMI.

5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2062-2074, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms, including methylation, can contribute to childhood asthma. Identifying DNA methylation profiles in asthmatic patients can inform disease pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify differential DNA methylation in newborns and children related to childhood asthma. METHODS: Within the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics consortium, we performed epigenome-wide meta-analyses of school-age asthma in relation to CpG methylation (Illumina450K) in blood measured either in newborns, in prospective analyses, or cross-sectionally in school-aged children. We also identified differentially methylated regions. RESULTS: In newborns (8 cohorts, 668 cases), 9 CpGs (and 35 regions) were differentially methylated (epigenome-wide significance, false discovery rate < 0.05) in relation to asthma development. In a cross-sectional meta-analysis of asthma and methylation in children (9 cohorts, 631 cases), we identified 179 CpGs (false discovery rate < 0.05) and 36 differentially methylated regions. In replication studies of methylation in other tissues, most of the 179 CpGs discovered in blood replicated, despite smaller sample sizes, in studies of nasal respiratory epithelium or eosinophils. Pathway analyses highlighted enrichment for asthma-relevant immune processes and overlap in pathways enriched both in newborns and children. Gene expression correlated with methylation at most loci. Functional annotation supports a regulatory effect on gene expression at many asthma-associated CpGs. Several implicated genes are targets for approved or experimental drugs, including IL5RA and KCNH2. CONCLUSION: Novel loci differentially methylated in newborns represent potential biomarkers of risk of asthma by school age. Cross-sectional associations in children can reflect both risk for and effects of disease. Asthma-related differential methylation in blood in children was substantially replicated in eosinophils and respiratory epithelium.

6.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 27(10): 1139-1146, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29862608

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Risk factors and consequences of asthma can be studied by using validated questionnaires. The overall objective of this study was to assess the agreement of parental-reported asthma-related questions regarding their children against Swedish health care registers. METHODS: We linked a population-based twin cohort of 27 055 children aged 9 to 12 years to the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, National Patient Register, and the primary care register. Parent-reported asthma was obtained from questionnaires, and diagnoses and medication were retrieved from the registers. For the agreement between the questionnaire and the registers, Cohen's kappa was estimated. RESULTS: The kappa of the "reported ever asthma" against a "register-based ever asthma" was 0.69 and 0.57 between the parental-"reported doctor's diagnosis" and "register-based doctor's diagnosis." The highest agreement between "reported current asthma" and "register-based current asthma" with at least 1 dispensed medication or a diagnosis applied to different time windows was seen for an 18-month window (kappa = 0.70). CONCLUSIONS: We found that parent-reported asthma-related questions showed on average good agreement with the Swedish health care registers. This implies that in-depth questionnaires with rich information on phenotypes are suitable proxies for asthma in general and can be used for health care research purposes.

7.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6300, 2018 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29674730

RESUMO

It is well established that boys are born heavier and longer than girls, but it remains unclear whether birth size in twins is affected by the sex of their co-twin. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 21 twin cohorts in 15 countries derived from the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), including 67,850 dizygotic twin individuals. Linear regression analyses showed that boys having a co-twin sister were, on average, 31 g (95% CI 18 to 45) heavier and 0.16 cm (95% CI 0.045 to 0.274) longer than those with a co-twin brother. In girls, birth size was not associated (5 g birth weight; 95% CI -8 to -18 and -0.089 cm birth length; 95% CI -0.202 to 0.025) with the sex of the co-twin. Gestational age was slightly shorter in boy-boy pairs than in boy-girl and girl-girl pairs. When birth size was standardized by gestational age, the magnitude of the associations was attenuated in boys, particularly for birth weight. In conclusion, boys with a co-twin sister are heavier and longer at birth than those with a co-twin brother. However, these differences are modest and partly explained by a longer gestation in the presence of a co-twin sister.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29679657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified 99 loci that contain genetic risk variants shared between asthma, hay fever, and eczema. Many more risk loci shared between these common allergic diseases remain to be discovered, which could point to new therapeutic opportunities. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify novel risk loci shared between asthma, hay fever, and eczema by applying a gene-based test of association to results from a published GWAS that included data from 360,838 subjects. METHODS: We used approximate conditional analysis to adjust the results from the published GWAS for the effects of the top risk variants identified in that study. We then analyzed the adjusted GWAS results with the EUGENE gene-based approach, which combines evidence for association with disease risk across regulatory variants identified in different tissues. Novel gene-based associations were followed up in an independent sample of 233,898 subjects from the UK Biobank study. RESULTS: Of the 19,432 genes tested, 30 had a significant gene-based association at a Bonferroni-corrected P value of 2.5 × 10-6. Of these, 20 were also significantly associated (P < .05/30 = .0016) with disease risk in the replication sample, including 19 that were located in 11 loci not reported to contain allergy risk variants in previous GWASs. Among these were 9 genes with a known function that is directly relevant to allergic disease: FOSL2, VPRBP, IPCEF1, PRR5L, NCF4, APOBR, IL27, ATXN2L, and LAT. For 4 genes (eg, ATXN2L), a genetically determined decrease in gene expression was associated with decreased allergy risk, and therefore drugs that inhibit gene expression or function are predicted to ameliorate disease symptoms. The opposite directional effect was observed for 14 genes, including IL27, a cytokine known to suppress TH2 responses. CONCLUSION: Using a gene-based approach, we identified 11 risk loci for allergic disease that were not reported in previous GWASs. Functional studies that investigate the contribution of the 19 associated genes to the pathophysiology of allergic disease and assess their therapeutic potential are warranted.

9.
Early Hum Dev ; 120: 53-60, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that birth size is positively associated with height in later life, but it remains unclear whether this is explained by genetic factors or the intrauterine environment. AIM: To analyze the associations of birth weight, length and ponderal index with height from infancy through adulthood within mono- and dizygotic twin pairs, which provides insights into the role of genetic and environmental individual-specific factors. METHODS: This study is based on the data from 28 twin cohorts in 17 countries. The pooled data included 41,852 complete twin pairs (55% monozygotic and 45% same-sex dizygotic) with information on birth weight and a total of 112,409 paired height measurements at ages ranging from 1 to 69 years. Birth length was available for 19,881 complete twin pairs, with a total of 72,692 paired height measurements. The association between birth size and later height was analyzed at both the individual and within-pair level by linear regression analyses. RESULTS: Within twin pairs, regression coefficients showed that a 1-kg increase in birth weight and a 1-cm increase in birth length were associated with 1.14-4.25 cm and 0.18-0.90 cm taller height, respectively. The magnitude of the associations was generally greater within dizygotic than within monozygotic twin pairs, and this difference between zygosities was more pronounced for birth length. CONCLUSION: Both genetic and individual-specific environmental factors play a role in the association between birth size and later height from infancy to adulthood, with a larger role for genetics in the association with birth length than with birth weight.

10.
Acta Paediatr ; 107(6): 1003-1010, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29385276

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to investigate the associations between perceived maternal stress or salivary cortisol levels during pregnancy and birthweight. METHODS: In 2010-2012, we recruited 92 women living in Stockholm, Sweden, and followed them from before conception and through pregnancy and childbirth. Their Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) scores and salivary cortisol levels were collected at 26-28 gestational weeks. Birthweight was collected from medical records. Linear regression analyses and Pearson correlations were performed between the PSS scores or cortisol levels and birthweight, respectively, adjusted for gestational age. RESULTS: No significant associations were found between PSS scores or cortisol levels and birthweight. There was a trend towards higher salivary cortisol levels among infants with lower birthweights, and this effect was attenuated after adjusting for gestational age. Morning cortisol levels (r = -0.31, p = 0.01), the decline in cortisol levels (r = -0.26, p = 0.03) and evening cortisol levels (r = -0.21, p = 0.09) were negatively correlated with PSS scores. CONCLUSION: Maternal stress during pregnancy was not associated with birthweight. The inverse correlation between PSS scores and cortisol levels may indicate other mechanisms for maternal stress on child outcomes than the previous explanation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity.

11.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 20(5): 395-405, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28975875

RESUMO

Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990-1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Modelos Genéticos , Gêmeos Dizigóticos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Nat Genet ; 49(12): 1752-1757, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29083406

RESUMO

Asthma, hay fever (or allergic rhinitis) and eczema (or atopic dermatitis) often coexist in the same individuals, partly because of a shared genetic origin. To identify shared risk variants, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS; n = 360,838) of a broad allergic disease phenotype that considers the presence of any one of these three diseases. We identified 136 independent risk variants (P < 3 × 10-8), including 73 not previously reported, which implicate 132 nearby genes in allergic disease pathophysiology. Disease-specific effects were detected for only six variants, confirming that most represent shared risk factors. Tissue-specific heritability and biological process enrichment analyses suggest that shared risk variants influence lymphocyte-mediated immunity. Six target genes provide an opportunity for drug repositioning, while for 36 genes CpG methylation was found to influence transcription independently of genetic effects. Asthma, hay fever and eczema partly coexist because they share many genetic risk variants that dysregulate the expression of immune-related genes.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Eczema/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Hipersensibilidade/genética , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
13.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 20(4): 330-337, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28724478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The link between asthma and exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to estimate the association between FENO and asthma, taking genetics, sensitization, and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) into account. METHODS: A total of 681 twins (53% monozygotic [MZ] and 47% dizygotic [DZ]) from the population-based STOPPA study (mean age 12.6 years) were recruited and information on FENO (parts per billion), parental report of current asthma, sensitization to airborne allergens (Phadiatop; IgE ≥0.35 kUA/l), and ICS-treatment was collected. We estimated the association between FENO and asthma, sensitization, and ICS in all twins and within pairs (DZ and MZ) to address shared genetic and environmental factors. Linear regression of log-transformed FENO was used and results presented as exponentiated regression coefficients (exp[ß]), with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: We found an association between asthma and FENO in all twins, exp(ß) 1.31 [1.11, 1.54]. In within-pairs analysis, the association was stronger within DZ pairs discordant for FENO, exp(ß) 1.50 [1.19, 1.89], compared to MZ pairs, exp(ß) 1.07 [0.84, 1.37], p = .049. There was no difference in FENO in non-sensitized children with asthma, compared to children with neither asthma nor sensitization, exp(ß) 0.89 [0.77, 1.03]. However, increased FENO was associated with sensitization, exp(ß) 1.48 [1.30, 1.69], and with sensitization together with asthma, exp(ß) 1.98 [1.57, 2.51], in all twins and within DZ pairs discordant for FENO, but not in MZ pairs. The FENO asthma association remained in DZ pairs without regular ICS-treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The association between FENO and asthma is explained by genetics and sensitization.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Asma/metabolismo , Expiração , Óxido Nítrico/genética , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Gêmeos Dizigóticos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 14(7): 1147-1153, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28398078

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Associations between fetal growth restriction and lung function impairment could be due to gestational age as well as shared (familial) genetic and environmental factors. OBJECTIVES: To study the association between fetal growth and lung function in childhood while taking gestational age and familial factors into account. METHODS: First, full-cohort analyses of twins were performed to study the association between birth weight, gestational age, fetal growth, and lung function (FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC) in z-scores before (n = 520) and after (n = 539) bronchodilator treatment. Second, to control for gestational age and familial factors, within-twin-pair analyses were performed. RESULTS: Regarding full-cohort post-bronchodilator treatment, FEV1 was significantly associated with a decrease in birth weight (-0.16 z-score per 500 g; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.28 to -0.04) and fetal growth (-0.15 z-score per 1 SD decrease; 95% CI, -0.26 to -0.04), and similar and significant associations for FVC with birth weight and fetal growth were also seen. Nonsignificant associations for FEV1 and FVC with gestational age were found. The direction of effect was similar in pre-bronchodilator analyses, although with somewhat less strong and nonsignificant effect estimates for both FEV1 and FVC with fetal growth. No associations were found between any of the exposure variables and FEV1/FVC either pre- or post-bronchodilator. In the within-twin-pair analyses, the direction of effect appeared similar to that of the whole cohort, but the CIs were wider. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that there is a significant association between restricted fetal growth and post-bronchodilator FEV1 and FVC, but not FEV1/FVC, in childhood that may be independent of gestational age and shared familial factors.


Assuntos
Asma/prevenção & controle , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Pulmão/fisiologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Pré-Escolar , Previsões , Humanos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Suécia
15.
Respirology ; 22(3): 460-465, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27859946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Understanding the associations between childhood asthma and growth in early adolescence by accounting for the heterogeneity of growth during puberty has been largely unexplored. The objective was to identify sex-specific classes of growth trajectories during early adolescence, using a method which takes the heterogeneity of growth into account and to evaluate the association between childhood asthma and different classes of growth trajectories in adolescence. METHODS: Our longitudinal study included participants with a family history of asthma born during 1997-1999 in Sydney, Australia. Hence, all participants were at high risk for asthma. Asthma status was ascertained at 8 years of age using data from questionnaires and lung function tests. Growth trajectories between 11 and 14 years of age were classified using a latent basis growth mixture model. Multinomial regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between asthma and the categorized classes of growth trajectories. RESULTS: In total, 316 participants (51.6% boys), representing 51.3% of the entire cohort, were included. Sex-specific classes of growth trajectories were defined. Among boys, asthma was not associated with the classes of growth trajectories. Girls with asthma were more likely than girls without asthma to belong to a class with later growth (OR: 3.79, 95% CI: 1.33, 10.84). Excluding participants using inhaled corticosteroids or adjusting for confounders did not significantly change the results for either sex. CONCLUSION: We identified sex-specific heterogeneous classes of growth using growth mixture modelling. Associations between childhood asthma and different classes of growth trajectories were found for girls only.


Assuntos
Asma/fisiopatologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Adolescente , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Austrália , Estatura , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Puberdade , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 18(3): 273-80, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25900604

RESUMO

Asthma is a common childhood disease and several risk factors have been identified; however, the impact of genes and environment is not fully understood. The aim of the Swedish Twin study On Prediction and Prevention of Asthma (STOPPA) is to identify environmental (birth characteristics and early life) and genetic (including epigenetic) factors as determinants for asthmatic disease. Based on the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) (parental interview at 9 or 12 years, N ~23,900) and an asthma and/or wheezing algorithm, we identified a sample of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) same-sexed twin pairs. The twin pairs were classified as asthma concordant (ACC), asthma discordant (ADC) and healthy concordant (HCC). A sample of 9- to 14-year-old twins and their parents were invited to participate in a clinical examination. Background characteristics were collected in questionnaires and obtained from the National Health Registers. A clinical examination was performed to test lung function and capacity (spirometry with reversibility test and exhaled nitric oxide) and collect blood (serology and DNA), urine (metabolites), feces (microbiota), and saliva (cortisol). In total, 376 twin pairs (752 individual twins) completed the study, response rate 52%. All participating twins answered the questionnaire and >90% participated in lung function testing, blood-, and saliva sampling. This article describes the design, recruitment, data collection, measures, and background characteristics, as well as ongoing and planned analyses in STOPPA. Potential gains of the study include the identification of biomarkers, the emergence of candidates for drug development, and new leads for prevention of asthma and allergic disease.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Doenças em Gêmeos/epidemiologia , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Algoritmos , Asma/genética , Asma/prevenção & controle , Testes Respiratórios , Criança , DNA/sangue , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Doenças em Gêmeos/prevenção & controle , Eicosanoides/urina , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Testes Hematológicos , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Microbiota , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Pais , Puberdade , Sistema de Registros , Projetos de Pesquisa , Sons Respiratórios , Fatores de Risco , Saliva/química , Espirometria , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/psicologia , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/psicologia
18.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 18(3): 256-65, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25900713

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-random selection into a study population due to differences between consenters and non-consenters may introduce participation bias. Past investigations of factors predicting consent to collection of medical health records for research imply that age, sex, health status, and education are of importance for participation, but disagree on the direction of effects. Very little is known about influences on consent from adolescents. METHODS: Two cohorts of Swedish 15-year-old twins (total n = 4,611) previously invited to the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) responded to a questionnaire with information on sex, individual's health, height, weight, and parental factors. The questionnaire included a question for consent to collection of medical health records. Predictors for consent were analyzed using logistic regression. Additionally, regional differences in the collection of health records of consenters were evaluated. RESULTS: Males were significantly less likely to consent compared to females (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.64-0.85). The twin siblings' decision to consent was strongly associated with consent (OR 10.9, 95% CI 8.76-13.5), and individuals whose parents had responded to the original CATSS study were more likely to consent to record collection at age 15 (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.81-2.75). Results of the subsequent collection of consenters' medical health records varied between geographical regions of Sweden. CONCLUSION: We identified several predictors for adolescents' consent to collection of their medical health records. Further selection was introduced through the subsequent record collection. Whether this will induce participation bias in future studies depends on the research questions' relationship to the identified predictors.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Cooperativo , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Registros Médicos , Psicologia do Adolescente , Pesquisa , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/psicologia , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropometria , Viés , Estudos de Coortes , Coleta de Dados , Doenças em Gêmeos/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Idade Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais/educação , Idade Paterna , Recusa de Participação , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Irmãos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia/epidemiologia , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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