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1.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 30(7): 1323-1334, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35785479

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The metabolic dysfunction driven by obesity, including hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, increases risk for developing at least 13 cancer types. The concept of "metabolic dysfunction" is often defined by meeting various combinations of criteria for metabolic syndrome. However, the lack of a unified definition of metabolic dysfunction makes it difficult to compare findings across studies. This review summarizes 129 studies that evaluated variable definitions of metabolic dysfunction in relation to obesity-related cancer risk and mortality after a cancer diagnosis. Strategies for metabolic dysfunction management are also discussed. METHODS: A comprehensive search of relevant publications in MEDLINE (PubMed) and Google Scholar with review of references was conducted. RESULTS: Metabolic dysfunction, defined as metabolic syndrome diagnosis or any number of metabolic syndrome criteria out of clinical range, inflammatory biomarkers, or markers of metabolic organ function, has been associated with risk for, and mortality from, colorectal, pancreatic, postmenopausal breast, and bladder cancers. Metabolic dysfunction associations with breast and colorectal cancer risk have been observed independently of BMI, with increased risk in individuals with metabolically unhealthy normal weight or overweight/obesity compared with metabolically healthy normal weight. CONCLUSION: Metabolic dysfunction is a key risk factor for obesity-related cancer, regardless of obesity status. Nonetheless, a harmonized definition of metabolic dysfunction will further clarify the magnitude of the relationship across cancer types, enable better comparisons across studies, and further guide criteria for obesity-related cancer risk stratification.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Neoplasias , Biomarcadores , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
2.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 15(8): 481-495, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35653548

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. Our current study examines whether weight loss and/or treatment with the NSAID sulindac suppresses the protumor effects of obesity in a mouse model of colon cancer. Azoxymethane-treated male FVB/N mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks, then HFD mice were randomized to remain on HFD (obese) or switch to LFD [formerly obese (FOb-LFD)]. Within the control (LFD), obese, and FOb-LFD groups, half the mice started sulindac treatment (140 ppm in the diet). All mice were euthanized 7 weeks later. FOb-LFD mice had intermediate body weight levels, lower than obese but higher than control (P < 0.05). Sulindac did not affect body weight. Obese mice had greater tumor multiplicity and burden than all other groups (P < 0.05). Transcriptomic profiling indicated that weight loss and sulindac each modulate the expression of tumor genes related to invasion and may promote a more antitumor immune landscape. Furthermore, the fecal microbes Coprobacillus, Prevotella, and Akkermansia muciniphila were positively correlated with tumor multiplicity and reduced by sulindac in obese mice. Coprobacillus abundance was also decreased in FOb-LFD mice. In sum, weight loss and sulindac treatment, alone and in combination, reversed the effects of chronic obesity on colon tumor multiplicity and burden. Our findings suggest that an investigation regarding the effects of NSAID treatment on colon cancer risk and/or progression in obese individuals is warranted, particularly for those unable to achieve moderate weight loss. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: Obesity is a colon cancer risk and/or progression factor, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Herein we demonstrate that obesity enhances murine colon carcinogenesis and expression of numerous tumoral procancer and immunosuppressive pathways. Moreover, we establish that weight loss via LFD and/or the NSAID sulindac mitigate procancer effects of obesity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Microbiota , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Peso Corporal , Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/prevenção & controle , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sulindaco/farmacologia , Transcriptoma , Redução de Peso
3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(8): 1650-1660, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35667092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cell-to-cell adhesion and angiogenesis are hallmarks of cancer. No studies have examined associations of adhesion molecules and angiogenesis biomarkers with clinical outcomes in colorectal cancer. METHODS: In presurgery serum from n = 426 patients with colorectal cancer (stage I-III), we investigated associations of CRP, SAA, adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1), and angiogenesis markers (VEGF-A and VEGF-D) with overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and risk of recurrence. We computed HRs and 95% confidence intervals; adjusted for age, sex, BMI, stage, site, and study site, stratified by tumor site in exploratory analyses. RESULTS: N = 65 (15%) were deceased, and 39 patients (14%) had a recurrence after a median follow-up of 31 months. We observed significant associations of biomarkers with OS, DFS, and risk of recurrence on a continuous scale and comparing top to bottom tertile, with HRs ranging between 1.19 and 13.92. CRP was associated with risk of death and recurrence in patients in the top tertile compared with patients in the bottom tertile, for example, risk of recurrence HRQ3-Q1: 13.92 (1.72-112.56). Significant heterogeneity between biomarkers and clinical outcomes was observed in stratified analysis by tumor site for CRP, SAA, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and VEGF-D. VEGF-D was associated with a 3-fold increase in risk of death for rectal cancer (HRlog2: 3.26; 95% CI, 1.58-6.70) compared with no association for colon cancer (HRlog2: 0.78; 95% CI, 0.35-1.73; Pheterogenity = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Adhesion molecules and angiogenesis biomarkers are independent prognostic markers for colorectal cancer, with differences by tumor site. IMPACT: There is need for tailored treatment for colon and rectal cancer.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular , Neovascularização Patológica , Neoplasias Retais , Biomarcadores , Colo , Humanos , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Fator D de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
4.
Cancer Causes Control ; 33(7): 939-950, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35554777

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is limited information on how the COVID-19 pandemic has changed health behaviors among cancer patients. We examined changes in exercise behaviors since the pandemic and identified characteristics associated with these changes among cancer patients. METHODS: Cancer patients (n = 1,210) completed a survey from August to September 2020 to assess COVID-19 pandemic-related changes in health behaviors and psychosocial factors. Patients were categorized into three groups: exercising less, exercising did not change, and exercising more. Patient characteristics were compared by exercise groups. RESULTS: One-third of the patients reported a decreased amount of regular exercise, while 10% reported exercising more during the pandemic. Patients who exercised less were more likely to be unemployed/retired and have poor health status and psychosocial stressors such as disruptions in daily life while less likely to be former smokers (all p < 0.05). In contrast, patients who exercised more were younger, had stage IV diagnosis, and also reported disruptions in daily life (all p < 0.05). Patients who were living in rural areas were also more likely not to experience changes in exercise habits (all p < 0.05), although rural-urban status was not identified as a strong predictor. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of cancer patients experienced changes in exercise habits, especially exercising less, during the first 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Age, employment status, tumor stage, health status, smoking status, and psychosocial factors were associated with changes in exercise behaviors. Our results highlight the importance of promoting physical activity guidelines for cancer survivorship during the COVID-19 pandemic and may help improve the identification of cancer patients susceptible to exercising less.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Fumar/psicologia
5.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 114(8): 1135-1148, 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) may interact with genetic variants to influence colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide, gene-environment interaction between single nucleotide polymorphisms and the use of any MHT, estrogen only, and combined estrogen-progestogen therapy with CRC risk, among 28 486 postmenopausal women (11 519 CRC patients and 16 967 participants without CRC) from 38 studies, using logistic regression, 2-step method, and 2- or 3-degree-of-freedom joint test. A set-based score test was applied for rare genetic variants. RESULTS: The use of any MHT, estrogen only and estrogen-progestogen were associated with a reduced CRC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.64 to 0.78; OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.53 to 0.79; and OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.59 to 0.90, respectively). The 2-step method identified a statistically significant interaction between a GRIN2B variant rs117868593 and MHT use, whereby MHT-associated CRC risk was statistically significantly reduced in women with the GG genotype (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.64 to 0.72) but not within strata of GC or CC genotypes. A statistically significant interaction between a DCBLD1 intronic variant at 6q22.1 (rs10782186) and MHT use was identified by the 2-degree-of-freedom joint test. The MHT-associated CRC risk was reduced with increasing number of rs10782186-C alleles, showing odds ratios of 0.78 (95% CI = 0.70 to 0.87) for TT, 0.68 (95% CI = 0.63 to 0.73) for TC, and 0.66 (95% CI = 0.60 to 0.74) for CC genotypes. In addition, 5 genes in rare variant analysis showed suggestive interactions with MHT (2-sided P < 1.2 × 10-4). CONCLUSION: Genetic variants that modify the association between MHT and CRC risk were identified, offering new insights into pathways of CRC carcinogenesis and potential mechanisms involved.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Progestinas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Estrogênios , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
6.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35406052

RESUMO

As the metabolic role of kidney fat remains unclear, we investigated the effects of dietary weight loss on kidney fat content (KFC) and its connection to kidney function and metabolism. Overweight or obese participants (n = 137) of a dietary intervention trial were classified into quartiles of weight loss in a post hoc manner. Kidney sinus (KSF) and cortex fat (KCF) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging at baseline, week 12 and week 50. Weight loss effects on KFC were evaluated by linear mixed models. Repeated measures correlations between KFC, other body fat measures and metabolic biomarkers were obtained. KSF, but not KCF, decreased significantly across weight loss quartiles at week 12 (quartile 4: -21.3%; p = 0.02) and 50 (-22.0%, p = 0.001), which remained significant after adjusting for VAT. There were smaller improvements regarding creatinine (-2.5%, p = 0.02) at week 12, but not week 50. KSF, but not KCF, correlated with visceral (rrm = 0.38) and subcutaneous fat volumes (rrm = 0.31) and liver fat content (rrm = 0.32), as well as diastolic blood pressure and biomarkers of lipid, glucose and liver metabolism. Dietary weight loss is associated with decreases in KSF, but not KCF, which suggests that KSF may be the metabolically relevant ectopic fat depot of the kidney. KSF may be targeted for obesity-related disease prevention.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Redução de Peso , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/complicações , Redução de Peso/fisiologia
7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 116(2): 303-313, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Folate-mediated 1-carbon metabolism requires several nutrients, including vitamin B6. Circulating biomarker concentrations indicating high vitamin B6 status are associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, little is known about the effect of B6 status in relation to clinical outcomes in CRC patients. OBJECTIVES: We investigated survival outcomes in relation to vitamin B6 status in prospectively followed CRC patients. METHODS: A total of 2031 patients with stage I-III CRC participated in 6 prospective patient cohorts in the international FOCUS (folate-dependent 1-carbon metabolism in colorectal cancer recurrence and survival) Consortium. Preoperative blood samples were used to measure vitamin B6 status by the direct marker pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), as well as the functional marker HK-ratio (HKr)[3'-hydroxykynurenine: (kynurenic acid + xanthurenic acid + 3'-hydroxy anthranilic acid + anthranilic acid)]. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we examined associations of vitamin B6 status with overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and risk of recurrence, adjusted for patient age, sex, circulating creatinine concentrations, tumor site, stage, and cohort. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 3.2 y for OS, higher preoperative vitamin B6 status as assessed by PLP and the functional marker HKr was associated with 16-32% higher all-cause and disease-free survival, although there was no significant association with disease recurrence (doubling in PLP concentration: HROS, 0.68; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.79; HRDFS, 0.84; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.94; HRRecurrence, 0.96; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.09; HKr: HROS, 2.04; 95% CI: 1.67, 2.49; HRDFS, 1.56; 95% CI: 1.31, 1.85; HRRecurrence, 1.21; 95% CI: 0.96,1. 52). The association of PLP with improved OS was consistent across colorectal tumor site (right-sided colon: HROS, 0.75; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.96; left-sided colon: HROS, 0.71; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.92; rectosigmoid junction and rectum: HROS, 0.61; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.78). CONCLUSION: Higher preoperative vitamin B6 status is associated with improved OS among stage I-III CRC patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Vitamina B 6 , Biomarcadores , Carbono , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Ácido Fólico , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fosfato de Piridoxal
8.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 30, 2022 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35287713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota has been suggested to play a significant role in the development of overweight and obesity. However, the effects of calorie restriction on gut microbiota of overweight and obese adults, especially over longer durations, are largely unexplored. METHODS: Here, we longitudinally analyzed the effects of intermittent calorie restriction (ICR) operationalized as the 5:2 diet versus continuous calorie restriction (CCR) on fecal microbiota of 147 overweight or obese adults in a 50-week parallel-arm randomized controlled trial, the HELENA Trial. The primary outcome of the trial was the differential effects of ICR versus CCR on gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Changes in the gut microbiome, which are the focus of this publication, were defined as exploratory endpoint of the trial. The trial comprised a 12-week intervention period, a 12-week maintenance period, and a final follow-up period of 26 weeks. RESULTS: Both diets resulted in ~5% weight loss. However, except for Lactobacillales being enriched after ICR, post-intervention microbiome composition did not significantly differ between groups. Overall weight loss was associated with significant metabolic improvements, but not with changes in the gut microbiome. Nonetheless, the abundance of the Dorea genus at baseline was moderately predictive of subsequent weight loss (AUROC of 0.74 for distinguishing the highest versus lowest weight loss quartiles). Despite the lack of consistent intervention effects on microbiome composition, significant study group-independent co-variation between gut bacterial families and metabolic biomarkers, anthropometric measures, and dietary composition was detectable. Our analysis in particular revealed associations between insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR) and Akkermansiaceae, Christensenellaceae, and Tanerellaceae. It also suggests the possibility of a beneficial modulation of the latter two intestinal taxa by a diet high in vegetables and fiber, and low in processed meat. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results suggest that the gut microbiome remains stable and highly individual-specific under dietary calorie restriction. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial, including the present microbiome component, was prospectively registered at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02449148 on May 20, 2015.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adulto , Restrição Calórica/métodos , Humanos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Redução de Peso
9.
Health Psychol ; 41(4): 311-318, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35324248

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify patient-level demographic and behavioral characteristics associated with higher social isolation among patients with cancer throughout the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHOD: Moffitt Cancer Center patients seen on or after January 1, 2015, had a last known alive vital status, a valid e-mail address, and were 18-89 years old, were emailed a survey regarding social isolation. We collected information on age, sex, race, ethnicity, marital status, smoking, self-reported cancer diagnosis, cancer treatment, and perceived life changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We calculated a COVID-19 risk mitigation score by summing the frequency of risk mitigation behaviors (e.g., mask wearing). Social isolation was assessed with the self-reported Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Social Isolation Short Form. Logistic regression models compared characteristics of participants reporting higher versus lower social isolation (T-scores >60 vs. ≤60). RESULTS: Most participants (N = 9,579) were female (59.2%), White (93.0%), and non-Hispanic (92.5%). Participants at greater odds of higher social isolation were younger (per 10 years decrease odds ratio [OR] = 1.36, 95% confidence interval, CI [1.30, 1.43]), female (vs. male OR = 1.54, 95% CI [1.36, 1.74]), unmarried (vs. married OR = 1.83, 95% CI [1.62, 2.08]), current smokers (vs. never OR = 2.38, 95% CI [1.88, 3.00]), reporting more risk mitigation behaviors (per 1 SD; OR = 1.33, 95% CI [1.24, 1.42]), and more perceived life changes (vs. little/no change; OR = 2.64, 95% CI [2.08, 3.35]). CONCLUSIONS: We identified younger age, females, unmarried, current smokers, more risk mitigation behaviors, and more perceived life changes increased odds of social isolation for patients with cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic. This can inform identification of patients with cancer at higher risk of social isolation for targeted mitigation strategies. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Autorrelato , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Rural Health ; 2022 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35243690

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted many facets of life. We evaluated pandemic-related health care experiences, COVID-19 prevention behaviors and measures, health behaviors, and psychosocial outcomes among rural and urban cancer patients. METHODS: Among 1,472 adult cancer patients, who visited Huntsman Cancer Institute in the past 4 years and completed a COVID-19 survey (August-September 2020), we assessed the impact of the pandemic on medical appointments, prevention/health behaviors, and psychosocial factors, stratified by urbanicity. FINDINGS: Mean age was 61 years, with 52% female, 97% non-Hispanic White, and 27% were residing in rural areas. Rural versus urban patients were more likely to be older, not employed, uninsured, former/current smokers, consume alcohol, and have pandemic-related changes/cancellations in surgery appointments (all P<.05). Changes/cancellations in other health care access (eg, doctor's visits) were also common, particularly among urban patients. Urban versus rural patients were more likely to socially distance, use masks and hand sanitizer, and experience changes in exercise habits and in their daily lives (all P<.05). Less social interaction and financial stress were common among cancer patients but did not differ by urbanicity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic had a substantial impact on cancer patients, with several challenges specific to rural patients. This comprehensive study provides unique insights into the first 6 months of COVID-19 pandemic-related experiences and continuity of care among rural and urban cancer patients predominantly from Utah. Further research is needed to better characterize the pandemic's short- and long-term effects on rural and urban cancer patients and appropriate interventions.

11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(6): 1216-1226, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35266989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The etiology of colorectal cancer is not fully understood. METHODS: Using genetic variants and metabolomics data including 217 metabolites from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 1,357), we built genetic prediction models for circulating metabolites. Models with prediction R2 > 0.01 (Nmetabolite = 58) were applied to predict levels of metabolites in two large consortia with a combined sample size of approximately 46,300 cases and 59,200 controls of European and approximately 21,700 cases and 47,400 controls of East Asian (EA) descent. Genetically predicted levels of metabolites were evaluated for their associations with colorectal cancer risk in logistic regressions within each racial group, after which the results were combined by meta-analysis. RESULTS: Of the 58 metabolites tested, 24 metabolites were significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk [Benjamini-Hochberg FDR (BH-FDR) < 0.05] in the European population (ORs ranged from 0.91 to 1.06; P values ranged from 0.02 to 6.4 × 10-8). Twenty one of the 24 associations were replicated in the EA population (ORs ranged from 0.26 to 1.69, BH-FDR < 0.05). In addition, the genetically predicted levels of C16:0 cholesteryl ester was significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk in the EA population only (OREA: 1.94, 95% CI, 1.60-2.36, P = 2.6 × 10-11; OREUR: 1.01, 95% CI, 0.99-1.04, P = 0.3). Nineteen of the 25 metabolites were glycerophospholipids and triacylglycerols (TAG). Eighteen associations exhibited significant heterogeneity between the two racial groups (PEUR-EA-Het < 0.005), which were more strongly associated in the EA population. This integrative study suggested a potential role of lipids, especially certain glycerophospholipids and TAGs, in the etiology of colorectal cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified potential novel risk biomarkers for colorectal cancer by integrating genetics and circulating metabolomics data. IMPACT: The identified metabolites could be developed into new tools for risk assessment of colorectal cancer in both European and EA populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Asiáticos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Glicerofosfolipídeos , Humanos , Lipídeos , Metabolômica/métodos
12.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 13(4): 480-485, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998722

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Telomere shortening, as seen with aging, can cause chromosomal instability and promote cancer progression. We investigated the association between circulating telomere length and overall and disease-free survival in a sub-cohort of patients with colorectal cancer. METHODS: Baseline genomic DNA from blood leukocytes was extracted from N = 92 newly diagnosed stage I-IV patients with colorectal cancer enrolled at the ColoCare Study site in Heidelberg, Germany. Detailed information on clinicodemographic (including age) and lifestyle risk factors, and clinical outcomes (including recurrence and survival) was collected. Telomere length was measured in DNA using multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Kaplan Meier survival curves were generated comparing shorter to longer telomere lengths with log-rank testing. RESULTS: The mean T/S ratio for study patients was 0.5 (range: 0.3-0.9). Shorter telomeres were associated with older age at baseline. Patients with shorter telomeres experienced a worse overall and disease-free survival, although this association did not reach statistical significance. Kaplan-Meier survival curves for those with circulating telomere length below vs. above the median showed poorer overall (log-rank p = 0.31) and disease-free survival (long-rank p = 0.23). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that individuals with shorter telomeres, as seen with aging, may experience a worse overall and disease-free survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis. Larger sample sizes with longer follow-up are needed to further evaluate telomere length as a prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer progression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Telômero , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucócitos , Telômero/genética
14.
Support Care Cancer ; 30(2): 1365-1375, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma is an incurable disease with a poor prognosis. For caregivers of people with glioblastoma, the burden of care can be high. Patients often present with different clinical characteristics, which may impact caregiver burden in different ways. This study aimed to evaluate associations between patient clinical characteristics and caregiver burden/quality of life (QoL). METHODS: Caregiver-patient dyads were enrolled at 7 academic cancer centers in the United States. Eligible caregiver participants were self-reported as the primary caregiver of an adult living with glioblastoma and completed a caregiver burden survey. Eligible patients were age ≥ 18 years at glioblastoma diagnosis and alive when their respective caregiver entered the study, with the presence of cognitive dysfunction confirmed by the caregiver. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: The final cohort included 167 dyads. Poor patient performance status resulted in patient difficulty with mental tasks, more caregiving tasks, and increased caregiving time. Language problems were reported in patients with left-sided lesions. Patient confusion was negatively associated with all caregiver domains: emotional health, social health, general health, ability to work, confidence in finances, and overall QoL. Better caregiver QoL was observed in patients with frontal lobe lesions versus non-frontal lobe lesions. CONCLUSION: This study reinforced that patient performance status is a critical clinical factor that significantly affects caregiver burden, caregiving tasks, and caregiver time. Additionally, patient confusion affects multiple facets of caregiver burden/QoL. These results could be used to support guided intervention for caregiver support, customized to the patient experience.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Fardo do Cuidador , Cuidadores , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Glioblastoma/terapia , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
J Nutr ; 152(4): 1099-1106, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34967850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic variation in one-carbon metabolism may affect nutrient concentrations and biological functions. However, data on genetic variants associated with blood biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism in US postmenopausal women are limited, and whether these associations were affected by the nationwide folic acid (FA) fortification program is unclear. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between genetic variants and biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism using data from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. METHODS: In 1573 non-Hispanic White (NHW) and 282 Black/African American, American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Hispanic/Latino women aged 50-79 y, 288 nonsynonymous and tagging single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) were genotyped. RBC folate, plasma folate, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), vitamin B-12, homocysteine, and cysteine concentrations were determined in 12-h fasting blood. Multivariable linear regression tested associations per variant allele and for an aggregated genetic risk score. Effect modifications before, during, and after nationwide FA fortification were examined. RESULTS: After correction for multiple comparisons, among NHW women, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) rs1801133 (677C→T) variant T was associated with lower plasma folate (-13.0%; 95% CI: -17.3%, -8.6%) and higher plasma homocysteine (3.5%; 95% CI: 1.7%, 5.3%) concentrations. Other associations for nonsynonymous SNVs included DNMT3A rs11695471 (T→A) with plasma PLP; EHMT2 rs535586 (G→A), TCN2 rs1131603 (L349S A→G), and TCN2 rs35838082 (R188W G→A) with plasma vitamin B-12; CBS rs2851391 (G→A) with plasma homocysteine; and MTHFD1 rs2236224 (G→A) and rs2236225 (R653Q G→A) with plasma cysteine. The influence of FA fortification on the associations was limited. Highest compared with lowest quartiles of aggregated genetic risk scores from SNVs in MTHFR and MTRR were associated with 14.8% to 18.9% lower RBC folate concentrations. Gene-biomarker associations were similar in women of other races/ethnicities. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings on genetic variants associated with several one-carbon metabolism biomarkers may help elucidate mechanisms of maintaining B vitamin status in postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2) , Pós-Menopausa , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Carbono/metabolismo , Feminino , Ácido Fólico , Genótipo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Homocisteína , Humanos , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa/genética , Saúde da Mulher
16.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836419

RESUMO

Salicylic acid (SA) has observationally been shown to decrease colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, that rapidly deacetylates to SA) is an effective primary and secondary chemopreventive agent. Through a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach, we aimed to address whether levels of SA affected CRC risk, stratifying by aspirin use. A two-sample MR analysis was performed using GWAS summary statistics of SA (INTERVAL and EPIC-Norfolk, N = 14,149) and CRC (CCFR, CORECT, GECCO and UK Biobank, 55,168 cases and 65,160 controls). The DACHS study (4410 cases and 3441 controls) was used for replication and stratification of aspirin-use. SNPs proxying SA were selected via three methods: (1) functional SNPs that influence the activity of aspirin-metabolising enzymes; (2) pathway SNPs present in enzymes' coding regions; and (3) genome-wide significant SNPs. We found no association between functional SNPs and SA levels. The pathway and genome-wide SNPs showed no association between SA and CRC risk (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.84-1.27 and OR: 1.08, 95% CI: 0.86-1.34, respectively). Results remained unchanged upon aspirin use stratification. We found little evidence to suggest that an SD increase in genetically predicted SA protects against CRC risk in the general population and upon stratification by aspirin use.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Ácido Salicílico/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Ácido Salicílico/administração & dosagem
17.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685650

RESUMO

Obesity and excess adiposity account for approximately 20% of all cancer cases; however, biomarkers of risk remain to be elucidated. While fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) is emerging as an attractive candidate biomarker for visceral adipose tissue mass, the role of circulating FGF2 in malignant transformation remains unknown. Moreover, functional assays for biomarker discovery are limited. We sought to determine if human serum could stimulate the 3D growth of a non-tumorigenic cell line. This type of anchorage-independent 3D growth in soft agar is a surrogate marker for acquired tumorigenicity of cell lines. We found that human serum from cancer-free men and women has the potential to stimulate growth in soft agar of non-tumorigenic epithelial JB6 P+ cells. We examined circulating levels of FGF2 in humans in malignant transformation in vitro in a pilot study of n = 33 men and women. Serum FGF2 levels were not associated with colony formation in epithelial cells (r = 0.05, p = 0.80); however, a fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) selective inhibitor significantly blocked serum-stimulated transformation, suggesting that FGF2 activation of FGFR1 may be necessary, but not sufficient for the transforming effects of human serum. This pilot study indicates that the FGF2/FGFR1 axis plays a role in JB6 P+ malignant transformation and describes an assay to determine critical serum factors that have the potential to promote tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Soro/metabolismo , Idoso , Feminino , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo
18.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258135, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637457

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between time-of-day of exercise training and changes in relevant cancer health outcomes among cancer survivors. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data collected from 2016-2019 from a hospital-based exercise oncology program. Descriptive statistics were calculated for demographic, clinical, and exercise timing characteristics (e.g. AM, PM, or mix) among survivors with available data for exercise training time (n = 233). For the total sample and a breast cancer sub-analysis, univariate analysis of covariance, adjusted for age, was carried out by exercise training time, for change in the following outcomes collected during the program's assessment sessions: cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular endurance (human performance variables), physical function, anthropometrics, self-reported fatigue, and quality of life (QoL). Change in body mass index (BMI) and body weight was included in the breast cancer analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 37.3% of survivors habitually engaged in AM exercise (e.g. ≥ 75% AM training), 34.3% in PM exercise, and 28.3% in a mix of AM and PM exercise training throughout the program. Median time in the program was 17 weeks. Significant improvements in most human performance and physical function variables were observed in the total sample regardless of exercise training time-of-day. Among breast cancer survivors, PM but not AM or mixed was associated with improvements in fitness, and lower-body muscular endurance and function. Mixed exercise timing was linked with greater increase in waist circumference (total sample: 3.02cm, 95%CI 1.55, 4.49; breast cancer: 3.57cm 95%CI 0.96, 6.18), body weight (breast cancer: 1.6kg, 95%CI 0.3, 2.8) and BMI (breast cancer: 0.6kg/m2, 95%CI 0.1, 1.0). AM and PM exercise, but not mixed, was associated with improvements in fatigue and QoL. CONCLUSION: Time-of-day of exercise training may differentially impact changes in human performance and physical function variables. Mixed exercise training time may result in less favorable outcomes related of weight management variables among cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Terapia por Exercício , Exercício Físico , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aptidão Física , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Res Sq ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580667

RESUMO

Purpose There is limited information on how the COVID-19 pandemic has changed health behaviors among cancer patients. We examined the impact of the pandemic on changes in exercise behaviors and identified characteristics associated with these changes among cancer patients. Methods Cancer patients (n = 1,361) completed a survey from August-September 2020 to assess COVID-19 pandemic-related changes in health behaviors and psychosocial factors. Patients were categorized into 3 groups: exercising less, exercising did not change, and exercising more. Patient characteristics were compared by exercise groups. Results One-third of the patients reported a decreased amount of regular exercise, while 11% reported exercising more during the pandemic. Patients who exercised less were more likely to be unemployed/retired, undergoing active treatment, and had increased pandemic-related alcohol consumption and psychosocial stressors such as loneliness and financial stress (all p < 0.05). In contrast, patients who exercised more were younger, female, full-time employed, did not consume alcohol, and had good health status and more social interactions (all p < 0.05). Patients who were living in rural areas and did not experience changes in daily life, were also more likely not to experience changes in exercise habits (all p < 0.05). Conclusion Our results indicate that a significant proportion of cancer patients experienced changes in exercise habits during the first 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Age, sex, employment status, health status, alcohol consumption, and psychosocial factors were associated with changes in exercise behaviors. Providers should monitor for changes in health behaviors, such as exercise, because of their importance in improving cancer survivorship.

20.
Nutr Cancer ; : 1-8, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369225

RESUMO

Evidence suggests a positive association between sugar intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) outcomes. We sought to investigate inflammation and angiogenesis as underlying mechanisms behind increased sugar intake and worse CRC outcomes. Pre-surgery serum samples were obtained from 191 patients diagnosed with primary invasive stage I-IV CRC. Biomarkers of inflammation (CRP, SAA, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, TNFα) and angiogenesis (VEGFA, VEGFD, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1) were analyzed (Meso-Scale-Discovery). Fructose, glucose, sucrose, and total sugar intake (calories/day, % total calories) were assessed by FFQ. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were performed. Patients were on average 64 years old, 64% were male, the majority was diagnosed with stage II-III (58%) cancers, and 67% were either overweight or obese. Among normal-weight individuals (BMI <25 kg/m2), we observed a significant inverse association between VEGFD and any type of sugar intake in cal/day (sucrose: p = 0.01, glucose and fructose: p < 0.001) and MCP-1 and fructose intake (p = 0.05). The magnitude of reduction in VEGF ranged between -1.24 for sucrose to 4.49 for glucose intake, and -2.64 for fructose intake for MCP-1 levels. Sugar intake was associated with some inflammation or angiogenesis biomarkers, among CRC patients; differences were observed by adiposity that warrant further investigation.Supplemental data for this article is available online at at 10.1080/01635581.2021.1957133.

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