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1.
Eur J Nutr ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544207

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Emerging evidence suggests that diet is linked to survival in colorectal cancer patients, although underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dietary exposures are associated with metabolite concentrations in colorectal cancer patients. METHODS: Concentrations of 134 metabolites of the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p180 kit were quantified in plasma samples collected at diagnosis from 195 stage I-IV colorectal cancer patients. Food frequency questionnaires were used to calculate adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) dietary recommendations and the Dutch Healthy Diet (DHD15) index as well as to construct dietary patterns using Principal Component Analysis. Multivariable linear regression models were used to determine associations between dietary exposures and metabolite concentrations. All models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, analytical batch, cancer stage, and multiple testing using false discovery rate. RESULTS: Participants had a mean (SD) age of 66 (9) years, were mostly men (60%), and mostly diagnosed with stage II and III cancer. For the dietary pattern analyses, Western, Carnivore, and Prudent patterns were identified. Better adherence to the WCRF dietary recommendations was associated with lower concentrations of ten phosphatidylcholines. Higher intake of the Carnivore pattern was associated with higher concentrations of two phosphatidylcholines. The DHD15-index, Western pattern, or Prudent pattern were not associated with metabolite concentrations. CONCLUSION: In the current study, the WCRF dietary score and the Carnivore pattern are associated with phosphatidylcholines. Future research should elucidate the potential relevance of phosphatidylcholine metabolism in the colorectal cancer continuum. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03191110.

2.
Support Care Cancer ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502590

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the impact of the Personal Optimism With Exercise Recovery (POWER) program on cancer treatment-related side effects among rural cancer survivors. METHODS: In this retrospective study of data collected between 2016 and 2019, we assessed change in cardiorespiratory fitness, whole-body muscular endurance, physical function and strength, anthropometrics, fatigue, and quality of life (QoL), after participation in POWER. Descriptive statistics were calculated for demographic and clinical variables. Univariate analysis of variance was carried out with age and BMI at initial assessment as covariates. RESULTS: A total of 239 survivors, 78% rural residents, completed a follow-up assessment. Among rural cancer survivors, the most prevalent cancer sites were breast (42.5%), prostate (12.4%), and lymphoma (5.9%). The majority of survivors were female (70%), non-Hispanic (94.6%), and white (93.5%), with average age and BMI of 62.1 ± 13.2 years and 28.4 ± 6.7 kg/m2, respectively. Rural cancer survivors with cancer stages I-III exhibited significant improvements in fitness (+ 3.07 ml/kg/min, 95% CI 1.93, 4.21; + 0.88 METS, 95% CI 0.55, 1.20), physical function (30-s chair stand: + 2.2 repetitions, 95% CI 1.3, 3.1), muscular endurance (10-repetition maximum: chest press + 4.1 kg, 95% CI 2.0, 6.3; lateral pulldown + 6.6 kg, 95% CI 4.4, 8.9), self-reported fatigue (FACIT-Fatigue score: + 4.9, 95% CI 1.6, 8.1), and QoL (FACT-G7 score + 2.1, 95% CI, 0.9, 3.4). Among stage IV rural and urban cancer survivors, significant improvements were observed in muscular endurance and physical function. CONCLUSION: Participation in POWER was associated with attenuation of cancer treatment-related side effects and may serve as a model exercise oncology program for rural cancer survivors.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for aspirin's chemopreventative properties on colorectal cancer (CRC) is substantial, but its mechanism of action is not well-understood. We combined a proteomic approach with Mendelian randomization (MR) to identify possible new aspirin targets that decrease CRC risk. METHODS: Human colorectal adenoma cells (RG/C2) were treated with aspirin (24 hours) and a stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) based proteomics approach identified altered protein expression. Protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs) from INTERVAL (N = 3,301) and expression QTLs (eQTLs) from the eQTLGen Consortium (N = 31,684) were used as genetic proxies for protein and mRNA expression levels. Two-sample MR of mRNA/protein expression on CRC risk was performed using eQTL/pQTL data combined with CRC genetic summary data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT), Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (GECCO) consortia and UK Biobank (55,168 cases and 65,160 controls). RESULTS: Altered expression was detected for 125/5886 proteins. Of these, aspirin decreased MCM6, RRM2, and ARFIP2 expression, and MR analysis showed that a standard deviation increase in mRNA/protein expression was associated with increased CRC risk (OR: 1.08, 95% CI, 1.03-1.13; OR: 3.33, 95% CI, 2.46-4.50; and OR: 1.15, 95% CI, 1.02-1.29, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: MCM6 and RRM2 are involved in DNA repair whereby reduced expression may lead to increased DNA aberrations and ultimately cancer cell death, whereas ARFIP2 is involved in actin cytoskeletal regulation, indicating a possible role in aspirin's reduction of metastasis. IMPACT: Our approach has shown how laboratory experiments and population-based approaches can combine to identify aspirin-targeted proteins possibly affecting CRC risk.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142733

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) survival has environmental and inherited components. The expression of specific genes can be inferred based on individual genotypes-so called expression quantitative trait loci. In this study, we used the PrediXcan method to predict gene expression in normal colon tissue using individual genotype data from 91 CRC patients and examined the correlation ρ between predicted and measured gene expression levels. Out of 5434 predicted genes, 58% showed a negative ρ value and only 16% presented a ρ higher than 0.10. We subsequently investigated the association between genotype-based gene expression in colon tissue for genes with ρ > 0.10 and survival of 4436 CRC patients. We identified an inverse association between the predicted expression of ARID3B and CRC-specific survival for patients with a body mass index greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2 (HR (hazard ratio) = 0.66 for an expression higher vs. lower than the median, p = 0.005). This association was validated using genotype and clinical data from the UK Biobank (HR = 0.74, p = 0.04). In addition to the identification of ARID3B expression in normal colon tissue as a candidate prognostic biomarker for obese CRC patients, our study illustrates the challenges of genotype-based prediction of gene expression, and the advantage of reassessing the prediction accuracy in a subset of the study population using measured gene expression data.

5.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 156: 103086, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038630

RESUMO

Lung cancer patients undergoing surgery are often left physically deconditioned and/or with functional deficits. Exercise interventions may improve pulmonary and physical function before and after lung resection. We conducted a systematic review of randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) testing the impact of pre-, post-, and combined pre-and-post surgery exercise interventions on physical and pulmonary function in lung cancer patients. Exercise pre-surgery seems to substantially improve physical and pulmonary function, which are factors associated with improved ability to undergo surgery while reducing post-surgery complications. Evidence is inconsistent for post-surgery interventions, reporting no or moderate effects. Results from pre-and-post surgery interventions are limited to one study. In conclusion, pre- and post-surgery exercise interventions, individually, have shown beneficial effects for lung cancer patients undergoing surgery. The impact of interventions combining both pre- and post-surgery exercise programs remains unknown. More evidence is needed on the ideal exercise setting, and timing across the lung cancer care continuum.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/reabilitação , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2719-2728, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High numbers of lymphocytes in tumor tissue, including T regulatory cells (Treg), have been associated with better colorectal cancer survival. Tregs, a subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes, are mediators of immunosuppression in cancer, and therefore variants in genes related to Treg differentiation and function could be associated with colorectal cancer prognosis. METHODS: In a prospective German cohort of 3,593 colorectal cancer patients, we assessed the association of 771 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 58 Treg-related genes with overall and colorectal cancer-specific survival using Cox regression models. Effect modification by microsatellite instability (MSI) status was also investigated because tumors with MSI show greater lymphocytic infiltration and have been associated with better prognosis. Replication of significant results was attempted in 2,047 colorectal cancer patients of the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium (ISACC). RESULTS: A significant association of the TGFBR3 SNP rs7524066 with more favorable colorectal cancer-specific survival [hazard ratio (HR) per minor allele: 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74-0.94; P value: 0.0033] was replicated in ISACC (HR: 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.98; P value: 0.03). Suggestive evidence for association was found with two IL7 SNPs, rs16906568 and rs7845577. Thirteen SNPs with differential associations with overall survival according to MSI in the discovery analysis were not confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Common genetic variation in the Treg pathway implicating genes such as TGFBR3 and IL7 was shown to be associated with prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. IMPACT: The implicated genes warrant further investigation.

7.
J Nutr ; 150(11): 2874-2881, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Choline plays an integral role in one-carbon metabolism in the body, but it is unclear whether genetic polymorphisms are associated with variations in plasma choline and its metabolites. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the association of genetic variants in choline and one-carbon metabolism with plasma choline and its metabolites. METHODS: We analyzed data from 1423 postmenopausal women in a case-control study nested within the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Plasma concentrations of choline, betaine, dimethylglycine (DMG), and trimethylamine N-oxide were determined in 12-h fasting blood samples collected at baseline (1993-1998). Candidate and tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT), BHMT2, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent 1) (MTHFD1), 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR), and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase (MTRR). Linear regression was used to derive percentage difference in plasma concentrations per variant allele, adjusting for confounders, including B-vitamin biomarkers. Potential effect modification by plasma vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, and folate concentrations and folic-acid fortification periods was examined. RESULTS: The candidate SNP BHMT R239Q (rs3733890) was associated with lower concentrations of plasma betaine and DMG concentrations (-4.00% and -6.75% per variant allele, respectively; both nominal P < 0.05). Another candidate SNP, BHMT2 rs626105 A>G, was associated with higher plasma DMG concentration (13.0%; P < 0.0001). Several tagSNPs in these 2 genes were associated with plasma concentrations after correction for multiple comparisons. Vitamin B-12 status was a significant effect modifier of the association between the genetic variant BHMT2 rs626105 A>G and plasma DMG concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variations in metabolic enzymes were associated with plasma concentrations of choline and its metabolites. Our findings contribute to the knowledge on the variation in blood nutrient concentrations in postmenopausal women.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749900

RESUMO

Purpose: Rates of obesity and obesity-related health consequences, including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cancer, continue to rise. While cancer patients are at an increased risk of developing T2D, the prevalence of T2D and insulin prescription among young patients with cancer remains unknown. Methods: Using the Total Cancer Care Study cohort at Huntsman Cancer Institute (Salt Lake City, UT), we identified individuals age 18-39 years at cancer diagnosis between 2009 and 2019. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate associations between body mass index (BMI) with insulin prescription within 1 year of cancer diagnosis. Results: In total, 344 adolescents and young adults (AYAs) were diagnosed with primary invasive cancer. Within this cohort, 19 patients (5.5%) were ever diagnosed with T2D, 48 AYAs ever received an insulin prescription (14.0%), and 197 were overweight or obese (BMI: 25+ kg/m2) at cancer diagnosis. Each kg/m2 unit increase in BMI was associated with 6% increased odds of first insulin prescription within 1 year of cancer diagnosis among AYAs, even after adjustment for age, sex, smoking history, marital status, glucocorticoid prescription, and cancer treatments (odds ratio = 1.06, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.11; p = 0.005). Conclusion: One in every 18 AYAs with cancer ever had T2D, 1 in 7 AYA patients with cancer ever received an insulin prescription, and higher BMI was associated with increased risk of insulin prescription within a year of cancer diagnosis among AYAs. Understanding the incidence of T2D and insulin prescription/use is critical for short-term and long-term clinical management of AYAs with cancer.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751332

RESUMO

An individual's inherited genetic variation may contribute to the 'angiogenic switch', which is essential for blood supply and tumor growth of microscopic and macroscopic tumors. Polymorphisms in angiogenesis-related genes potentially predispose to colorectal cancer (CRC) or affect the survival of CRC patients. We investigated the association of 392 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 33 angiogenesis-related genes with CRC risk and survival of CRC patients in 1754 CRC cases and 1781 healthy controls within DACHS (Darmkrebs: Chancen der Verhütung durch Screening), a German population-based case-control study. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from unconditional logistic regression to test for genetic associations with CRC risk. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CIs for survival. Multiple testing was adjusted for by a false discovery rate. No variant was associated with CRC risk. Variants in EFNB2, MMP2 and JAG1 were significantly associated with overall survival. The association of the EFNB2 tagging SNP rs9520090 (p < 0.0001) was confirmed in two validation datasets (p-values: 0.01 and 0.05). The associations of the tagging SNPs rs6040062 in JAG1 (p-value 0.0003) and rs2241145 in MMP2 (p-value 0.0005) showed the same direction of association with overall survival in the first and second validation sets, respectively, although they did not reach significance (p-values: 0.09 and 0.25, respectively). EFNB2, MMP2 and JAG1 are known for their functional role in angiogenesis and the present study points to novel evidence for the impact of angiogenesis-related genetic variants on the CRC outcome.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 432-444, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758450

RESUMO

Accurate colorectal cancer (CRC) risk prediction models are critical for identifying individuals at low and high risk of developing CRC, as they can then be offered targeted screening and interventions to address their risks of developing disease (if they are in a high-risk group) and avoid unnecessary screening and interventions (if they are in a low-risk group). As it is likely that thousands of genetic variants contribute to CRC risk, it is clinically important to investigate whether these genetic variants can be used jointly for CRC risk prediction. In this paper, we derived and compared different approaches to generating predictive polygenic risk scores (PRS) from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) including 55,105 CRC-affected case subjects and 65,079 control subjects of European ancestry. We built the PRS in three ways, using (1) 140 previously identified and validated CRC loci; (2) SNP selection based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) clumping followed by machine-learning approaches; and (3) LDpred, a Bayesian approach for genome-wide risk prediction. We tested the PRS in an independent cohort of 101,987 individuals with 1,699 CRC-affected case subjects. The discriminatory accuracy, calculated by the age- and sex-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC), was highest for the LDpred-derived PRS (AUC = 0.654) including nearly 1.2 M genetic variants (the proportion of causal genetic variants for CRC assumed to be 0.003), whereas the PRS of the 140 known variants identified from GWASs had the lowest AUC (AUC = 0.629). Based on the LDpred-derived PRS, we are able to identify 30% of individuals without a family history as having risk for CRC similar to those with a family history of CRC, whereas the PRS based on known GWAS variants identified only top 10% as having a similar relative risk. About 90% of these individuals have no family history and would have been considered average risk under current screening guidelines, but might benefit from earlier screening. The developed PRS offers a way for risk-stratified CRC screening and other targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano/genética , Medição de Risco , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
11.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(10): 817-828, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655010

RESUMO

Obesity and obesity-driven cancer rates are continuing to rise worldwide. We hypothesize that adipocyte-colonocyte interactions are a key driver of obesity-associated cancers. To understand the clinical relevance of visceral adipose tissue in advancing tumor growth, we analyzed paired tumor-adjacent visceral adipose, normal mucosa, and colorectal tumor tissues as well as presurgery blood samples from patients with sporadic colorectal cancer. We report that high peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) visceral adipose tissue expression is associated with glycoprotein VI (GPVI) signaling-the major signaling receptor for collagen-as well as fibrosis and adipogenesis pathway signaling in colorectal tumors. These associations were supported by correlations between PPARG visceral adipose tissue expression and circulating levels of plasma 4-hydroxyproline and serum intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), as well as gene set enrichment analysis and joint gene-metabolite pathway results integration that yielded significant enrichment of genes defining epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-as in fibrosis and metastasis-and genes involved in glycolytic metabolism, confirmed this association. We also reveal that elevated prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) colorectal tumor expression is associated with a fibrotic signature in adipose-tumor crosstalk via GPVI signaling and dendritic cell maturation in visceral adipose tissue. Systemic metabolite and biomarker profiling confirmed that high PTGS2 expression in colorectal tumors is significantly associated with higher concentrations of serum amyloid A and glycine, and lower concentrations of sphingomyelin, in patients with colorectal cancer. This multi-omics study suggests that adipose-tumor crosstalk in patients with colorectal cancer is a critical microenvironment interaction that could be therapeutically targeted.See related spotlight by Colacino et al., p. 803.

12.
Int J Sports Med ; 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707579

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Supervised and Home-based resistance exercise on the Kynurenine pathway in patients with pancreatic cancer who underwent surgery and chemotherapy. In the SUPPORT study, adult pancreatic cancer patients were randomized to intervention programs of 6-month (1) a Supervised moderate-to-high-intensity progressive resistance training or (2) unsupervised Home-based resistance training, or (3) to a standard care patient Control group. Serum levels of kynurenine, tryptophan and IL-6 were assessed for 32 participants before, after 3 months and after 6 months of exercise intervention. Group differences were investigated using analysis-of-covariance. Patients in the Supervised training group showed decreased levels of serum kynurenine and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (p = 0.07; p = 0.01 respectively) as well as increased Tryptophan levels (p = 0.05) in comparison to Home-based and Control group over time. The Home-based exercise group had significant increased kynurenine and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio levels. IL-6 levels decreased over the first three months for both intervention groups as well as the Control group (Supervised: p < 0.01, Home-based: p < 0.010, Control group: p < 0.01). Supervised resistance exercise might positively regulate the Kynurenine pathway and downregulate the kynurenine/tryptophan (indicative of IDO/TDO enzyme) levels, hence modulating the immune system.

13.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 45(11): 1306-1309, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569481

RESUMO

To determine associations between physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), and oxidative stress in colorectal cancer patients, ColoCare Study participants in Germany wore an accelerometer 6 and/or 12 months after surgery. Spearman partial correlations were used to assess associations between PA and urinary concentrations of oxidized guanine, a validated marker of oxidative stress. There were no significant associations between PA or SB and oxidized guanine in n = 76 measurements (ng/mg creatinine; r = 0.03, p = 0.76 for PA, r = -0.05, p = 0.69 for SB). Novelty Objectively measured PA was not associated with a marker of oxidative stress in colorectal cancer patients.

14.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity, defined by body mass index (BMI), measured at colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis has been associated with postoperative complications and survival outcomes. However, BMI does not allow for a differentiation between fat and muscle mass. Computed tomography (CT)-defined body composition more accurately reflects different types of tissue and their associations with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) during the first year of disease, but this has not been investigated yet. We studied the role of visceral and subcutaneous fat area (VFA and SFA) and skeletal muscle mass (SMM) on longitudinally assessed HRQoL in CRC patients. METHODS: A total of 138 newly diagnosed CRC patients underwent CT scans at diagnosis and completed questionnaires prior to and six and twelve months post-surgery. We investigated the associations of VFA, SFA, and SMM with HRQoL at multiple time points. RESULTS: A higher VFA was associated with increased pain six and twelve months post-surgery (ß = 0.06, p = 0.04 and ß = 0.07, p = 0.01) and with worse social functioning six months post-surgery (ß = -0.08, p = 0.01). Higher SMM was associated with increased pain twelve months post-surgery (ß = 1.03, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: CT-quantified body composition is associated with HRQoL scales post-surgery. Intervention strategies targeting a reduction in VFA and maintaining SMM might improve HRQoL in CRC patients during the first year post-surgery.

15.
Metabolites ; 10(5)2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32455751

RESUMO

Demographic, lifestyle and biospecimen-related factors at the time of blood collection can influence metabolite levels in epidemiological studies. Identifying the major influences on metabolite concentrations is critical to designing appropriate sample collection protocols and considering covariate adjustment in metabolomics analyses. We examined the association of age, sex, and other short-term pre-blood collection factors (time of day, season, fasting duration, physical activity, NSAID use, smoking and alcohol consumption in the days prior to collection) with 133 targeted plasma metabolites (acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, sphingolipids, glycerophospholipids, and hexoses) among 108 individuals that reported exposures within 48 h before collection. The differences in mean metabolite concentrations were assessed between groups based on pre-collection factors using two-sided t-tests and ANOVA with FDR correction. Percent differences in metabolite concentrations were negligible across season, time of day of collection, fasting status or lifestyle behaviors at the time of collection, including physical activity or the use of tobacco, alcohol or NSAIDs. The metabolites differed in concentration between the age and sex categories for 21.8% and 14.3% metabolites, respectively. In conclusion, extrinsic factors in the short period prior to collection were not meaningfully associated with concentrations of selected endogenous metabolites in a cross-sectional sample, though metabolite concentrations differed by age and sex. Larger studies with more coverage of the human metabolome are warranted.

16.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32455947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bone marrow fat is implicated in metabolism, bone health and haematological diseases. Thus, this study aims to analyse the impact of moderate weight loss on bone marrow fat content (BMFC) in obese, healthy individuals. METHODS: Data of the HELENA-Trial (Healthy nutrition and energy restriction as cancer prevention strategies: a randomized controlled intervention trial), a randomized controlled trial (RCT) among 137 non-smoking, overweight or obese participants, were analysed to quantify the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-derived BMFC at baseline, after a 12-week dietary intervention phase, and after a 50-week follow-up. The study cohort was classified into quartiles based on changes in body weight between baseline and week 12. Changes in BMFC in respect of weight loss were analysed by linear mixed models. Spearman's coefficients were used to assess correlations between anthropometric parameters, blood biochemical markers, blood cells and BMFC. RESULTS: Relative changes in BMFC from baseline to week 12 were 0.0 ± 0.2%, -3.2 ± 0.1%, -6.1 ± 0.2% and -11.5 ± 0.6% for Q1 to Q4. Across all four quartiles and for the two-group comparison, Q1 versus Q4, there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) for changes in BMFC. BMFC was not associated with blood cell counts and showed only weaker correlations (<0.3) with metabolic biomarkers. CONCLUSION: Weight loss is associated with a decrease of BMFC. However, BMFC showed no stronger associations with inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers.

17.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(8): 723-735, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430684

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Underlying mechanisms of the relationship between body fatness and colorectal cancer remain unclear. This study investigated associations of circulating metabolites with visceral (VFA), abdominal subcutaneous (SFA), and total fat area (TFA) in colorectal cancer patients. METHODS: Pre-surgery plasma samples from 212 patients (stage I-IV) from the ColoCare Study were used to perform targeted metabolomics. VFA, SFA, and TFA were quantified by computed tomography scans. Partial correlation and linear regression analyses of VFA, SFA, and TFA with metabolites were computed and corrected for multiple testing. Cox proportional hazards were used to assess 2-year survival. RESULTS: In patients with metastatic tumors, SFA and TFA were statistically significantly inversely associated with 16 glycerophospholipids (SFA: pFDR range 0.017-0.049; TFA: pFDR range 0.029-0.048), while VFA was not. Doubling of ten of the aforementioned glycerophospholipids was associated with increased risk of death in patients with metastatic tumors, but not in patients with non-metastatic tumors (phet range: 0.00044-0.049). Doubling of PC ae C34:0 was associated with ninefold increased risk of death in metastatic tumors (Hazard Ratio [HR], 9.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.17-37.80); an inverse association was observed in non-metastatic tumors (HR 0.17; 95% CI 0.04-0.87; phet = 0.00044). CONCLUSION: These data provide initial evidence that glycerophospholipids in metastatic colorectal cancer are uniquely associated with subcutaneous adiposity, and may impact overall survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Gordura Subcutânea Abdominal/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Gordura Subcutânea Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244908

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can lead to functional liver impairment and severe comorbidities. Beyond energy balance, several dietary factors may increase NAFLD risk, but human studies are lacking. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the associations between food consumption (47 food groups, derived Mediterranean and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet quality scores) and liver fat content (continuous scale and NAFLD, i.e., >5% liver fat content). Liver fat content was measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 136 individuals (BMI: 25-40 kg/m2, age: 35-65, 50.7% women) and food intake was recorded by food frequency questionnaires (FFQs). Associations between food items and liver fat were evaluated by multi-variable regression models. Intakes of cake and cookies as well legumes were inversely associated with liver fat content, while positive associations with intakes of high-fat dairy and cheese were observed. Only cake and cookie intake also showed an inverse association with NAFLD. This inverse association was unexpected, but not affected by adjustment for reporting bias. Both diet quality scores were inversely associated with liver fat content and NAFLD. Thus, as smaller previous intervention studies, our results suggest that higher diet quality is related to lower liver fat, but larger trials with iso-caloric interventions are needed to corroborate these findings.

19.
J Cancer Surviv ; 14(3): 305-315, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166576

RESUMO

PURPOSES: Cancer-related distress is known to persist long after completion of treatment. Factors related to distress are largely unexplored in colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. We examined changes over time and risk factors for distress in CRC patients over the first year after surgery. METHODS: We included 212 CRC patients with data at 6 and 12 months post-surgery from the ColoCare Study in Heidelberg, Germany. Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, social support, and health-related quality of life (HrQOL) prior to surgery were evaluated as predictors of cancer-related distress. Distress was measured with the Cancer and Treatment Distress instrument (CTXD). Linear regression analyses examined associations between risk factors and distress. RESULTS: Distress subscale scores varied significantly over time: health burden subscale score increased (P < .001), while finances (P = .004), medical demands (P < .001), and identity (P < .001) subscale scores decreased over time. Uncertainty and family strain subscale scores did not change. Younger age, lower income, advanced tumor stage, poorer social support, and poorer baseline HrQOL predicted higher level distress at 6 and 12 months. CONCLUSION: Cancer-related distress continues unresolved after surgery. Although some risk factors are difficult to alter, those at highest risk can be identified earlier for possible preventive strategies. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Screening for risk factors pre-surgery would allow for targeted interventions including strategies to improve resources for those with low support, thereby reducing long-term distress in CRC survivors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Phys Ther ; 100(3): 543-553, 2020 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043139

RESUMO

Best practice recommendations in cancer care increasingly call for integrated rehabilitation services to address physical impairments and disability. These recommendations have languished primarily due to a lack of pragmatic, generalizable intervention models. This perspective paper proposes a clinically integrated physical therapist (CI-PT) model that enables flexible and scalable services for screening, triage, and intervention addressing functional mobility. The model is based on (1) a CI-PT embedded in cancer care provider clinics, and (2) rehabilitation across the care continuum determined by the patient's level of functional mobility. The CI-PT model includes regular screening of functional mobility in provider clinics via a patient-reported mobility measure-the Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care, a brief physical therapy evaluation tailored to the specific functional needs of the individual-and a tailored, skilled physical therapist intervention based on functional level. The CI-PT model provides a pragmatic, barrier-free, patient-centric, data-driven approach to integrating rehabilitation as part of standard care for survivors of cancer. The model standardizes CI-PT practice and may be sufficiently agile to provide targeted interventions in widely varying cancer settings and populations. Therefore, it may be ideal for wide implementation among outpatient oncological settings. Implementation of this model requires a shared approach to care that includes physical therapists, rehabilitation administrators, cancer care providers, and cancer center administrators.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Limitação da Mobilidade , Transtornos dos Movimentos/reabilitação , Neoplasias/terapia , Fisioterapia/organização & administração , Institutos de Câncer , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Transtornos dos Movimentos/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Fisioterapeutas , Vigilância da População/métodos , Triagem
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