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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185805

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Excess body fatness and physical activity independently influence the risk of several types of cancer. However, few studies have examined whether physical activity mitigates the excess risk associated with higher body mass index (BMI). METHODS: We examined the individual and joint associations between BMI (kg/m2) and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, MET-hours/week) with the risk of three established excess body fatness-related cancers (breast, colon, and endometrial) among 43,795 postmenopausal women in the Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II) Nutrition Cohort (1992/1993-2015). Further exclusions for women without an intact uterus resulted in 31,805 women for endometrial cancer analyses. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with interaction terms to assess multiplicative interaction. The relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) was calculated to assess additive interaction. RESULTS: BMI and MVPA were individually associated with breast and endometrial cancer risk, but only BMI was associated with colon cancer risk. In joint analyses, increasing levels of MVPA did not lower the risk of these cancers among obese women. For example, compared to the common referent (BMI 18.5- < 25 kg/m2, MVPA > 0- < 7.5 MET-hours/week), BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer among women with low MVPA (> 0-< 7.5 MET-hours/week: HR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.22 - 1.67) and high MVPA (≥ 15 MET-hours/week: HR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.25 - 1.87; RERI = 0.20, 95% CI: -0.14, 0.54, multiplicative Pinteraction = 0.64). CONCLUSION: Our results do not support the hypothesis that leisure-time physical activity mitigates the excess risk associated with higher BMI for risk of breast, endometrial, or colon cancer among postmenopausal women.

3.
Cancer Res ; 80(20): 4578-4590, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816852

RESUMO

Protective associations of fruits, vegetables, and fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk have been shown in many, but not all epidemiologic studies. One possible reason for study heterogeneity is that dietary factors may have distinct effects by colorectal cancer molecular subtypes. Here, we investigate the association of fruit, vegetables, and fiber intake with four well-established colorectal cancer molecular subtypes separately and in combination. Nine observational studies including 9,592 cases with molecular subtypes for microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and somatic mutations in BRAF and KRAS genes, and 7,869 controls were analyzed. Both case-only logistic regression analyses and polytomous logistic regression analyses (with one control set and multiple case groups) were used. Higher fruit intake was associated with a trend toward decreased risk of BRAF-mutated tumors [OR 4th vs. 1st quartile = 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.65-1.04)] but not BRAF-wildtype tumors [1.09 (0.97-1.22); P difference as shown in case-only analysis = 0.02]. This difference was observed in case-control studies and not in cohort studies. Compared with controls, higher fiber intake showed negative association with colorectal cancer risk for cases with microsatellite stable/MSI-low, CIMP-negative, BRAF-wildtype, and KRAS-wildtype tumors (P trend range from 0.03 to 3.4e-03), which is consistent with the traditional adenoma-colorectal cancer pathway. These negative associations were stronger compared with MSI-high, CIMP-positive, BRAF-mutated, or KRAS-mutated tumors, but the differences were not statistically significant. These inverse associations for fruit and fiber intake may explain, in part, inconsistent findings between fruit or fiber intake and colorectal cancer risk that have previously been reported. SIGNIFICANCE: These analyses by colorectal cancer molecular subtypes potentially explain the inconsistent findings between dietary fruit or fiber intake and overall colorectal cancer risk that have previously been reported.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(11): 2383-2386, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence of a potential inverse association between coffee, particularly caffeinated coffee, consumption and postmenopausal breast cancer risk, and few studies have examined this association by tumor hormone receptor status. To provide further evidence, we examined total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee consumption in relation to postmenopausal invasive breast cancer incidence overall, and by tumor estrogen receptor (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR) subtype. METHODS: Among 57,075 postmenopausal women in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort who were cancer free and reported coffee intake in 1999, we identified 2,980 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer during follow-up through June 2015. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Neither total, caffeinated, nor decaffeinated coffee consumption was associated with invasive breast cancer risk; HRs (95% CIs) comparing consumption of ≥2 cups per day with <1 cup per month were 0.99 (0.89-1.11), 0.96 (0.87-1.06), and 1.06 (0.95-1.19), respectively. Similarly, coffee consumption was not associated with risk of hormone receptor-positive (ER+ or PR+) or hormone receptor-negative (ER- and PR-) breast tumors. CONCLUSIONS: These findings do not support an association between coffee consumption and invasive breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. IMPACT: This large prospective study contributes to the limited evidence on coffee consumption and breast cancer risk, finding no association overall or by tumor receptor subtype.

5.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 67: 101730, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between coffee consumption and colorectal cancer risk generally appears null, but recent evidence suggests that risk may vary by coffee type. We examined associations of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee intake with colorectal cancer risk overall and with colon and rectum separately, among older U.S. men and women. METHODS: In 1999, 47,010 men and 60,051 women with no previous diagnosis of cancer, aged 47-96 years, in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort completed a food frequency questionnaire that assessed caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee intake; consumption was updated in 2003. A total of 1829 colorectal cancer cases were verified through June 2015. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard rate ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for smoking history, alcohol, caffeinated/decaffeinated coffee intake (depending on the model), and other colorectal cancer risk factors. RESULTS: Consumption of ≥2 cups/day of decaffeinated coffee, compared to no decaffeinated coffee, was associated with lower risk of overall colorectal cancer (HR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.69-0.96, P-trend = 0.04), colon cancer (HR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.69-0.99, P-trend = 0.05) and rectal cancer (HR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.40-0.99, P-trend = 0.17). Consumption of ≥2 cups/day of caffeinated coffee was associated with higher risk of rectal cancer (HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 0.99-1.89, P-trend = 0.04), but not with colorectal or colon cancer. CONCLUSION: In this prospective study, higher intake of decaffeinated coffee was associated with lower risk of colorectal, colon, and rectal cancers. Further study on associations of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee with colorectal cancer risk by subsite is needed.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 147(10): 2725-2734, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391587

RESUMO

Lower prediagnostic circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D)-considered the best marker of total vitamin D exposure-is associated with higher mortality risk among colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. However, it is unknown whether this association differs by the vitamin D-binding protein (GC) isoform Gc2 (encoded by GC rs4588*C>A, Thr436Lys), which may substantially affect vitamin D metabolism and modify associations of 25(OH)D with colorectal neoplasm risk. Prediagnostic 25(OH)D-mortality associations according to Gc2 isoform were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression among 1281 CRC cases (635 deaths, 483 from CRC) from two large prospective cohorts conducted in the United States (Cancer Prevention Study-II) and Europe (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). 25(OH)D measurements were calibrated to a single assay, season standardized, and categorized using Institute of Medicine recommendations (deficient [<30], insufficient [30 - <50], sufficient [≥50 nmol/L]). In the pooled analysis, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for CRC-specific mortality associated with deficient relative to sufficient 25(OH)D concentrations were 2.24 (95% CI 1.44-3.49) among cases with the Gc2 isoform, and 0.94 (95% CI 0.68-1.22) among cases without Gc2 (Pinteraction = .0002). The corresponding HRs for all-cause mortality were 1.80 (95% CI 1.24-2.60) among those with Gc2, and 1.12 (95% CI 0.84-1.51) among those without Gc2 (Pinteraction = .004). Our findings suggest that the association of prediagnostic vitamin D status with mortality among CRC patients may differ by functional GC isoforms, and patients who inherit the Gc2 isoform (GC rs4588*A) may particularly benefit from higher circulating 25(OH)D for improved CRC prognosis.

7.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 4(1): pkz083, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337495

RESUMO

Background: Higher circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin-D [25(OH)D] concentrations are consistently inversely associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in observational studies. However, it is unknown whether this association depends on the functional GC-rs4588*A (Thr436Lys) variant encoding the vitamin D-binding protein-2 (DBP2) isoform, which may affect vitamin D status and bioavailability. Methods: We analyzed data from 1710 incident CRC cases and 1649 incidence-density-matched controls nested within three prospective cohorts of mostly Caucasians. Study-specific incidence rate ratios (RRs) for associations of prediagnostic, season-standardized 25(OH)D concentrations according to DBP2 isoform with CRC were estimated using multivariable unconditional logistic regression and were pooled using fixed-effects models. All statistical significance tests were two-sided. Results: The odds of having 25(OH)D concentrations less than 50 nmol/L (considered insufficient by the Institute of Medicine) were 43% higher for each DBP2-encoding variant (rs4588*A) inherited (per DBP2 odds ratio [OR] = 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27 to 1.62, P trend = 1.2 × 10-8). The association of 25(OH)D concentrations with CRC risk differed by DBP2: 25(OH)D concentrations considered sufficient (≥ 50 nmol/L), relative to deficient (< 30 nmol/L), were associated with a 53% lower CRC risk among individuals with the DBP2 isoform (RR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.33 to 0.67), but with a non-statistically significant 12% lower risk among individuals without it (RR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.61 to 1.27) (P heterogeneity = .01). Conclusions: Our results suggest that the 25(OH)D-CRC association may differ by DBP isoform, and those with a DBP2-encoding genotype linked to vitamin D insufficiency may particularly benefit from adequate 25(OH)D for CRC prevention.

8.
Eur J Nutr ; 59(4): 1739-1749, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240448

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evidence supports a role of whole grains in colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention, but the association between gluten intake and CRC risk in healthy populations is unclear. We examined the association of grain and gluten intake with risk of CRC overall and by subsite among Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort participants. METHODS: In 1999, 50,118 men and 62,031 women completed food frequency questionnaires assessing grain intake. Gluten intake was estimated using the protein content of grain products. Multivariable-adjusted hazards ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of CRC risk were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: During follow-up through 2013, 1742 verified CRC cases occurred. For the highest vs. lowest quintiles of whole grain intake, HRs (95% CIs) of CRC risk were 0.77 (0.61-0.97; P trend = 0.03) among men and 1.10 (95% CI 0.88-1.36; P trend = 0.14) among women (P interaction by sex = 0.01). Men in the highest vs. lowest quintile of whole grain intake had a 43% lower risk of rectal cancer (HR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.35-0.93, P trend = 0.04). Gluten intake was not associated with CRC risk overall (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.93-1.32, P trend = 0.10), but was associated with risk of proximal colon cancer among men and women, combined (HR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.07-1.75, quintile 5 vs. 1, P trend = 0.001) and separately. Refined grains and grain-based sweets were not associated with CRC risk. CONCLUSIONS: We found that higher whole grain intake was associated with lower CRC risk among older US men, but not women. The positive association of gluten intake with the risk of proximal colon cancer deserves further study.

9.
Br J Nutr ; 121(10): 1188-1200, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834851

RESUMO

Ca and dairy product intakes may be inversely associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and non-Ca components of dairy products, such as insulin-like growth factor-1, may be independently associated with mortality. We investigated associations of Ca and dairy product intakes with all-cause, all-cancer, colorectal cancer (CRC) and CHD mortality among 35 221 55- to 69-year-old women in the prospective Iowa Women's Health Study, who were cancer-free in 1986. We assessed diet using a Willett FFQ, and associations using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. We estimated residuals from linear regression models of dairy products with dietary Ca to investigate total and specific dairy products independent of their Ca content. Through 2012, 18 687 participants died, including 4665 from cancer (including 574 from CRC) and 3603 from CHD. For those in the highest relative to the lowest quintiles of intake, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for total Ca (dietary plus supplemental) were 0·88 (0·83, 0·93; P trend=0·001) for all-cause mortality, 0·91 (0·81, 1·02; P trend=0·34) for all-cancer mortality, 0·60 (0·43, 0·83; P trend=0·002) for CRC mortality and 0·73 (0·64, 0·83; P trend <0·0001) for CHD mortality. The corresponding HR for associations of whole milk, whole milk residuals, and low-/non-fat milk residuals with all-cause mortality were 1·20 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·27), 1·20 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·28) and 0·91 (95 % CI 0·86, 0·96), respectively. These results suggest that Ca may be associated with lower risk of all-cause, CRC and CHD mortality, and that non-Ca components of milk may be independently associated with mortality.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Laticínios/análise , Dieta/mortalidade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Iowa , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(2): 392-399, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite considerable biological plausibility, other than for calcium, there are few reported epidemiologic studies on mineral intake-colorectal cancer associations, none of which investigated multiple minerals in aggregate. METHODS: Accordingly, we incorporated 11 minerals into a mineral score and investigated its association with incident colorectal cancer in the Iowa Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 55- to 69-year-old women who completed a food frequency questionnaire in 1986. In the analytic cohort (n = 35, 221), 1,731 incident colorectal cancer cases were identified via the State Health Registry of Iowa. Participants' calcium, magnesium, manganese, zinc, selenium, potassium, and iodine intakes were ranked 1 to 5, with higher ranks indicating higher, potentially anticarcinogenic, intakes, whereas for iron, copper, phosphorus, and sodium intakes, the rankings were reversed to account for their possible procarcinogenic properties. The rankings were summed to create each woman's mineral score. The mineral score-incident colorectal cancer association was estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: There was decreasing risk with an increasing score (P trend = 0.001). The hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for those in mineral score quintiles 2 to 5 relative to those in the lowest were 0.91 (CI, 0.88-1.08), 0.85 (CI, 0.75-0.95), 0.86 (CI, 0.75-0.97), and 0.75 (CI, 0.71-0.95), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a predominance of putative anti- relative to pro-colorectal carcinogenic mineral intakes may be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. IMPACT: These results support further investigation of colorectal cancer etiology using composite mineral intake scores.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Micronutrientes , Minerais , Idoso , Cálcio na Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Iodo , Iowa , Magnésio , Manganês , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Potássio , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Selênio , Zinco
11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(3): 616-619, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acrylamide, an industrial chemical and probable human carcinogen, can be formed in primarily carbohydrate-containing foods during high-heat cooking or processing. Most epidemiologic studies show no associations of dietary acrylamide intake with most cancer outcomes, but limited prospective evidence suggests a positive association with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS: In 1999, 102,154 men and women from the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort completed a questionnaire on diet, lifestyle, and cancer risk factors and were followed through June 30, 2013. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the HR and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between estimated dietary acrylamide intake and risk of RCC. RESULTS: After 1,137,441 person-years of follow-up, 412 cases of invasive RCC occurred. In multivariable-adjusted models, there was no association between acrylamide intake and risk of RCC (HR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.82-1.43) for the highest versus lowest quartile of intake. Associations were not modified by sex or smoking history. CONCLUSIONS: We found no associations between dietary acrylamide exposure and risk of invasive RCC. IMPACT: The findings from this large, prospective analysis do not support a positive association between higher dietary acrylamide intake and RCC risk.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Estado Nutricional , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/induzido quimicamente , Carcinoma de Células Renais/epidemiologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Seguimentos , Georgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Renais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Nutr Cancer ; 71(5): 739-748, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572720

RESUMO

Calcium and, to a lesser extent, dairy products are consistently modestly inversely associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). Dairy products may contain components other than calcium and fat, such as insulin-like growth factor-1, that may affect CRC risk. In the prospective Iowa Women's Health Study, calcium, dairy product, and vitamin D intakes were assessed using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. To investigate dairy products independent of their calcium components, we estimated residuals from linear regression models of their associations with dietary calcium. Of the 35,221 55-69-year-old cancer-free women at baseline in 1986, 1,731 developed CRC during follow-up through 2012. For those in the highest relative to the lowest intake quintiles, the adjusted hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals from multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models for overall and distal CRC were 0.81 (0.67-0.98; Ptrend = 0.004) and 0.59 (0.44-0.80; Ptrend = 0.003), respectively, for total calcium; and 0.79 (0.66-0.94; Ptrend = 0.01) and 0.69 (0.53-0.90; Ptrend = 0.003) for total dairy products, respectively. The various dairy product residuals were not associated with CRC. These results support that, among women, calcium and dairy products may be inversely associated with CRC-perhaps primarily distal CRC-but suggest that the non-calcium, non-fat component of dairy products may not be associated with CRC.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Iowa/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Mol Carcinog ; 58(4): 511-523, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499618

RESUMO

Abnormal expression of the DNA mismatch repair protein MSH2 and autocrine/paracrine transforming growth factors TGFα (growth promoter) and TGFß1 (growth inhibitor) is common during colorectal carcinogenesis. To estimate vitamin D and calcium effects on these biomarkers in the normal-appearing colorectal mucosa of sporadic colorectal adenoma patients, we conducted a pilot, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, modified 2 × 2 factorial chemoprevention clinical trial (N = 104) of supplemental vitamin D3 (1000 IU daily) and calcium (1200 mg daily), alone and in combination, versus placebo over 1 year. The expression of the three biomarkers and Ki-67/mib-1 in colorectal crypts in biopsies of normal-appearing rectal mucosa were detected using automated immunohistochemistry and quantified using image analysis. In the vitamin D3 and vitamin D3 plus calcium groups, relative to their reference groups, in the upper 40% (differentiation zone) of crypts, it was estimated that, respectively, the MSH2/mib-1 ratio increased by 47% (P = 0.14) and 62% (P = 0.08), TGFß1 expression increased by 41% (P = 0.25) and 78% (P = 0.14), and the TGFα/TGFß1 ratio decreased by 25% (P = 0.31) and 44% (P = 0.13). Although not statistically significant, these results support further research into (i) whether supplemental vitamin D3 , alone or in combination with calcium, may increase DNA mismatch repair relative to proliferation, increase TGFß1 expression, and decrease autocrine/paracrine growth promotion relative to growth inhibition in the colorectal epithelium, all hypothesized to reduce risk for colorectal carcinogenesis; and (ii) the expression of MSH2 relative to mib-1, TGFß1 alone, and TGFα relative to TGFß1 in the normal-appearing rectal mucosa as potential modifiable, pre-neoplastic markers of risk for colorectal neoplasms.


Assuntos
Adenoma/metabolismo , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador alfa/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Adenoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adenoma/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Prognóstico , Reto/efeitos dos fármacos , Reto/metabolismo , Reto/patologia , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
14.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-10, 2018 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30560736

RESUMO

Various individual diet and lifestyle factors are associated with mortality. Investigating these factors collectively may help clarify whether dietary and lifestyle patterns contribute to life expectancy. We investigated the association of previously described evolutionary-concordance and Mediterranean diet pattern scores and a novel evolutionary-concordance lifestyle pattern score with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the prospective Iowa Women's Health Study (1986-2012). We created the diet pattern scores from Willett FFQ responses, and the lifestyle pattern score from self-reported physical activity, BMI and smoking status, and assessed their associations with mortality, using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Of the 35 221 55- to 69-year-old cancer-free women at baseline, 18 687 died during follow-up. The adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for all-cause, all CVD, and all-cancer mortality among participants in the highest relative to the lowest quintile of the evolutionary-concordance lifestyle score were, respectively, 0·52 (95 % CI 0·50, 0·55), 0·53 (95 % CI 0·49, 0·57) and 0·51 (95 % CI 0·46, 0·57). The corresponding findings for the Mediterranean diet score were HR 0·85 (95 % CI 0·82, 0·90), 0·83 (95 % CI 0·76, 0·90) and 0·93 (95 % CI 0·84, 1·03), and for the evolutionary-concordance diet score they were close to null and not statistically significant. The lowest estimated risk was among those in the highest joint quintile of the lifestyle score and either diet score (both Pinteraction <0·01). Our findings suggest that (1) a more Mediterranean-like diet pattern and (2) a more evolutionary-concordant lifestyle pattern, alone and in interaction with a more evolutionary-concordant or Mediterranean diet pattern, may be inversely associated with mortality.

15.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0208762, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557404

RESUMO

To clarify the roles of vitamin D and calcium as potential chemopreventive agents against colorectal cancer in humans, and to develop "treatable", pre-neoplastic, phenotypic biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms, we estimated the effects of supplemental vitamin D3 (1,000 IU/day [25 µg/day]) and calcium (1,200 mg/day), alone and in combination, on biomarkers of proliferation (mib-1), differentiation (p21), and apoptosis (bax [apoptosis-promoting] and bcl-2 [apoptosis-inhibiting]), in the normal-appearing rectal mucosa in a subsample of participants (n = 104) in a larger randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial among colorectal adenoma patients. The biomarkers were measured in rectal biopsies at baseline and after one year of follow up, using automated immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis. In the vitamin D plus calcium group relative to control, in the crypt differentiation zone (upper 40% of crypts), mib-1 expression decreased 24% (P = 0.28); p21 expression alone and relative to mib-1 expression increased 29% (P = 0.06) and 73% (P = 0.06), respectively; and bax expression relative to mib-1 expression increased 58% (P = 0.21). The estimated vitamin D alone treatment effects were similar but of lesser magnitudes, and those for calcium alone were mixed. All estimated treatment effects on bcl-2 expression were close to the null. These pilot study results support further investigation of whether 1) vitamin D and calcium promote colorectal epithelial cell differentiation, reduce proliferation, and promote apoptosis in the normal-appearing human colorectal mucosa, 2) vitamin D and calcium act as chemopreventive agents against colorectal neoplasms, and 3) mib-1, p21, and bax are potential "treatable", pre-neoplastic, biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms.


Assuntos
Adenoma/terapia , Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Adenoma/patologia , Adenoma/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/fisiopatologia , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Projetos Piloto , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
16.
J Nutr ; 148(9): 1453-1461, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184224

RESUMO

Background: Although α- and γ-tocopherol are co-consumed antioxidants, circulating γ-tocopherol concentrations were paradoxically found to be inversely associated with total vitamin E intake and circulating α-tocopherol concentrations. There are limited data on this apparent paradox or on determinants of circulating γ-tocopherol concentrations. Objective: To help clarify possible determinants of circulating γ-tocopherol concentrations, we investigated associations of circulating γ-tocopherol concentrations with various dietary and lifestyle factors and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Methods: We pooled cross-sectional data from 2 outpatient, adult, elective colonoscopy populations (pooled n = 419) on whom extensive dietary, lifestyle, and medical information was collected, and the following plasma concentrations were measured: α- and γ-tocopherol (via HPLC), F2-isoprostanes (FiPs; via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP; via latex-enhanced immunonephelometry). Multivariable general linear models were used to assess mean γ-tocopherol differences across quantiles of plasma antioxidant micronutrients, FiPs, and hsCRP; an oxidative balance score [OBS; a composite of anti- and pro-oxidant dietary and lifestyle exposures (a higher score indicates higher antioxidant relative to pro-oxidant exposures)]; and multiple dietary and lifestyle factors. Results: Adjusted for serum total cholesterol, mean γ-tocopherol concentrations among those in the highest relative to the lowest tertiles of circulating α-tocopherol and ß-carotene, the OBS, and total calcium and dietary fiber intakes were 31.0% (P < 0.0001), 29.0% (P < 0.0001), 27.6% (P = 0.0001), 29.7% (P < 0.0001), and 18.6% (P = 0.008) lower, respectively. For those in the highest relative to the lowest tertiles of circulating FiPs and hsCRP, mean γ-tocopherol concentrations were 50% (P < 0.0001) and 39.0% (P < 0.0001) higher, respectively. Conclusions: These findings support the conclusion that circulating γ-tocopherol concentrations are inversely associated with antioxidant exposures and directly associated with systemic oxidative stress and inflammation in adults. Additional research on possible mechanisms underlying these findings and on whether circulating γ-tocopherol may serve as a biomarker of oxidative stress, inflammation, or both is needed.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Dieta , Inflamação/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , gama-Tocoferol/sangue , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , alfa-Tocoferol/sangue , beta Caroteno/sangue
17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(10): 1195-1202, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30108096

RESUMO

Background: Whereas diet and lifestyle are strongly implicated in the etiology of colorectal cancer, single exposures generally are weakly and inconsistently associated with the disease. Exposure patterns may be more helpful for investigating diet and lifestyle-colorectal cancer associations. Evolutionary-concordance diet and Mediterranean diet pattern scores were previously found to be inversely associated with colorectal adenoma.Methods: To investigate associations of these diet scores and an evolutionary-concordance lifestyle score (comprising smoking status, physical activity, and body mass index) with incident colorectal cancer, we analyzed data from the prospective Iowa Women's Health Study. Diet and lifestyle scores were calculated for each participant and categorized into quintiles, and associations estimated using Cox proportional hazards models.Results: Of the 35,221 55- to 69-year-old cancer-free women at baseline, 1,731 developed colorectal cancer during follow-up. The multivariable-adjusted HR comparing persons in the highest relative to the lowest quintile of the lifestyle score was 0.66 (95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.78; P trend < 0.01). Although the estimated associations of the evolutionary-concordance diet and Mediterranean diet scores alone with colorectal cancer were null, relative to those in the lowest tertiles of both the evolutionary-concordance diet and lifestyle scores, those in the highest tertiles of both scores were at the lowest risk (P interaction < 0.01).Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a more evolutionary-concordant lifestyle, alone and in interaction with a more evolutionary-concordant diet pattern, may be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk.Impact: These results support further investigation of colorectal cancer etiology using evolutionary-concordance dietary and lifestyle pattern scores. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(10); 1195-202. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estilo de Vida , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Iowa/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Saúde da Mulher
18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(10): 1203-1207, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30030213

RESUMO

Background: Kidney cancer has several well-established risk factors, including smoking, obesity, and hypertension. These factors do not, however, completely account for its etiology. One previous study of vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) and risk of renal cell carcinoma found a striking inverse association that warranted replication.Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort to prospectively examine circulating DBP concentration and renal cell carcinoma risk. Cases (n = 87) were matched 1:1 to controls on gender, race, age (±5 years), and date of blood collection (±30 days). ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for quartiles of DBP using conditional logistic regression.Results: There was a statistically significant inverse trend across quartiles of DBP such that participants with higher DBP had a markedly decreased risk of renal cell carcinoma (vs. Q1: Q2 OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.41-2.11; Q3 OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.15-1.15; Q4 OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.10-1.06; P trend = 0.03).Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate a strong inverse association between circulating DBP and risk of renal cell carcinoma, supporting the findings from previous research.Impact: This is only the second study to examine DBP and risk of kidney cancer, and one of only a handful of studies to examine circulating DBP and risk of cancer at any site. Our findings support emerging evidence for an etiologic role of DBP in cancer and may provide insights into the etiology of kidney and other cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(10); 1203-7. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Proteína de Ligação a Vitamina D/sangue , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Renais/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Renais/sangue , Neoplasias Renais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(7): 814-821, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29703763

RESUMO

Background: The oral microbiota play a central role in oral health, and possibly in carcinogenesis. Research suggests that coffee and tea consumption may have beneficial health effects. We examined the associations of these common beverages with the oral ecosystem in a large cross-sectional study.Methods: We assessed oral microbiota in mouthwash samples from 938 participants in two U.S. cohorts using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Coffee and tea intake were assessed from food frequency questionnaires. We examined associations of coffee and tea intake with overall oral microbiota diversity and composition using linear regression and permutational MANOVA, respectively, and with taxon abundance using negative binomial generalized linear models; all models adjusted for age, sex, cohort, body mass index, smoking, ethanol intake, and energy intake.Results: Higher tea intake was associated with greater oral microbiota richness (P = 0.05) and diversity (P = 0.006), and shifts in overall community composition (P = 0.002); coffee was not associated with these microbiome parameters. Tea intake was associated with altered abundance of several oral taxa; these included Fusobacteriales, Clostridiales, and Shuttleworthia satelles (higher with increasing tea) and Bifidobacteriaceae, Bergeyella, Lactobacillales, and Kingella oralis (lower with increasing tea). Higher coffee intake was only associated with greater abundance of Granulicatella and Synergistetes.Conclusions: In the largest study to date of tea and coffee consumption in relation to the oral microbiota, the microbiota of tea drinkers differed in several ways from nondrinkers.Impact: Tea-driven changes to the oral microbiome may contribute to previously observed associations between tea and oral and systemic diseases, including cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(7); 814-21. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Café/microbiologia , Chá/microbiologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Nutr Cancer ; 69(8): 1185-1195, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29125314

RESUMO

Associations of calcium and dairy product intakes with cardiovascular disease risk and cancer mortality are controversial. We investigated associations of calcium and dairy product intakes with mortality in the prospective REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study (n = 30,239). Of 2,966 total deaths, 32.3% were from CVD and 28.8% from cancer. For those in the upper relative to the lowest quintile of intakes, from Cox proportional hazards regression models, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality were 1.13 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.95-1.35; P-trend 0.004) for whole milk, and 0.75 (CI 0.61-0.93; P-trend 0.001) for nonfat milk; for CVD mortality the corresponding HRs were 0.80 (CI 0.55-1.16; P-trend 0.80) and 0.72 (CI 0.49-1.05; P-trend 0.06); and for cancer mortality they were 1.56 (CI 1.17-2.08; P-trend 0.006) and 0.89 (CI 0.62-1.28; P-trend 0.86). Calcium (total, dietary, supplemental) and total dairy product intakes were not associated with all-cause, cardiovascular, or cancer mortality. These results suggest that whole milk consumption may be directly associated with cancer mortality; non-fat milk consumption may be inversely associated with all-cause and cardiovascular- and cancer-specific mortality; and calcium intake independent of milk product intakes may not be associated with mortality.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Laticínios , Dieta , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Idoso , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Avaliação Nutricional , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
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