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Cell Rep ; 37(7): 110018, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788612


Chronic injury to hepatocytes results in inflammation, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The tetraspanin TM4SF5 is implicated in fibrosis and cancer. We investigate the role of TM4SF5 in communication between hepatocytes and macrophages (MΦs) and its possible influence on the inflammatory microenvironment that may lead to NAFLD. TM4SF5 induction in differentiated MΦs promotes glucose uptake, glycolysis, and glucose sensitivity, leading to M1-type MΦ activation. Activated M1-type MΦs secrete pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6), which induces the secretion of CCL20 and CXCL10 from TM4SF5-positive hepatocytes. Although TM4SF5-dependent secretion of these chemokines enhances glycolysis in M0 MΦs, further chronic exposure reprograms MΦs for an increase in the proportion of M2-type MΦs in the population, which may support diet- and chemical-induced NAFLD progression. We suggest that TM4SF5 expression in MΦs and hepatocytes is critically involved in modulating the inflammatory environment during NAFLD progression.

Cell Death Dis ; 10(9): 645, 2019 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501417


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate cell fate, although signaling molecules that regulate ROS hormesis remain unclear. Here we show that transmembrane 4 L six family member 5 (TM4SF5) in lung epithelial cells induced the alternatively spliced CD44v8-10 variant via an inverse ZEB2/epithelial splicing regulatory proteins (ESRPs) linkage. TM4SF5 formed complexes with the cystine/glutamate antiporter system via TM4SF5- and CD44v8-10-dependent CD98hc plasma-membrane enrichment. Dynamic TM4SF5 binding to CD98hc required CD44v8-10 under ROS-generating inflammatory conditions. TM4SF5 and CD44v8-10 upregulated cystine/glutamate antiporter activity and intracellular glutathione levels, leading to ROS modulation for cell survival. Tm4sf5-null mice exhibited attenuated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis with lower CD44v8-10 and ESRPs levels than wild-type mice. Primary mouse alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) revealed type II AECs (AECII), but not type I, to adapt the TM4SF5-mediated characteristics, suggesting TM4SF5-mediated AECII survival following AECI injury during idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Thus, the TM4SF5-mediated CD44v8-10 splice variant could be targeted against IPF.

Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Células A549 , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/patologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Splicing de RNA , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
Cancer Lett ; 438: 219-231, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217560


CD133 is a surface marker of liver cancer stem cells. Transmembrane 4 L six family member 5 (TM4SF5) promotes sphere growth and circulation. However, it is unknown how CD133 and TM4SF5 cross-talk with each other for cancer stem cell properties. Here, we investigated the significance of inter-relationships between CD133, TM4SF5, CD44, and protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type F (PTPRF) in a three-dimensional (3D) sphere growth system. We found that CD133 upregulated TM4SF5 and CD44, whereas TM4SF5 and CD44 did not affect CD133 expression. Signaling activity following CD133 phosphorylation caused TM4SF5 expression and sphere growth. TM4SF5 bound to CD133 and promoted c-Src activity for CD133 phosphorylation as a positive feedback loop, leading to CD133-mediated sphere growth that was inhibited by TM4SF5 inhibition or suppression. TM4SF5 also bound PTPRF and promoted paxillin phosphorylation. Decreased sphere growth upon CD133 suppression was recovered by TM4SF5 expression and partially by PTPRF suppression. TM4SF5 inhibition enhanced PTPRF levels and abolished PTPRF suppression-mediated sphere growth. Altogether, CD133-induced TM4SF5 expression and function were important for liver cancer sphere growth and may be a promising target to block metastasis.

Antígeno AC133/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 2 Semelhantes a Receptores/genética , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Antígeno AC133/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/genética , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mutação , Fosforilação , Interferência de RNA , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 2 Semelhantes a Receptores/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética
PLoS One ; 12(9): e0184796, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28902898


One of the primary transcriptional regulators of fatty acid homeostasis in many prokaryotes is the protein FadR. To better understand its biological function in the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus HB8, we sought to first determine its preferred DNA-binding sequences in vitro using the combinatorial selection method Restriction Endonuclease Protection, Selection, and Amplification (REPSA) and then use this information to bioinformatically identify potential regulated genes. REPSA determined a consensus FadR-binding sequence 5´-TTRNACYNRGTNYAA-3´, which was further characterized using quantitative electrophoretic mobility shift assays. With this information, a search of the T. thermophilus HB8 genome found multiple operons potentially regulated by FadR. Several of these were identified as encoding proteins involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and degradation; however, others were novel and not previously identified as targets of FadR. The role of FadR in regulating these genes was validated by physical and functional methods, as well as comparative genomic approaches to further characterize regulons in related organisms. Taken together, our study demonstrates that a systematic approach involving REPSA, biophysical characterization of protein-DNA binding, and bioinformatics can be used to postulate biological roles for potential transcriptional regulators.

Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas Repressoras/química , Thermus thermophilus/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Biologia Computacional , DNA/química , DNA/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano/química , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Bacteriano , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
Gastroenterology ; 153(2): 536-549.e26, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28522256


BACKGROUND & AIMS: Early-onset gastric cancer, which develops in patients younger than most gastric cancers, is usually detected at advanced stages, has diffuse histologic features, and occurs more frequently in women. We investigated somatic genomic alterations associated with the unique characteristics of sporadic diffuse gastric cancers (DGCs) from younger patients. METHODS: We conducted whole exome and RNA sequence analyses of 80 resected DGC samples from patients 45 years old or younger in Korea. Patients with pathogenic germline mutations in CDH1, TP53, and ATM were excluded from the onset of this analysis, given our focus on somatic alterations. We used MutSig2CV to evaluate the significance of mutated genes. We recruited 29 additional early-onset Korean DGC samples and performed SNP6.0 array and targeted sequencing analyses of these 109 early-onset DGC samples (54.1% female, median age, 38 years). We compared the SNP6.0 array and targeted sequencing data of the 109 early-onset DGC samples with those from diffuse-type stomach tumor samples collected from 115 patients in Korea who were 46 years or older (late onset) at the time of diagnosis (controls; 29.6% female, median age, 67 years). We compared patient survival times among tumors from different subgroups and with different somatic mutations. We performed gene silencing of RHOA or CDH1 in DGC cells with small interfering RNAs for cell-based assays. RESULTS: We identified somatic mutations in the following genes in a significant number of early-onset DGCs: the cadherin 1 gene (CDH1), TP53, ARID1A, KRAS, PIK3CA, ERBB3, TGFBR1, FBXW7, RHOA, and MAP2K1. None of 109 early-onset DGC cases had pathogenic germline CDH1 mutations. A higher proportion of early-onset DGCs had mutations in CDH1 (42.2%) or TGFBR1 (7.3%) compared with control DGCs (17.4% and 0.9%, respectively) (P < .001 and P = .014 for CDH1 and TGFBR1, respectively). In contrast, a smaller proportion of early-onset DGCs contained mutations in RHOA (9.2%) than control DGCs (19.1%) (P = .033). Late-onset DGCs in The Cancer Genome Atlas also contained less frequent mutations in CDH1 and TGFBR1 and more frequent RHOA mutations, compared with early-onset DGCs. Early-onset DGCs from women contained significantly more mutations in CDH1 or TGFBR1 than early-onset DGCs from men. CDH1 alterations, but not RHOA mutations, were associated with shorter survival times in patients with early-onset DGCs (hazard ratio, 3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-7.7). RHOA activity was reduced by an R5W substitution-the RHOA mutation most frequently detected in early-onset DGCs. Silencing of CDH1, but not RHOA, increased migratory activity of DGC cells. CONCLUSIONS: In an integrative genomic analysis, we found higher proportions of early-onset DGCs to contain somatic mutations in CDH1 or TGFBR1 compared with late-onset DGCs. However, a smaller proportion of early-onset DGCs contained somatic mutations in RHOA than late-onset DGCs. CDH1 alterations, but not RHOA mutations, were associated with shorter survival times of patients, which might account for the aggressive clinical course of early-onset gastric cancer. Female predominance in early-onset gastric cancer may be related to relatively high rates of somatic CDH1 and TGFBR1 mutations in this population.

Idade de Início , Caderinas/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Adulto , Antígenos CD , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo I , República da Coreia , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 484(3): 631-635, 2017 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28153736


To elucidate signaling pathways that regulate gastric cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotypes and immune checkpoint, we performed a proteogenomic analysis of NCC-S1M, which is a gastric cancer cell line with CSC-like characteristics and is the only syngeneic gastric tumor cell line transplant model created in the scientific community. We found that the NCC-S1M allograft was responsive to anti-PD-1 treatment, and overexpressed Cd274 encoding PD-L1. PD-L1 was transcriptionally activated by loss of the TGF-ß signaling. Il1rl1 protein was overexpressed in NCC-S1M cells compared with NCC-S1 cells that are less tumorigenic and less chemoresistant. Il1rl1 knockdown in NCC-S1M cells reduced tumorigenic potential and in vivo chemoresistance. Our proteogenomic analysis demonstrates a role of Smad4 loss in the PD-L1 immune evasion, as well as Il1rl1's role in CSC-like properties of NCC-S1M.

Proteínas de Neoplasias/imunologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/imunologia , Proteoma/imunologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/imunologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/classificação , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/classificação