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1.
Front Neurol ; 12: 722846, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630297

RESUMO

Introduction: Mirror therapy is effective in the recovery of upper-limb function among post-stroke patients. An important component of mirror therapy is imagining finger movements. This study aimed to determine the influence of finger movement complexity and mirror image clarity on facilitating motor and visuo-motor activities in post-stroke patients. Methods: Fifteen post-stroke patients and 18 right-handed healthy participants performed simple or complex finger tapping while viewing mirror images of these movements at varying levels of clarity. The physical setup was identical to typical mirror therapy. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to capture the brain activities elicited in the bilateral primary motor cortices (M1) and the precuneus using a block experimental design. Results: In both study groups, the "complex finger-tapping task with blurred mirror image" condition resulted in lower intensity (p < 0.01) and authenticity (p < 0.01) of the kinesthetic mirror illusion, and higher levels of perceived effort in generating the illusion (p < 0.01), relative to the "simple finger-tapping with clear mirror image" condition. Greater changes in the oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) concentration were recorded at the ipsilesional and ipsilateral M1 in the "complex finger-tapping task with blurred mirror image" condition relative to that recorded in the "simple finger-tapping task with clear mirror image" condition (p = 0.03). These HbO concentration changes were not significant in the precuneus. Post-stroke patients showed greater changes than their healthy counterparts at the ipsilesional M1 (F = 5.08; p = 0.03; partial eta squared = 0.14) and the precuneus (F = 7.71; p < 0.01; partial eta squared = 0.20). Conclusion: The complexity and image clarity of the finger movements increased the neural activities in the ipsilesional motor cortex in the post-stroke patients. These findings suggest plausible roles for top-down attention and working memory in the treatment effects of mirror therapy. Future research can aim to corroborate these findings by using a longitudinal design to examine the use of mirror therapy to promote upper limb motor recovery in post-stroke patients.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643866

RESUMO

In today's era, the world economy needs to move towards a green transformation. Green total factor productivity provides the judgment about a country or region's ability to achieve long-term sustainable development goals. However, many factors considerably affect green total factor productivity that needs to be explored and clarified. This panel study investigates the link between technological input, environmental policies, governmental involvement, manufacturing and logistics industry cooperation, renewable energy consumption, and green total factor productivity in the context of Chinese's manufacturing and logistics industry. Hypotheses are tested through fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) and dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS) econometric technique. The study used 12 cities data mainly taken from China Urban Statistical Yearbook (2005-2019) and National Economic and Social Development Statistics Bulletin. The results indicate that technological input, environmental policies, governmental involvement, manufacturing and logistics industry cooperation, and renewable energy consumption are significantly linked to green total factor productivity. The result also implies that the factors mentioned above have a crucial role in the transformation process. Moreover, the current research results will help popularize green total factor productivity and provide a new starting point for reducing non-renewable energy consumption and environmental pollution.

3.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 2536720, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646332

RESUMO

The aim of this work is to introduce a stochastic solver based on the Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation neural networks (LMBNNs) for the nonlinear host-vector-predator model. The nonlinear host-vector-predator model is dependent upon five classes, susceptible/infected populations of host plant, susceptible/infected vectors population, and population of predator. The numerical performances through the LMBNN solver are observed for three different types of the nonlinear host-vector-predator model using the authentication, testing, sample data, and training. The proportions of these data are chosen as a larger part, i.e., 80% for training and 10% for validation and testing, respectively. The nonlinear host-vector-predator model is numerically treated through the LMBNNs, and comparative investigations have been performed using the reference solutions. The obtained results of the model are presented using the LMBNNs to reduce the mean square error (MSE). For the competence, exactness, consistency, and efficacy of the LMBNNs, the numerical results using the proportional measures through the MSE, error histograms (EHs), and regression/correlation are performed.

4.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597817

RESUMO

Biopharmaceutical product characterization benefits from the quantification and differentiation of unwanted protein aggregates and silicone oil droplets to support risk assessment and control strategies as part of the development. Flow imaging microscopy is successfully applied to differentiate the two impurities in the size range larger than about 5µm based on their morphological appearance. In our study we applied the combination of oil-immersion flow imaging microscopy and convolutional neural networks to extend the size range below 5µm. It allowed to differentiate and quantify heat stressed therapeutic monoclonal antibody aggregates from artificially generated silicone oil droplets with misclassification rates of about 10% in the size range between 0.3-5µm. By comparing the misclassifications across the tested size range, particles in the low submicron size range were particularly difficult to differentiate as their morphological appearance becomes very similar.

5.
Virus Evol ; 7(2): veab054, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532058

RESUMO

Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV) and its associated satellites are a major part of the cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) caused by the begomovirus species complex. Despite the implementation of potential disease management strategies, the incessant resurgence of resistance-breaking variants of CLCuMuV imposes a continuous threat to cotton production. Here, we present a focused effort to map the geographical prevalence, genomic diversity, and molecular evolutionary endpoints that enhance disease complexity by facilitating the successful adaptation of CLCuMuV populations to the diversified ecosystems. Our results demonstrate that CLCuMuV populations are predominantly distributed in China, while the majority of alphasatellites and betasatellites exist in Pakistan. We demonstrate that together with frequent recombination, an uneven genetic variation mainly drives CLCuMuV and its satellite's virulence and evolvability. However, the pattern and distribution of recombination breakpoints greatly vary among viral and satellite sequences. The CLCuMuV, Cotton leaf curl Multan alphasatellite, and Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite populations arising from distinct regions exhibit high mutation rates. Although evolutionarily linked, these populations are independently evolving under strong purifying selection. These findings will facilitate to comprehensively understand the standing genetic variability and evolutionary patterns existing among CLCuMuV populations across major cotton-producing regions of the world.

6.
Geriatr Nurs ; 42(6): 1332-1340, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560528

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Agitation and impaired cognitive functioning are common symptoms of dementia, which require costly medication regimens that are associated with adverse effects. This study investigates the effects of dance interventions on agitation and cognitive function in people living with dementia in institutional care facilities. METHODS: Five electronic databases were searched for eligible studies on dance interventions for people living with dementia published between 2002 and 2021. Standard deviation and post mean values were extracted. Within-group Hedges' g was computed for individual studies. RESULTS: Six randomised controlled trials and three non-randomised studies of satisfactory quality, with a total of 610 participants, were included. Statistical analysis found significant improvements in agitation and cognitive functioning with dance interventions. DISCUSSION: This review provided favourable evidence on the effects of dance interventions on agitation and cognitive functions in people with dementia. However, given the limited evidence, more studies are needed to confirm the effects.

7.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 27: 1609828, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588926

RESUMO

A hormonal imbalance may disrupt the rigorously monitored cellular microenvironment by hampering the natural homeostatic mechanisms. The most common example of such hormonal glitch could be seen in obesity where the uprise in adipokine levels is in virtue of the expanding bulk of adipose tissue. Such aberrant endocrine signaling disrupts the regulation of cellular fate, rendering the cells to live in a tumor supportive microenvironment. Previously, it was believed that the adipokines support cancer proliferation and metastasis with no direct involvement in neoplastic transformations and tumorigenesis. However, the recent studies have reported discrete mechanisms that establish the direct involvement of adipokine signaling in tumorigenesis. Moreover, the individual adipokine profile of the patients has never been considered in the prognosis and staging of the disease. Hence, the present manuscript has focused on the reported extensive mechanisms that culminate the basis of poor prognosis and diminished survival rate in obese cancer patients.

8.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 4593-4604, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346287

RESUMO

The Vaccinium genus comprises more than 126 genera of perennial flowering plants that are commonly adapted to poor and acidic soils or epiphytic environments. Their molecular and genomic characterization is a result of the recent advent in next-generation sequencing technology. In the current research, extracts were prepared in different media, such as petroleum ether, methanol and ethanol. An extract of Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) was used at a dose of 200-400 mg/kg by weight (B.wt). Levels of oxidative stress markers, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) and malondialdehyde (MDA), were measured. A histopathological study of six vital organs in rats was also conducted. The results indicated that the antioxidant levels were lower in the group given only ethylene oxide (EtO) but higher in the groups receiving cranberry extract as a treatment. Major improvements were also observed in stress markers such as advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) and MDA following cranberry treatment. Histopathological changes induced by EtO were observed in the heart, kidney, liver, lung, stomach and testis and were reversed following cranberry treatment. The major toxic effects of EtO were oxidative stress and organ degeneration, as observed from various stress markers and histopathological changes. Our study showed that this extract contains strong antioxidant properties, which may contribute to the amelioration of the observed toxic effects.

9.
J Environ Manage ; 298: 113463, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426223

RESUMO

The current research assesses the impact of political risk on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Brazil while controlling the role of financial development, GDP growth, trade openness, and technological innovation. In doing so, the quarterly dataset from 1990 to 2018 is utilized with Bayer and Hanck cointegration, dynamic ordinary least square (DOLS) and canonical correlation regression (CCR), and frequency-domain causality tests. The cointegration test revealed a long-run association amongst the variables of interest. Furthermore, the outcomes from the DOLS and CCR revealed that increasing financial development, technological innovation, trade openness, and real growth increase CO2 emissions while a better political environment reduces environmental pollution.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Brasil , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Condições Sociais
10.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113525, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438310

RESUMO

After the Paris Climate Conference (Conference of the Paris COP21), emerging countries also start succeeding in carbon neutrality targets. In doing so, environmental sustainability has become a vital concern over the past few decades. To control the pollution from combustion gases and to mitigate the destructive effects of carbon emission on environmental quality, governments and policymakers need to consider the important factors that decrease the net carbon emission level, such as eco-innovation and environmental taxes. The literature on the environmental taxes and eco-innovation to control carbon emission is scant. Therefore, this study fills the knowledge gap by evaluating the dynamic effect of eco-innovation and environmental taxes on the carbon neutrality target in emerging seven (E7) economies from 1995 to 2018 and other control variables. The study uses advanced panel data econometric tools to handle various issues such as cross-section dependence structural break and slope heterogeneity for empirical analysis. The study uses the second-generation panel unit root test, Westerlund's cointegration tests, CS-ARDL long-run and CS-ARDL short-run analysis, AMG, and CCEMG for robustness check. The study's outcomes confirm that eco-innovation and environmental taxes play a major role in carbon abatement and Environmental Kuznet Curve (EKC) presence found in E7 countries.


Assuntos
Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Dióxido de Carbono , Condições Sociais , Impostos
11.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 69: 102600, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34457248

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of doctors from Lahore regarding CPR as per American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines. Methods: The researchers visited various hospitals and filled e-questionnaires by interviewing respondents.The study was conducted at Jinnah Hospital Lahore, Mayo Hospital Lahore, Punjab Institute of Cardiology Lahore, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital Lahore, Services Hospital Lahore and Mid City Hospital. Data were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) 23 version. Knowledge was assessed based on the scores, with those scoring 10 or more being considered to have good knowledge while those having score less than 10 were considered to have poor knowledge. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Out of 792 participants, 68 refused to take part in the study. The total respondents were 724 with the response rate of 91%. The knowledge regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation of 601(83%) respondents was poor with only 123(17%) doctors having good knowledge. The doctors who received formal CPR training had better knowledge (20.17%) than the doctors who didn't get any training regarding CPR (4.69%). Anesthesiologists scored better among all specialties. The overall attitude of the doctors towards CPR was positive with 93.8% of the respondents willing to do CPR. Conclusion: The overall knowledge of the doctors regarding CPR is not satisfactory. A practical and functional approach is needed to improve this situation. However, the attitude of the doctors towards CPR is positive.

12.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438989

RESUMO

Cocrystallization is a promising approach to alter physicochemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients (hereafter abbreviated as APIs) bearing poor profile. Nowadays pharmaceutical industries are focused on preparing drug-drug cocrystals of APIs that are often prescribed in combination therapies by physicians. Physicians normally prescribe antibiotic with an analgesic/antipyretic drug to combat several ailments in a better and more efficient way. In this work, azithromycin (AZT) and paracetamol (PCM) cocrystals were prepared in 1:1 molar ratio using slow solvent evaporation method. The cocrystals were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Vibrational spectroscopy and DSC confirmed that both APIs interact physically and showed chemical compatibility, while PXRD pattern of the starting material and products revealed that cocrystal have in a unique crystalline phase. The degree of hydration was confirmed by TGA analysis and result indicates monohydrate cocrystal formation. The HPLC analysis confirmed equimolar ratio of AZT:PCM in the cocrystal. The in vitro dissolution rate, saturation solubility, and antimicrobial activity were evaluated for AZT dihydrate and the resulting cocrystals. The cocrystals exhibited better dissolution rate, solubility and enhanced biological activities.

13.
J Environ Manage ; 297: 113228, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273643

RESUMO

The promotion of carbon-neutral investments is among the primary constituents of developing a carbon-neutral economy. This is even more important for emerging economies that have constrained financial markets. In this paper, using monthly data between 2011 and 2019, we study 6519 actively managed mutual funds in BRICS after sorting them into black, brown, and green categories based on their investment holdings. Our comparative performance shows that green funds outperform their counterparts for the entire sample and within-country assessment. We also document the volatility and market timing ability of green funds, mainly absent in high emission funds. The results remained robust for various definitions of performance. Our findings also indicate Chinese green funds perform better than those of other countries. This is attributed to the multiple ecologically friendly economic policies that China has adopted over the years. Based on the results, we propose various interventions that could foster the adaptability of a carbon-neutral investment landscape.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Administração Financeira , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Investimentos em Saúde
14.
J Environ Manage ; 296: 113156, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225048

RESUMO

The development of a green financial intermediation channel is imperative to achieve zero-carbon economies. In this study, we assess the impact of carbon-neutral lending on the credit risk in the Eurozone. We employ quarterly data for a sample of 344 lending institutions of 19 member states spanning over ten years from 2011 to 2020. Using two specific credit risk measures, the findings show that the exposure to carbon-neutral lending is negatively related to the default risk. The results remain consistent for the various size sorts, depicting that regardless of the bank size, the impact of green financing on the credit risk is the same. We attribute the credit risk reduction to the lower volatility of the borrowers' earnings and cash flows emanating from their sustainable business model. As a consequence of lower credit risk, financial institutions can benefit from lower loan loss provisions and economic capital requirements. This incentive is vital to increase the carbon neutral credit and contribute towards pro-environmental goals.


Assuntos
Carbono , Renda , Comércio , Condições Sociais
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204328

RESUMO

The use of experimental relations to approximate the efficient thermophysical properties of a nanofluid (NF) with Cu nanoparticles (NPs) and hybrid nanofluid (HNF) with Cu-SWCNT NPs and subsequently model the two-dimensional pulsatile Casson fluid flow under the impact of the magnetic field and thermal radiation is a novelty of the current study. Heat and mass transfer analysis of the pulsatile flow of non-Newtonian Casson HNF via a Darcy-Forchheimer porous channel with compliant walls is presented. Such a problem offers a prospective model to study the blood flow via stenosed arteries. A finite-difference flow solver is used to numerically solve the system obtained using the vorticity stream function formulation on the time-dependent governing equations. The behavior of Cu-based NF and Cu-SWCNT-based HNF on the wall shear stress (WSS), velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles are analyzed graphically. The influence of the Casson parameter, radiation parameter, Hartmann number, Darcy number, Soret number, Reynolds number, Strouhal number, and Peclet number on the flow profiles are analyzed. Furthermore, the influence of the flow parameters on the non-dimensional numbers such as the skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number is also discussed. These quantities escalate as the Reynolds number is enhanced and reduce by escalating the porosity parameter. The Peclet number shows a high impact on the microorganism's density in a blood NF. The HNF has been shown to have superior thermal properties to the traditional one. These results could help in devising hydraulic treatments for blood flow in highly stenosed arteries, biomechanical system design, and industrial plants in which flow pulsation is essential.


Assuntos
Cobre , Hemodinâmica , Hidrodinâmica , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Fluxo Pulsátil , Algoritmos , Artérias/patologia , Artérias/fisiopatologia , Circulação Sanguínea , Constrição Patológica , Cobre/química , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Porosidade , Suspensões
16.
J Environ Manage ; 297: 113348, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325362

RESUMO

In the reforms pertaining to the energy structure in the automotive industry, new energy vehicles (NEVs) have long been the focus of government attention, as an effective means to reduce air pollution. Therefore, this paper employs the rolling-window Granger causality test, in order to discuss the environmental benefits of new energy vehicles, so as to explore the active role of the transportation sector in reducing air pollution. By studying the interactions between NEVs and particulate matter (PM2.5) from the time period spanning from 2013:M1 to 2020:M9, we have found that the positive influences from NEVs to PM2.5 ascertain that NEVs cannot be considered as an efficient measure to mitigate air pollution. Moreover, these results are not supported by the energy and environment interaction model, which essentially indicates that replacing traditional energy with renewable energy is an effective measure for controlling environmental pollution. In fact, PM2.5 tends to have a negative impact on NEVs, which underlines that the air quality index is a leading indicator, particularly when it comes to analyzing the development of the NEVs market. This essentially highlights that in China, NEVs still do not account for a high proportion of car sales, and therefore, its environmental protection effect is not obvious. At the same time, the factor of public awareness regarding environmental protection will thus occupy a considerable proportion in the transmission of NEVs sales. These revelations will help the government to formulate environmental governance policies, and expand the new energy vehicle market to achieve carbon neutrality targets in China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Carbono , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Política Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068324

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the performance of the Chinese healthcare system. It uses sustainable development goal (SDG) 3, set by the United Nations to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages as a benchmark. It uses data of 17 variables ranging from the year 2000 to 2017 and uses a multistage methodology to evaluate the performance. In the first stage, it uses difference in mean test to know whether or not the indicators show an improvement in the second decade of the 21st century compared to the first decade. In the second phase, simple linear regression has been used to know the rate of change of performance of every indicator over the sample period. The third step compares the performance of the healthcare sector with the sustainable goals set by the UN and the fourth phase attempts to forecast performance for the next five years i.e., 2018 to 2022. As per the results, the Chinese healthcare sector has performed very well on many fronts except alcohol consumption in males, road accidents and the incidence of non-communicable diseases. Alcohol consumption by males is touching dangerous levels. Therefore, the policies should focus on educating males to lower their alcohol consumption to stay fit and healthy.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , China , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Nações Unidas
18.
Educ Inf Technol (Dordr) ; : 1-18, 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34177346

RESUMO

Students' engagement has been a hot topic since the origin of teaching and learning; and is developing rapidly with time and technology. With the recent advances in Information and Communication Technology (e.g, Internet of Things, Artificial Intelligence and 5G), it is a need of the hour to revive its smart use in academia. In underdeveloped countries, parents are offended by financial burdens and educating children is not a priority, resulting students are not effectively engaged in learning. Smartphones are mostly used for fun and entertainment, why not for teaching, learning and monitoring to reshape pedagogy. This study investigated the role of social media in learners' engagement (l = 734) by making a productive relationship among the parents (p = 400), teachers (t = 21) and Principal in underdeveloped countries' schools. The results of the study are promising. The statistics for 2018-2019 (i.e, without social media), shows only 3% to 4 % parental participation in meetings and scarce teachers interest in schooling, resulting in the learner disengagement. However, the statistics from 2019-2020 (i.e, use of social media), shows improvements in the parental engagement up to 20% and teachers engagement up to 70%, resulting in a productive learners engagement. It is worth mentioning here that the school (located in the village), learner average attendance increased to 95% (dropped the truancy to almost zero), which got higher authorities admiration.

19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 678213, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33968891

RESUMO

This paper uses the mixed frequency vector autoregression model to explore the impact of economic fluctuations on infectious diseases mortality (IDM) from China perspective. We find that quarterly gross domestic product (GDP) fluctuations have a negative impact on the annual IDM, indicating that the mortality of infectious diseases varies counter-cyclically with the business cycle in China. Specifically, IDM usually increases with deterioration in economic conditions, and vice versa. The empirical results are consistent with the hypothesis I derived from the theoretical analysis, which highlights that economic fluctuations can negatively affect the mortality of infectious diseases. The findings can offer revelations for the government to consider the role of economic conditions in controlling the epidemic of infectious diseases. Policymakers should adopt appropriate and effective strategies to mitigate the potential negative effects of macroeconomic downturns on the mortality of infectious diseases. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, these analyses further emphasize the importance of promoting economic growth, increasing public health expenditure, and preventing and controlling foreign infectious diseases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
20.
ACS Nano ; 15(4): 6030-6037, 2021 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761237

RESUMO

Phytoviruses are highly destructive plant pathogens, causing significant agricultural losses due to their genomic diversity, rapid, and dynamic evolution, and the general inadequacy of management options. Although an increasing number of studies are being published demonstrating the efficacy of engineered nanomaterials to treat a range of plant pathogens, very little work has been done with phytoviruses. Herein, we describe the emerging field of "Nanophytovirology" as a potential management approach to combat plant viral diseases. Because of their special physiochemical properties, nanoparticles (NPs) can interact with viruses, their vectors, and the host plants in a variety of specific and useful ways. We specifically describe the potential mechanisms underlying NPs-plant-virus interactions and explore the antiviral role of NPs. We discuss the limited literature, as well as the challenges and research gaps that are instrumental to the successful development of a nanotechnology-based, multidisciplinary approach for timely detection, treatment, and prevention of viral diseases.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas , Vírus de Plantas , Gerenciamento Clínico , Nanotecnologia , Doenças das Plantas , Plantas
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