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1.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263936, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35157744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The updated Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines recommend a 1-hour window for completion of a sepsis care bundle; however, the effectiveness of the hour-1 bundle has not been fully evaluated. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of hour-1 bundle completion on clinical outcomes in sepsis patients. METHODS: This was a multicenter, prospective, observational study conducted in 17 intensive care units in tertiary hospitals in Japan. We included all adult patients who were diagnosed as having sepsis by Sepsis-3 and admitted to intensive care units from July 2019 to August 2020. Impacts of hour-1 bundle adherence and delay of adherence on risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality were estimated by multivariable logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The final study cohort included 178 patients with sepsis. Among them, 89 received bundle-adherent care. Completion rates of each component (measure lactate level, obtain blood cultures, administer broad-spectrum antibiotics, administer crystalloid, apply vasopressors) within 1 hour were 98.9%, 86.2%, 51.1%, 94.9%, and 69.1%, respectively. Completion rate of all components within 1 hour was 50%. In-hospital mortality was 18.0% in the patients with and 30.3% in the patients without bundle-adherent care (p = 0.054). The adjusted odds ratio of non-bundle-adherent versus bundle-adherent care for in-hospital mortality was 2.32 (95% CI 1.09-4.95) using propensity scoring. Non-adherence to obtaining blood cultures and administering broad-spectrum antibiotics within 1 hour was related to in-hospital mortality (2.65 [95% CI 1.25-5.62] and 4.81 [95% CI 1.38-16.72], respectively). The adjusted odds ratio for 1-hour delay in achieving hour-1 bundle components for in-hospital mortality was 1.28 (95% CI 1.04-1.57) by logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: Completion of the hour-1 bundle was associated with lower in-hospital mortality. Obtaining blood cultures and administering antibiotics within 1 hour may have been the components most contributing to decreased in-hospital mortality.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Sepse/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Japão , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/mortalidade , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e054295, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35105584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the difference in mortality from serious road traffic injuries during the National Traffic Safety Campaign compared with other periods and identify the common mechanisms of injury by age group in Japan. DESIGN: A retrospective review of Japan Trauma Data Bank (JTDB). SETTING: A total of 280 participating major emergency institutions across Japan. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with road traffic injuries registered in JTDB between 2004 and 2018 were recruited in the study. We included patients injured by traffic crashes during the National Traffic Safety Campaigns and controls using a double control method. The National Traffic Safety Campaign comprises 10 consecutive days in spring and fall (20 days in each year), and controls was the same calendar days 2 weeks before and after the days in the National Traffic Safety Campaigns (40 days in each year) to control for weekday, seasonal and yearly trends. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. The secondary outcome was the incidences of severe traffic injury. RESULTS: Among 126 857 patients recorded as road traffic injuries in JTDB, we identified 6181 patients (21 cases per day) with injuries occurring during the National Traffic Safety Campaigns and 12 382 controls (21 cases per day). The overall in-hospital mortality was 11.4%. We did not observe a significant difference in in-hospital mortality between the groups (11.8% vs 11.1%) with an adjusted OR of 1.05 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.16). The most common mechanism of injury in each age group was bicycle crash among children, motorcycle crash among adults and pedestrian among the elderly. CONCLUSIONS: We found no change in the incidence of severe traffic injury or in-hospital mortality during the National Traffic Safety Campaign in Japan. Serious road trauma was high for bicycles among children, motorcycles among adults and pedestrian among the elderly.


Assuntos
Pedestres , Ferimentos e Lesões , Acidentes de Trânsito , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Motocicletas , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle
3.
Acute Med Surg ; 9(1): e725, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35059219

RESUMO

AIM: To assess relationships between abdominal angiography and outcomes in adults with blunt liver injuries. METHODS: A retrospective observational study carried out from January 2004 to December 2018. Adult blunt-trauma patients with AAST grade Ⅲ-Ⅴ were analyzed with in-hospital mortality as the primary outcome using propensity-score-(PS) matching to seek associations with abdominal angiography findings. RESULTS: A total of 1,821 patients were included, of which 854 had available abdominal angiography data (AA+) and 967 did not (AA-). From these, 562 patients were selected from each group by propensity score matching. In-hospital mortality was found to be lower in the AA+ than in the AA- group (15.1% [87/562] versus 25.4% [143/562]; odds ratio 0.544, 95% confidence interval 0.398-0.739). CONCLUSION: Abdominal angiography is shown to be of benefit for adult patients with blunt liver injury in terms of their lower in-hospital mortality.

4.
J Pers Med ; 12(1)2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35055359

RESUMO

The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score is predominantly used to assess the severity of organ dysfunction in sepsis. However, differences in prognostic value between SOFA subscores have not been sufficiently evaluated. This retrospective observational study used a large-scale database containing about 30 million patients. Among them, we included 38,869 adult patients with sepsis from 2006 to 2019. The cardiovascular and neurological subscores were calculated by a modified method. Associations between the biomarkers of the SOFA components and mortality were examined using restricted cubic spline analyses, which showed that an increase in the total modified SOFA score was linearly associated with increased mortality. However, the prognostic association of subscores varied widely: platelet count showed a J-shaped association, creatinine showed an inverted J-shaped association, and bilirubin showed only a weak association. We also evaluated interaction effects on mortality between an increase of one subscore and another. The joint odds ratios on mortality of two modified SOFA subscores were synergistically increased compared to the sum of the single odds ratios, especially in cardiovascular-neurological, coagulation-hepatic, and renal-hepatic combinations. In conclusion, total modified SOFA score was associated with increased mortality despite the varied prognostic associations of the subscores, possibly because interactions between subscores synergistically enhanced prognostic accuracy.

5.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 48(2): 999-1007, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492423

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of fluid administration by emergency life-saving technicians (ELST) on the prognosis of traffic accident patients by using a propensity score (PS)-matching method. METHODS: The study included traffic accident patients registered in the JTDB database from January 2016 to December 2017. The main outcome was hospital mortality, and the secondary outcome was cardiopulmonary arrest on hospital arrival (CPAOA). To reduce potential confounding effects in the comparisons between two groups, we estimated a propensity score (PS) by fitting a logistic regression model that was adjusted for 17 variables before the implementation of fluid administration by ELST at the scene. RESULTS: During the study period, 10,908 traffic accident patients were registered in the JTDB database, and we included 3502 patients in this study. Of these patients, 142 were administered fluid by ELST and 3360 were not administered fluid by ELST. After PS matching, 141 patients were selected from each group. In the PS-matched model, fluid administration by ELST at the scene was not associated with discharge to death (crude OR: 0.859 [95% CI, 0.500-1.475]; p = 0.582). However, the fluid group showed statistically better outcome for CPAOA than the no fluid group in the multiple logistic regression model (adjusted OR: 0.231 [95% CI, 0.055-0.967]; p = 0.045). CONCLUSION: In this study, fluid administration to traffic accident patients by ELST was associated not with hospital mortality but with a lower proportion of CPAOA.


Assuntos
Ambulâncias , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Acidentes de Trânsito , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 767637, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34869481

RESUMO

Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI)-associated coagulopathy is a widely recognized risk factor for secondary brain damage and contributes to poor clinical outcomes. Various theories, including disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), have been proposed regarding its pathomechanisms; no consensus has been reached thus far. This study aimed to elucidate the pathophysiology of TBI-induced coagulopathy by comparing coagulofibrinolytic changes in isolated TBI (iTBI) to those in non-TBI, to determine the associated factors, and identify the clinical significance of DIC diagnosis in patients with iTBI. Methods: This secondary multicenter, prospective study assessed patients with severe trauma. iTBI was defined as Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores ≥4 in the head and neck, and ≤2 in other body parts. Non-TBI was defined as AIS scores ≥4 in single body parts other than the head and neck, and the absence of AIS scores ≥3 in any other trauma-affected parts. Specific biomarkers for thrombin and plasmin generation, anticoagulation, and fibrinolysis inhibition were measured at the presentation to the emergency department (0 h) and 3 h after arrival. Results: We analyzed 34 iTBI and 40 non-TBI patients. Baseline characteristics, transfusion requirements and in-hospital mortality did not significantly differ between groups. The changes in coagulation/fibrinolysis-related biomarkers were similar. Lactate levels in the iTBI group positively correlated with DIC scores (rho = -0.441, p = 0.017), but not with blood pressure (rho = -0.098, p = 0.614). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that the injury severity score was an independent predictor of DIC development in patients with iTBI (odds ratio = 1.237, p = 0.018). Patients with iTBI were further subdivided into two groups: DIC (n = 15) and non-DIC (n = 19) groups. Marked thrombin and plasmin generation were observed in all patients with iTBI, especially those with DIC. Patients with iTBI and DIC had higher requirements for massive transfusion and emergency surgery, and higher in-hospital mortality than those without DIC. Furthermore, DIC development significantly correlated with poor hospital survival; DIC scores at 0 h were predictive of in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Coagulofibrinolytic changes in iTBI and non-TBI patients were identical, and consistent with the pathophysiology of DIC. DIC diagnosis in the early phase of TBI is key in predicting the outcomes of severe TBI.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34860254

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sex-based differences in post-traumatic mortality have been widely discussed for quite some time. We hypothesized that age-related pathophysiologic changes would affect sex-based differences in post-traumatic mortality and aimed to verify the hypothesis using a nationwide trauma registry in Japan. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of trauma patients registered in The Japanese Trauma Data Bank. We stratified the study population into the following three subsets based on age: (1) pediatric subset (age ≤ 14), (2) adult subset (age 15-50) and (3) senior adult subset (age ≥ 51). We evaluated both sex-based differences in mortality in each subset separately using multivariate logistic regression analysis and the two-way interaction effect for predicted survival between the continuous increase of age and the sexes using a nonlinear multivariate regression model. RESULTS: We included 122,819 trauma patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and classified them into the 3 subsets according to age. Male patients were more likely to die compared to female patients only in the senior adult subset (adjusted odds ratio: 1.26; 95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.36), whereas there were no statistically significant differences in the other two subsets. Furthermore, non-linear logistic regression analysis revealed that predicted survival probability in male patients decreased more sharply in accordance with the increase of age compared to that in female patients (p for interaction: 0.051). CONCLUSION: Age-related change in post-traumatic mortality was significantly different between males and females, and male patients had a relatively higher risk of death in the older population.

8.
J Pers Med ; 11(12)2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34945818

RESUMO

The seasonal incidence of acute abdomens, such as appendicitis, is reportedly more common in summer but is reported less frequently in Asia. Additionally, seasonal variations in the severity of acute abdomens have been evaluated insufficiently. This study evaluated the seasonal variations in the incidence and severity of acute abdomens in Japan. This retrospective observational study used a multicenter database containing data from 42 acute hospitals in Japan. We included all patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis, diverticulitis, cholecystitis, and cholangitis between January 2011 and December 2019. Baseline patient data included admission date, sequential organ failure assessment score, presence of sepsis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. We enrolled 24,708 patients with acute abdomen. Seasonal admissions for all four acute abdominal diseases were the highest in summer [acute appendicitis, (OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.28-1.43); diverticulitis, (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.16-1.31; cholecystitis (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.11-1.36); and cholangitis (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.12-1.36)]. The proportion of patients with sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation as well as the total SOFA score for each disease, did not differ significantly across seasons. Seasonal variations in disease severity were not observed.

9.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e693, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589230

RESUMO

AIM: Self-inflicted injury, as one reason to visit the emergency department, is an important issue in emergency medicine around the world. However, the impact of changes in social systems, such as medical reimbursement revision, on ambulance transport for self-inflicted injury remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of medical reimbursement revision on the emergency transport of self-inflicted injury patients using nationwide ambulance records. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study from April 2012 to March 2016. We analyzed nationwide ambulance records in Japan, and included self-inflicted injury, drug poisoning, and drug overdose patients transported to hospitals by ambulance. The primary outcome of this study was age-adjusted number of self-inflicted injury patients transported by ambulance in each month per 1 million standard populations. To assess the impact of the medical reimbursement revision in 2014, we calculated the R 2, regression coefficients and 95% confidence interval (CI) using interrupted time series analysis. RESULTS: This study included 148,873 patients. The R 2 for the interrupted time series model was 0.821. The regression coefficient for the time trend before the medical reimbursement revision was 0.167 (95% CI, 0.090 to 0.244; p < 0.001), that for the time trend after the medical reimbursement revision was -0.226 (95% CI, -0.327 to -0.125, p < 0.001), and that of the medical reimbursement revision was -2.165 (95% CI, -3.730 to -0.601, p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: In Japan, the medical reimbursement revision in April 2014 helped to decrease the number of self-inflicted injury patients transported to hospitals by ambulance.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562135

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe epidemiologic features of pediatric blunt renal trauma. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis using the Japan Trauma Data Bank over 15 years. We included patients younger than 18 years with blunt renal trauma. We analyzed temporal trends and variations across age groups in patient characteristics, intervention, and in-hospital mortality. We also assessed factors associated with in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: We identified 435 pediatric patients with blunt renal trauma. Their median age was 14 years and median Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 17. The most common mechanism of injury was traffic accident in all age groups. Nephrectomy was performed in 3.2%, and the overall in-hospital mortality was 4.6%, both of which showed decreasing trends. The most common mechanism of injury by age group was a pedestrian accident in infants/toddlers/preschoolers (43.5%), pedestrian accident in middle childhood (18.5%), bicycle accident in young teens (24.7%), and motorcycle accident in teenagers (41.2%). Sports-related injury was common in young teens (23.3%) and teenagers (15.2%). Factors such as ISS, shock, concomitant injury, and nephrectomy were associated with high in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: We described decreasing trends in nephrectomy and in-hospital mortality in pediatric blunt renal trauma and found traffic accident and sports-related injury were common in the pediatric population in Japan.

11.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e659, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484801

RESUMO

The Japanese Clinical Practice Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock 2020 (J-SSCG 2020), a Japanese-specific set of clinical practice guidelines for sepsis and septic shock created as revised from J-SSCG 2016 jointly by the Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine and the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine, was first released in September 2020 and published in February 2021. An English-language version of these guidelines was created based on the contents of the original Japanese-language version. The purpose of this guideline is to assist medical staff in making appropriate decisions to improve the prognosis of patients undergoing treatment for sepsis and septic shock. We aimed to provide high-quality guidelines that are easy to use and understand for specialists, general clinicians, and multidisciplinary medical professionals. J-SSCG 2016 took up new subjects that were not present in SSCG 2016 (e.g., ICU-acquired weakness [ICU-AW], post-intensive care syndrome [PICS], and body temperature management). The J-SSCG 2020 covered a total of 22 areas with four additional new areas (patient- and family-centered care, sepsis treatment system, neuro-intensive treatment, and stress ulcers). A total of 118 important clinical issues (clinical questions, CQs) were extracted regardless of the presence or absence of evidence. These CQs also include those that have been given particular focus within Japan. This is a large-scale guideline covering multiple fields; thus, in addition to the 25 committee members, we had the participation and support of a total of 226 members who are professionals (physicians, nurses, physiotherapists, clinical engineers, and pharmacists) and medical workers with a history of sepsis or critical illness. The GRADE method was adopted for making recommendations, and the modified Delphi method was used to determine recommendations by voting from all committee members. As a result, 79 GRADE-based recommendations, 5 Good Practice Statements (GPS), 18 expert consensuses, 27 answers to background questions (BQs), and summaries of definitions and diagnosis of sepsis were created as responses to 118 CQs. We also incorporated visual information for each CQ according to the time course of treatment, and we will also distribute this as an app. The J-SSCG 2020 is expected to be widely used as a useful bedside guideline in the field of sepsis treatment both in Japan and overseas involving multiple disciplines.

12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 113: 18-22, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592440

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The rapid increase of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing pathogens makes it difficult to choose appropriate antimicrobials in patients with Gram-negative bacterial infection. The Cica-beta reagent (Kanto Chemical, Tokyo, Japan) is a chromogenic test that detects ESBLs from bacterial colonies. This study aimed to reveal whether Cica-beta reagent could detect ESBLs directly from urine samples to facilitate rapid diagnosis of antibiotic susceptibility. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted from July 2019 to November 2019. Patients in whom urine culture tests were performed were eligible. Each urine sample was centrifuged, and the pellet was mixed with Cica-beta reagent. The test was considered positive when the enzymatic reaction turned from yellow to red or orange. RESULTS: In total, 350 urine samples were analysed. Urinary tract infection (UTI) was diagnosed in 214 patients. ESBL-producing Enterobacterales were isolated from 79 samples. The Cica-beta test showed sensitivity of 79.8% and specificity of 99.3% in patients with Gram-negative bacteriuria. Sensitivity and specificity improved to 90.2% and 100%, respectively, in patients with UTI. CONCLUSION: The Cica-beta test could be an efficient test for the detection of ESBL-producing pathogens in urine. By providing immediate information about ESBLs, it might be a useful point-of-care test to guide appropriate antimicrobial use in patients with UTI.


Assuntos
Bacteriúria , Infecções Urinárias , Bacteriúria/diagnóstico , Humanos , Indicadores e Reagentes , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , beta-Lactamases
13.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 338, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trends in the incidence and outcomes of sepsis using a Japanese nationwide database were investigated. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. Adult patients, who had both presumed serious infections and acute organ dysfunction, between 2010 and 2017 were extracted using a combined method of administrative and electronic health record data from the Japanese nationwide medical claim database, which covered 71.5% of all acute care hospitals in 2017. Presumed serious infection was defined using blood culture test records and antibiotic administration. Acute organ dysfunction was defined using records of diagnosis according to the international statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, 10th revision, and records of organ support. The primary outcomes were the annual incidence of sepsis and death in sepsis per 1000 inpatients. The secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality rate and length of hospital stay in patients with sepsis. RESULTS: The analyzed dataset included 50,490,128 adult inpatients admitted between 2010 and 2017. Of these, 2,043,073 (4.0%) patients had sepsis. During the 8-year period, the annual proportion of patients with sepsis across inpatients significantly increased (slope = + 0.30%/year, P < 0.0001), accounting for 4.9% of the total inpatients in 2017. The annual death rate of sepsis per 1000 inpatients significantly increased (slope = + 1.8/1000 inpatients year, P = 0.0001), accounting for 7.8 deaths per 1000 inpatients in 2017. The in-hospital mortality rate and median (interquartile range) length of hospital stay significantly decreased (P < 0.001) over the study period and were 18.3% and 27 (15-50) days in 2017, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The Japanese nationwide data indicate that the annual incidence of sepsis and death in inpatients with sepsis significantly increased; however, the annual mortality rates and length of hospital stay in patients with sepsis significantly decreased. The increasing incidence of sepsis and death in sepsis appear to be a significant and ongoing issue.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Sepse/epidemiologia
14.
J Intensive Care ; 9(1): 53, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433491

RESUMO

The Japanese Clinical Practice Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock 2020 (J-SSCG 2020), a Japanese-specific set of clinical practice guidelines for sepsis and septic shock created as revised from J-SSCG 2016 jointly by the Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine and the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine, was first released in September 2020 and published in February 2021. An English-language version of these guidelines was created based on the contents of the original Japanese-language version. The purpose of this guideline is to assist medical staff in making appropriate decisions to improve the prognosis of patients undergoing treatment for sepsis and septic shock. We aimed to provide high-quality guidelines that are easy to use and understand for specialists, general clinicians, and multidisciplinary medical professionals. J-SSCG 2016 took up new subjects that were not present in SSCG 2016 (e.g., ICU-acquired weakness [ICU-AW], post-intensive care syndrome [PICS], and body temperature management). The J-SSCG 2020 covered a total of 22 areas with four additional new areas (patient- and family-centered care, sepsis treatment system, neuro-intensive treatment, and stress ulcers). A total of 118 important clinical issues (clinical questions, CQs) were extracted regardless of the presence or absence of evidence. These CQs also include those that have been given particular focus within Japan. This is a large-scale guideline covering multiple fields; thus, in addition to the 25 committee members, we had the participation and support of a total of 226 members who are professionals (physicians, nurses, physiotherapists, clinical engineers, and pharmacists) and medical workers with a history of sepsis or critical illness. The GRADE method was adopted for making recommendations, and the modified Delphi method was used to determine recommendations by voting from all committee members.As a result, 79 GRADE-based recommendations, 5 Good Practice Statements (GPS), 18 expert consensuses, 27 answers to background questions (BQs), and summaries of definitions and diagnosis of sepsis were created as responses to 118 CQs. We also incorporated visual information for each CQ according to the time course of treatment, and we will also distribute this as an app. The J-SSCG 2020 is expected to be widely used as a useful bedside guideline in the field of sepsis treatment both in Japan and overseas involving multiple disciplines.

15.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e675, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408882

RESUMO

AIM: The quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) was proposed for use as a simple screening tool for sepsis. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the prehospital use of qSOFA and prognosis in patients with sepsis or suspected sepsis using the population-based Osaka Emergency Information Research Intelligent Operation Network (ORION) registry, which compiles prehospital ambulance data and in-hospital information. METHODS: The study enrolled 437,974 patients in the ORION registry from January 1 to December 31, 2016. We selected hospitalized patients with sepsis or suspected sepsis using the appropriate codes from the International Classification of Diseases revision 10. We excluded patients with: (i) missing data (outcome, Japan Coma Scale, respiratory rate, and blood pressure); (ii) respiratory rate ≥60/min; and (iii) blood pressure ≥250 mmHg. These measures were evaluated by ambulance personnel when they first contacted the patient in the prehospital setting. The primary end-point was discharge to death. RESULTS: In total, 12,646 patients (median age, 78 [interquartile range, 65-85] years; male, n = 6,760 [53.5%]) were eligible for our analysis. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for confounding factors, the proportion of patients discharged to death was significantly higher for those evaluated as qSOFA positive (≥2 points) than qSOFA negative (≤1 point) (265/2,250 [11.78%] vs. 415/10,396 [3.99%]; adjusted odds ratio 2.91; 95% confidence interval, 2.47-3.43; P < 0.0001). The specificity and sensitivity were 83.4% and 39.0%, respectively, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for qSOFA positive was 0.61. CONCLUSIONS: The qSOFA evaluated by ambulance personnel in the prehospital setting was significantly associated with prognosis in patients with sepsis or suspected sepsis.

16.
Arch Med Res ; 52(8): 788-797, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344558

RESUMO

The diagnostic criteria of overt disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) were established by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) in 2001. Since then, DIC has long been associated with adverse outcomes. However, recent advances in sepsis shed light on the role of coagulation disorders in the progression of sepsis. Currently, inflammation and coagulation are recognized as the two drivers that promote organ dysfunction in sepsis and septic shock. The ISTH has published new diagnostic criteria for improved management, namely sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC), in 2017. SIC is a pragmatic scoring system composed of platelet count, prothrombin time, and organ dysfunction score to detect the early-stage of sepsis-associated DIC. Since overt DIC represents an uncompensated coagulation disorder, a two-step approach using SIC and overt DIC criteria is a novel strategy to evaluate the severity and manage this challenging complication. Although there is no globally agreed on anticoagulant therapy for DIC, the Japanese Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines 2020 recommend using antithrombin and recombinant thrombomodulin for sepsis associated DIC. Since research in this area has been previously reported, an international collaborative study is necessary to develop future diagnostic tools and treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada , Sepse , Choque Séptico , Trombose , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/terapia , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/diagnóstico , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/etiologia , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/terapia , Humanos , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/diagnóstico
17.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211033030, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278836

RESUMO

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) commonly complicates sepsis and considerably worsens mortality. Recent studies suggested that anticoagulant therapies improved mortality only in specific sepsis populations, and key pathologies for selecting optimal targets needed to be identified. Anticoagulant activities were naturally altered with aging. This study aimed to evaluate age-related differences in efficacy of anticoagulant therapies in sepsis. This post hoc analysis of a nationwide multicenter cohort study was conducted in 42 intensive care units in Japan. Adult patients with septic DIC were divided into anticoagulant and control groups. Age-related changes in predicted mortality in both groups were compared using a logistic regression model including 2-way interaction terms. Patients were also stratified into 3 subsets based on age, and propensity score-adjusted Cox regression analyses were conducted to examine survival effect of anticoagulants in each subset. We included 1432 patients with septic DIC; 867 patients received anticoagulants and 565 received none. Age-related change in predicted mortality was significantly different between groups (P for interaction = 0.013), and the gap between groups was broad in the younger population. Similarly, in Cox regression analyses, anticoagulant therapies were associated with significantly lower mortality in the subsets of age ≤ 60 and 60-79 (hazard ratios = 0.461, 0.617, P = 0.007, 0.005, respectively), whereas there was no difference in survival between the groups in the subsets of age ≥ 80. The efficacy of anticoagulant therapies for septic DIC might be associated with patient age.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/sangue , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254343, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264977

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the value of quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA) combined with other risk factors in predicting in-hospital mortality in patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected infection. This post-hoc analysis of a prospective multicenter study dataset included 34 emergency departments across Japan (December 2017 to February 2018). We included adult patients (age ≥16 years) who presented to the emergency department with suspected infection. qSOFA was calculated and recorded by senior emergency physicians when they suspected an infection. Different types of sepsis-related risk factors (demographic, functional, and laboratory values) were chosen from prior studies. A logistic regression model was used to assess the predictive value of qSOFA for in-hospital mortality in models based on the following combination of predictors: 1) qSOFA-Only; 2) qSOFA+Age; 3) qSOFA+Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS); 4) qSOFA+Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI); 5) qSOFA+lactate levels; 6) qSOFA+Age+CCI+CFS+lactate levels. We calculated the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and other key clinical statistics at Youden's index, where the sum of sensitivity and specificity is maximized. Following prior literature, an AUC >0.9 was deemed to indicate high accuracy; 0.7-0.9, moderate accuracy; 0.5-0.7, low accuracy; and 0.5, a chance result. Of the 951 patients included in the analysis, 151 (15.9%) died during hospitalization. The AUC for predicting in-hospital mortality was 0.627 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.580-0.673) for the qSOFA-Only model. Addition of other variables only marginally improved the model's AUC; the model that included all potentially relevant variables yielded an AUC of only 0.730 (95% CI: 0.687-0.774). Other key statistic values were similar among all models, with sensitivity and specificity of 0.55-0.65 and 0.60-0.75, respectively. In this post-hoc data analysis from a prospective multicenter study based in Japan, combining qSOFA with other sepsis-related risk factors only marginally improved the model's predictive value.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Sepse/mortalidade
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 454-460, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048887

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: One of the most significant features of poor prognosis in COVID-19 is pulmonary fibrosis. Nintedanib is a new antifibrotic agent that interferes with processes of pulmonary fibrosis. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of nintedanib in COVID-19. METHODS: This was an interventional study in which adult patients with COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation were consecutively enrolled. The primary endpoint was 28-day mortality after the initiation of mechanical ventilation. The secondary endpoints were length of mechanical ventilation, volume of lung injury, and the incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events and acute liver failure. RESULTS: Thirty patients with COVID-19 underwent nintedanib therapy. We included 30 patients not receiving nintedanib as the historical control group. There were no significant differences in 28-day mortality between the groups (23.3% vs 20%, P = 0.834). Lengths of mechanical ventilation were significantly shorter in the nintedanib group (P = 0.046). Computed tomography volumetry showed that the percentages of high-attenuation areas were significantly lower in the nintedanib group at liberation from mechanical ventilation (38.7% vs 25.7%, P = 0.027). There were no significant differences in the adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The administration of nintedanib may offer potential benefits for minimizing lung injury in COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fibrose Pulmonar , Adulto , Humanos , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Respiração Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Shock ; 56(4): 507-513, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978606

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Glycemic control strategies for sepsis have changed significantly over the last decade, but their impact on dysglycemia and its associated outcomes has been poorly understood. In addition, there is controversy regarding the detrimental effects of hyperglycemia in sepsis. To evaluate the incidence and risks of dysglycemia under current strategy, we conducted a preplanned subanalysis of the sepsis cohort in a prospective, multicenter FORECAST study. A total of 1,140 patients with severe sepsis, including 259 patients with pre-existing diabetes, were included. Median blood glucose levels were approximately 140 mg/dL at 0 and 72 h indicating that blood glucose was moderately controlled. The rate of initial and late hyperglycemia was 27.3% and 21.7%, respectively. The rate of early hypoglycemic episodes during the initial 24 h was 13.2%. Glycemic control was accompanied by a higher percentage of initial and late hyperglycemia but not with early hypoglycemic episodes, suggesting that glycemic control was targeted at excess hyperglycemia. In nondiabetic patients, late hyperglycemia (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval; P value: 1.816, 1.116-2.955, 0.016) and early hypoglycemic episodes (1.936, 1.180-3.175, 0.009) were positively associated with in-hospital mortality. Further subgroup analysis suggested that late hyperglycemia and early hypoglycemic episodes independently, and probably synergistically, affect the outcomes. In diabetic patients, however, these correlations were not observed. In conclusion, a significantly high incidence of dysglycemia was observed in our sepsis cohort under moderate glycemic control. Late hyperglycemia in addition to early hypoglycemia was associated with poor outcomes at least in nondiabetic patients. More sophisticated approaches are necessary to reduce the incidence of these serious complications.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/complicações , Controle Glicêmico , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Sepse/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Complicações do Diabetes/sangue , Complicações do Diabetes/terapia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hiperglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemia/complicações , Hipoglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/terapia
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