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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical phenotypes and infectious triggers in the 2019 Peruvian Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) outbreak. METHODS: We prospectively collected clinical and neurophysiologic data of patients with GBS admitted to a tertiary hospital in Lima, Peru, between May and August 2019. Molecular, immunologic, and microbiological methods were used to identify causative infectious agents. Sera from 41 controls were compared with cases for antibodies to Campylobacter jejuni and gangliosides. Genomic analysis was performed on 4 C jejuni isolates. RESULTS: The 49 included patients had a median age of 44 years (interquartile range [IQR] 30-54 years), and 28 (57%) were male. Thirty-two (65%) had symptoms of a preceding infection: 24 (49%) diarrhea and 13 (27%) upper respiratory tract infection. The median time between infectious to neurologic symptoms was 3 days (IQR 2-9 days). Eighty percent had a pure motor form of GBS, 21 (43%) had the axonal electrophysiologic subtype, and 18% the demyelinating subtype. Evidence of recent C jejuni infection was found in 28/43 (65%). No evidence of recent arbovirus infection was found. Twenty-three cases vs 11 controls (OR 3.3, confidence interval [CI] 95% 1.2-9.2, p < 0.01) had IgM and/or IgA antibodies against C jejuni. Anti-GM1:phosphatidylserine and/or anti-GT1a:GM1 heteromeric complex antibodies were strongly positive in cases (92.9% sensitivity and 68.3% specificity). Genomic analysis showed that the C jejuni strains were closely related and had the Asn51 polymorphism at cstII gene. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that the 2019 Peruvian GBS outbreak was associated with C jejuni infection and that the C jejuni strains linked to GBS circulate widely in different parts of the world.

4.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 14(8): 687-695, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24999157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis causes a substantial burden of seizure disorders worldwide. Treatment with either praziquantel or albendazole has suboptimum efficacy. We aimed to establish whether combination of these drugs would increase cysticidal efficacy and whether complete cyst resolution results in fewer seizures. We added an increased dose albendazole group to establish a potential effect of increased albendazole concentrations. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, patients with viable intraparenchymal neurocysticercosis were randomly assigned to receive 10 days of combined albendazole (15 mg/kg per day) plus praziquantel (50 mg/kg per day), standard albendazole (15 mg/kg per day), or increased dose albendazole (22·5 mg/kg per day). Randomisation was done with a computer generated schedule balanced within four strata based on number of cysts and concomitant antiepileptic drug. Patients and investigators were masked to group assignment. The primary outcome was complete cyst resolution on 6-month MRI. Enrolment was stopped after interim analysis because of parasiticidal superiority of one treatment group. Analysis excluded patients lost to follow-up before the 6-month MRI. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00441285. FINDINGS: Between March 3, 2010 and Nov 14, 2011, 124 patients were randomly assigned to study groups (41 to receive combined albendazole plus praziquantel [39 analysed], 43 standard albendazole [41 analysed], and 40 increased albendazole [38 analysed]). 25 (64%) of 39 patients in the combined treatment group had complete resolution of brain cysts compared with 15 (37%) of 41 patients in the standard albendazole group (rate ratio [RR] 1·75, 95% CI 1·10-2·79, p=0·014). 20 (53%) of 38 patients in the increased albendazole group had complete cyst resolution at 6-month MRI compared with 15 (37%) of 41 patients in the standard albendazole group (RR 1·44, 95% CI 0·87-2·38, p=0·151). No significant differences in adverse events were reported between treatment groups (18 in combined treatment group, 11 in standard albendazole group, and 19 in increased albendazole group). INTERPRETATION: Combination of albendazole plus praziquantel increases the parasiticidal effect in patients with multiple brain cysticercosis cysts without increased side-effects. A more efficacious parasiticidal regime without increased treatment-associated side-effects should improve the treatment and long term prognosis of patients with neurocysticercosis. FUNDING: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Neurocisticercose/tratamento farmacológico , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Albendazol/efeitos adversos , Anti-Helmínticos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Praziquantel/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Rev. méd. hered ; 6(4): 163-7, dic. 1995. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-224485

RESUMO

Objetivo: Estudiar la posible asociación entre mal de montaña crónico, migraña y depresión. Material y métodos: Estudio epidemiológico realizado en Septiembre de 1990 en 379 hombres adultos con residencia permanente en la ciudad de Cerro de Pasco (4,300 m.s.n.m.); se hicieron 15 preguntas asociadas a depresión y 9 preguntas asociadas al mal de montaña crónico (MMC) con las que se calcularon puntajes de depresión y del mal de montaña crónico. Los puntajes por encima de dos desviaciones estándar de la media fueron considerados como altos. Resultados: La frecuencia de migrañas fue de 48.3 por ciento entre hombres con puntajes altos de MMC y de 26.5 por ciento entre aquellos con puntajes normales (p=0.013). El 16.7 por ciento de hombres con puntaje alto de MMC tuvo puntaje alto de depresión mientras que sólo el 6.5 por ciento con puntaje normal de MMC tuvo puntaje alto de depresión (p=0.04). El riesgo de tener puntaje alto de depresión o de MMC fue más del doble entre hombres con migrañas comparados con hombres sin migrañas. La posibilidad de tener migraña o puntaje alto de MMC, fue tres veces mayor entre hombres con puntajes altos de depresión comparados con los de puntajes normales. Los hombres con migrañas con aura, la forma más frecuente de migraña en la altura, tuvieron puntajes de MMC más altos que aquellos sin cefaleas o con otros tipos de cefaleas. Conclusiones: Los datos muestran una coexistencia más que casual entre estas tres entidades clínicas. Se sugiere que un factor de riesgo común a las tres sea la hipoxia crónica que podría producir cambios neuroquímicos en el cerebro que explicarían, en parte, los síntomas de estos tres sindromes. Los datos también sugieren que los síntomas subjetivos que ocurren en el mal de montaña crónico son similares a los que ocurren en la depresión


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença da Altitude , Cefaleia/etiologia , Hipóxia , Depressão/etiologia
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