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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111715

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is limited evidence to guide management in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on chronic hemodialysis admitted with diabetes ketoacidosis. Thus, we investigated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with ESRD admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). METHODS: In this observational study, we used International Classification of Diseases Ninth/Tenth Revision codes to identify adult (aged 18-80 years) patients admitted to Emory University Hospitals between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2016. DKA and ESRD diagnoses were confirmed by reviewing medical records and by admission laboratory results. RESULTS: Among 307 patients with DKA meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 22.1% (n: 68) had ESRD on hemodialysis and 77.9% (n: 239) had preserved renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate >60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Compared with patients with preserved renal function, the admission blood glucose was higher (804.5±362.6 mg/dL vs 472.5±137.7 mg/dL) and the mean hemoglobin A1c was lower (9.6%±2.1 vs 12.0%±2.5) in patients with DKA and ESRD, both p<0.001. The rates of hypoglycemia <70 mg/dL (34% vs 14%, p=0.002) and <54 mg/dL (13% vs 5%, p=0.04) were higher in the ESRD group. During hospitalization, more patients with ESRD develop volume overload (28% vs 3%, p<0.001) and require mechanical ventilation (24% vs 3%, p=<0.001). There were no differences in hospital mortality (3% vs 0%, p=0.21), but length of stay (median 7.0 vs 3.0 days, p<0.001) was longer in the ESRD cohort. After adjusting for multiple covariates, patients with DKA and ESRD have higher odds of hypoglycemia (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.51 to 7.21, p=0.003) and volume overload (OR 4.22, 95% CI 1.37 to 13.05, p=0.01) compared with patients with DKA with preserved renal function. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with DKA and ESRD on chronic hemodialysis had worse clinical outcomes including higher rates of hypoglycemia, volume overload, need for mechanical ventilation and longer length of stay, compared with patients with preserved kidney function.

2.
Endocr Pract ; 26(1): 107-139, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022600

RESUMO

Abbreviations: A1C = hemoglobin A1C; AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists; ABCD = adiposity-based chronic disease; ACCORD = Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes; ACCORD BP = Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Blood Pressure; ACE = American College of Endocrinology; ACEI = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; AGI = alpha-glucosidase inhibitor; apo B = apolipoprotein B; ARB = angiotensin II receptor blocker; ASCVD = atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; BAS = bile acid sequestrant; BMI = body mass index; BP = blood pressure; CCB = calcium channel blocker; CGM = continuous glucose monitoring; CHD = coronary heart disease; CKD = chronic kidney disease; DKA = diabetic ketoacidosis; DPP4 = dipeptidyl peptidase 4; eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate; EPA = eicosapentaenoic acid; ER = extended release; FDA = Food and Drug Administration; GLP1 = glucagon-like peptide 1; HDL-C = high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol; HeFH = heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia; LDL-C = low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-P = low-density-lipoprotein particle; Look AHEAD = Look Action for Health in Diabetes; NPH = neutral protamine Hagedorn; OSA = obstructive sleep apnea; PCSK9 = proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 serine protease; RCT = randomized controlled trial; SU = sulfonylurea; SGLT2 = sodium-glucose cotransporter 2; SMBG = self-monitoring of blood glucose; T2D = type 2 diabetes; TZD = thiazolidinedione.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Endocrinologistas , Algoritmos , Glicemia , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Consenso , Humanos , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9 , Estados Unidos
3.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am ; 49(1): 79-93, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980123

RESUMO

In past decades, a rapid evolution of diabetes technology led to increased popularity and use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in the ambulatory setting for diabetes management, and recently, the artificial pancreas became available. Efforts to translate this technology to the hospital setting have shown accuracy and reliability of CGM, safety of CSII in appropriate populations, improvement of inpatient glycemic control with computerized glycemic management systems, and feasibility of inpatient CGM-CSII closed-loop systems. Several ongoing studies are focusing on continued translation of this technology to improve glycemic control and outcomes in hospitalized patients.

4.
Diabetes Care ; 43(2): 349-357, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Many patients with hyperglycemic crises present with combined features of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS). The implications of concomitant acidosis and hyperosmolality are not well known. We investigated hospital outcomes in patients with isolated or combined hyperglycemic crises. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed admissions data listing DKA or HHS at two academic hospitals. We determined 1) the frequency distributions of HHS, DKA, and combined DKA-HHS (DKA criteria plus elevated effective osmolality); 2) the relationship of markers of severity of illness and clinical comorbidities with 30-day all-cause mortality; and 3) the relationship of hospital complications associated with insulin therapy (hypoglycemia and hypokalemia) with mortality. RESULTS: There were 1,211 patients who had a first admission with confirmed hyperglycemic crises criteria, 465 (38%) who had isolated DKA, 421 (35%) who had isolated HHS, and 325 (27%) who had combined features of DKA-HHS. After adjustment for age, sex, BMI, race, and Charlson Comorbidity Index score, subjects with combined DKA-HHS had higher in-hospital mortality compared with subjects with isolated hyperglycemic crises (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.7; 95% CI 1.4, 4.9; P = 0.0019). In all groups, hypoglycemia (<40 mg/dL) during treatment was associated with a 4.8-fold increase in mortality (aOR 4.8; 95% CI 1.4, 16.8). Hypokalemia ≤3.5 mEq/L was frequent (55%). Severe hypokalemia (≤2.5 mEq/L) was associated with increased inpatient mortality (aOR 4.9; 95% CI 1.3, 18.8; P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Combined DKA-HHS is associated with higher mortality compared with isolated DKA or HHS. Severe hypokalemia and severe hypoglycemia are associated with higher hospital mortality in patients with hyperglycemic crises.

5.
J Diabetes ; 12(3): 187-196, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596548

RESUMO

Food insecurity is a major public health concern in the United States affecting 15 million households according to data in 2017 from the US Department of Agriculture. Food insecurity, or the inability to consistently obtain nutritious food, disproportionately affects socioeconomically disadvantaged households, as well as those with chronic diseases including diabetes mellitus (DM). This review article explores the literature over the past 10 years pertaining to the complex relationship between food insecurity, social determinants of health, and chronic disease with an emphasis on diabetes and glycemic control. Those with diabetes and food insecurity together have been shown to have worse glycemic control compared to those who are food secure, but it remains unclear exactly how food insecurity affects glycemic control. Prior interventional studies have targeted aspects of food insecurity in patients with diabetes but have reported variable outcomes with respect to improvement in glycemic control despite effectively reducing rates of food insecurity. Additionally, few data exist regarding long-term outcomes and diabetes-related complications in this population. It is likely that many factors at both the community and individual levels impact glycemic control outcomes in the setting of food insecurity. Further studies are needed to better understand these factors and to create multifaceted targets for future interventional studies aimed at improving glycemic control in this population.

6.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; 14(2): 233-239, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678495

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a better tool to detect hyper and hypoglycemia than capillary point of care in insulin-treated patients during hospitalization. We evaluated the incidence of hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) treated with basal bolus insulin regimen using CGM and factors associated with hypoglycemia. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of a prospective cohort study. Hypoglycemia was documented in terms of incidence rate and percentage of time <54 mg/dL (3.0 mmol/L) and <70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L). Factors evaluated included glycemic variability analyzed during the first 6 days of basal bolus therapy. RESULTS: A total of 34 hospitalized patients with T2D in general ward were included, with admission A1c of 9.26 ± 2.62% (76.8 ± 13 mmol/mol) and mean blood glucose of 254 ± 153 mg/dL. There were two events of hypoglycemia below 54 mg/dL (3.0 mmol/L) and 11 events below 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L) with an incidence of hypoglycemic events of 0.059 and 0.323 per patient, respectively. From second to fifth day of treatment the percentage of time in range (140-180 mg/dL, 7.8-10.0 mmol/L) increased from 72.1% to 89.4%. Factors related to hypoglycemic events <70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L) were admission mean glucose (IRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.79, 0.95, P < .01), glycemic variability measured as CV (IRR 3.12, 95% CI 1.33, 7.61, P < .01) and SD, and duration of stay. CONCLUSIONS: Basal bolus insulin regimen is effective and the overall incidence of hypoglycemia detected by CGM is low in hospitalized patients with T2D. Increased glycemic variability as well as the decrease in mean glucose were associated with events <70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L).

7.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; : 1932296819891170, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: iGlarLixi is an injectable combination of long acting insulin glargine (iGlar) and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist lixisenatide in a fixed ratio, which was proven safe and effective for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Lixisenatide and iGlar act differently on fasting and postprandial plasma glucose (fasting plasma glucose [FPG] and postprandial glucose [PPG]). Here, we deconstruct quantitatively their respective FPG and PPG effects. METHOD: This post hoc study analyzes data from the Lixilan-O trial, where 1170 subjects with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to 30 weeks of once daily injections of lixisenatide, iGlar, and iGlarLixi (1:2:2). The FPG and PPG components of glucose control were assessed in terms of mean glucose (fasting mean plasma glucose [FMPG] and prandial mean plasma glucose [PMPG], respectively). The MPGP was computed across all meals as a delta between post- and premeal glucose; glucose variability was measured by the high blood glucose index (HBGI) (fasting HBGI and prandial HBGI [PHBGI], respectively), and glycemic exposure measured by area under the curve (AUC) computed overall. All metrics were derived from seven-point self-monitoring glucose profiles. RESULTS: Insulin glargine lowered significantly FMPG by 15.3 mg/dL (P < .01) without any significant change in PMPG. Lixisenatide, when added to iGlar, reduced PMPG by 9.7 mg/dL (P < .01), AUC by 96.3 mg∙h/dL (P < .01), and PHBGI by 2.4 (P < .01), primarily due to attenuation of PPG and without significant change in mean FPG. CONCLUSION: Insulin glargine and lixisenatide act selectively on FPG and PPG. Their combination iGlarLixi offers more effective glucose control than its components due to the cumulative effect on FPG and PPG, which is evidenced by reduced average glycemia, glycemic exposure, and glucose variability.

8.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704161

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This review examines the impact of cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) on clinical practice. To date, all CVOTs have shown non-inferiority versus placebo (both added to standard of care) against a primary endpoint of 3- or 4-point major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE), confirming CV safety of these treatments. Additionally, some CVOTs have shown superiority to placebo against the same MACE endpoint, suggesting a cardioprotective action for these treatments. This is reflected in guideline updates, which primary care physicians should consider when personalizing treatments.

10.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; : 1932296819889640, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited evidence is available about the use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in general wards. In this pilot study we evaluated the use of the glucose telemetry system (GTS) using CGM technology and remote monitoring to prevent inpatient hypoglycemia in high-risk insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2). METHODS: A prospective, single-center, randomized pilot study was conducted to determine whether GTS can prevent inpatient hypoglycemia. Patients were randomized to standard of care with point-of-care glucose testing or to the intervention group with GTS. Both groups used CGM (blinded vs real time). Our primary goal was prevention of inpatient hypoglycemia. RESULTS: A total of 13 subjects completed the study: 7 in the standard of care and 6 in the intervention group. The hypoglycemia event rate was 0.20 ± 0.23 episodes/day in standard of care vs 0.07 ± 0.11 episodes/day in the intervention group (P = .31). Six hypoglycemic events occurred in the standard of care vs two in the intervention group. Percentage of time spent <70 mg/dL was 2.44% ± 3.86% vs 0.30% ± 0.39% (P = .54) and time spent <54 mg/dL was 0.29% ± 0.47% vs 0% (P = .19) in the standard-of-care and intervention groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Utilizing GTS for DM2 insulin-treated patients in the general wards may be beneficial in reducing hypoglycemia. Based on the results of our pilot study we have initiated a large-scale randomized-controlled trial to further evaluate GTS in the general wards in patients with DM2 at high risk for inpatient hypoglycemia.

12.
Circulation ; 140(18): 1463-1476, 2019 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcome trials in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have demonstrated reduced hospitalizations for heart failure (HF) with sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors. However, few of these patients had HF, and those that did were not well-characterized. Thus, the effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors in patients with established HF with reduced ejection fraction, including those with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus, remain unknown. METHODS: DEFINE-HF (Dapagliflozin Effects on Biomarkers, Symptoms and Functional Status in Patients with HF with Reduced Ejection Fraction) was an investigator-initiated, multi-center, randomized controlled trial of HF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II-III, estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥30 mL/min/1.73m2, and elevated natriuretic peptides. In total, 263 patients were randomized to dapagliflozin 10 mg daily or placebo for 12 weeks. Dual primary outcomes were (1) mean NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide) and (2) proportion of patients with ≥5-point increase in HF disease-specific health status on the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score, or a ≥20% decrease in NT-proBNP. RESULTS: Patient characteristics reflected stable, chronic HF with reduced ejection fraction with high use of optimal medical therapy. There was no significant difference in average 6- and 12-week adjusted NT-proBNP with dapagliflozin versus placebo (1133 pg/dL (95% CI 1036-1238) vs 1191 pg/dL (95% CI 1089-1304), P=0.43). For the second dual-primary outcome of a meaningful improvement in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score or NT-proBNP, 61.5% of dapagliflozin-treated patients met this end point versus 50.4% with placebo (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.03-3.06, nominal P=0.039). This was attributable to both higher proportions of patients with ≥5-point improvement in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score (42.9 vs 32.5%, adjusted OR 1.73, 95% CI 0.98-3.05), and ≥20% reduction in NT-proBNP (44.0 vs 29.4%, adjusted OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.3) by 12 weeks. Results were consistent among patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus, and other prespecified subgroups (all P values for interaction=NS). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, use of dapagliflozin over 12 weeks did not affect mean NT-proBNP but increased the proportion of patients experiencing clinically meaningful improvements in HF-related health status or natriuretic peptides. Benefits of dapagliflozin on clinically meaningful HF measures appear to extend to patients without type 2 diabetes mellitus. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02653482.

13.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 7(1): e000703, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543976

RESUMO

Aims: To determine if treatment with sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, can prevent stress hyperglycemia in patients without diabetes undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods: We conducted a pilot, double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized trial in adults (18-80 years) without history of diabetes. Participants received sitagliptin or placebo once daily, starting the day prior to surgery and continued for up to 10 days. Primary outcome was differences in the frequency of stress hyperglycemia (blood glucose (BG) >180 mg/dL) after surgery among groups. Results: We randomized 32 participants to receive sitagliptin and 28 to placebo (mean age 64±10 years and HbA1c: 5.6%±0.5%). Treatment with sitagliptin resulted in lower BG levels prior to surgery (101±mg/dL vs 107±13 mg/dL, p=0.01); however, there were no differences in the mean BG concentration, proportion of patients who developed stress hyperglycemia (21% vs 22%, p>0.99), length of hospital stay, rate of perioperative complications and need for insulin therapy in the intensive care unit or during the hospital stay. Conclusion: The use of sitagliptin during the perioperative period did not prevent the development of stress hyperglycemia or need for insulin therapy in patients without diabetes undergoing CABG surgery.

14.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(11): 2465-2473, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297968

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the addition of linagliptin as an alternative to insulin uptitration in older people with type 2 diabetes on stable insulin therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This phase 4, randomized, multicentre, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, 24-week study recruited individuals on stable insulin, with baseline HbA1c 7.0%-10.0%, aged ≥60 years and body mass index ≤45 kg/m2 . HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose were measured at study visits, and participants assessed glycaemic control with a self-monitoring blood glucose device. Adverse events (AEs) were reported during the study. RESULTS: Three hundred and two participants were randomized 1:1 to linagliptin 5 mg qd and placebo, with one third of patients from Japan. Study population age and HbA1c (baseline mean ± SD) were 72.4 ± 5.4 years and 8.2 ± 0.8%, respectively; ~80% of participants were aged ≥70 years; 80% had macrovascular complications, one third had a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 ; and half had been diagnosed with diabetes for >15 years. Linagliptin significantly improved glucose control at 24 weeks (HbA1c-adjusted mean change vs. placebo: -0.63%; P <0.0001) and the probability of achieving predefined HbA1c targets without hypoglycaemia (HbA1c <8.0%: OR 2.02; P <0.05 and HbA1c <7.0%: OR 2.44; P <0.01). Linagliptin versus placebo was well tolerated, with similar incidences of AEs, including clinically important hypoglycaemia (blood glucose <54 mg/dL) or severe hypoglycaemia. CONCLUSIONS: Addition of linagliptin improves glucose control without an excess of hypoglycaemia in older patients with type 2 diabetes on stable insulin therapy.

16.
Curr Diab Rep ; 19(9): 65, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353426

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hyperglycemia contributes to a significant increase in morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs in the hospital. Professional associations recommend insulin as the mainstay of diabetes therapy in the inpatient setting. The standard of care basal-bolus insulin regimen is a labor-intensive approach associated with a significant risk of iatrogenic hypoglycemia. This review summarizes recent evidence from observational studies and clinical trials suggesting that not all patients require treatment with complex insulin regimens. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence from clinical trials shows that incretin-based agents are effective in appropriately selected hospitalized patients and may be a safe alternative to complicated insulin regimens. Observational studies also show that older agents (i.e., metformin and sulfonylureas) are commonly used in the hospital, but there are few carefully designed studies addressing their efficacy. Therapy with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, alone or in combination with basal insulin, may effectively control glucose levels in patients with mild to moderate hyperglycemia. Further studies with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor analogs and older oral agents are needed to confirm their safety in the hospital.

17.
Compr Psychiatry ; 93: 33-40, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306866

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation, has been associated with psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Some research suggests that exposure to trauma can trigger increased activity in the inflammatory system. Dissociation is associated with chronic trauma exposure and may be an important factor in understanding the risk for psychiatric outcomes associated with inflammation. The main objective of the current study was to understand how CRP was related to trauma, dissociation, PTSD and MDD in a sample of 55 traumatized African American women with type 2 diabetes mellitus recruited from an urban hospital. METHOD: High sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) was assayed through blood samples; psychiatric disorders were assessed with structured clinical interviews, dissociation was assessed with the Multiscale Dissociation Inventory, and exposure to trauma in childhood and adulthood was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and the Traumatic Events Inventory, respectively. RESULTS: Correlational results showed a significant association between higher concentrations of hsCRP and child abuse (p < 0.05), overall dissociation severity (p < 0.001), and PTSD symptoms (p < 0.01). ANOVA results showed significantly higher levels of hsCRP in those with current MDD, current PTSD, and remitted PTSD. A hierarchical linear regression model demonstrated a significant association between dissociation symptoms and greater hsCRP levels independent of childhood abuse, PTSD, and MDD (R2∆ = 0.11, p = 0.001) and independent of emotion dysregulation (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that dissociation symptoms among those with a history of trauma may be particularly associated with higher levels of inflammation.

18.
Appetite ; 141: 104317, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185252

RESUMO

Food addiction (FA) describes a group of disordered eating behaviors. Childhood trauma has been associated with adult FA and trauma has known effects on the endocrine system, but it is unclear whether FA is associated with insulin resistance. We hypothesized that severity of childhood trauma will be associated with FA and higher insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a sample of obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and that FA will mediate the association between childhood trauma and HOMA-IR. Women with a diagnosis of T2DM (N = 73; MBMI = 35.86, SDBMI = 7.72; Mage = 50.59, SDage = 9.72) were recruited from a diabetes clinic at a county hospital. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Fasting blood samples were obtained from 64 participants to assess plasma hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin and glucose (used to calculate HOMA-IR); Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) was performed to measure change in glucose and insulin secretion. 48% of the sample met diagnostic criteria for FA. Women with FA reported significantly higher HOMA-IR (F = 25.692, p < 0.001, df = 1,62), HbA1c (F = 4.358, p = 0.041, df = 1,62), and OGGT glucose (F = 5.539, p = 0.022, df = 1,62) as well as severity of childhood trauma (F = 10.453, p = 0.002, df = 1,71). In a hierarchical linear regression controlling for BMI, income level, and T2DM treatment, the severity of childhood trauma did not contribute to the prediction of HOMA-IR (ß = -0.011, p = 0.942) whereas FA did (ß = 0.422, p = 0.007). In a bootstrapped mediation analysis, the association between childhood trauma and HOMA-IR was mediated by FA severity (b = 0.596, p = 0.020). Understanding the psychological factors that contribute to HOMA-IR in an underserved population of African American women may lead to more effective diabetes management and prevention strategies.

19.
Diabetes Care ; 42(8): 1454-1463, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Higher serum uric acid (SUA) is associated with diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Preventing Early Renal Loss in Diabetes (PERL) evaluates whether lowering SUA with allopurinol slows glomerular filtration rate (GFR) loss in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and mild to moderate DKD. We present the PERL rationale, design, and baseline characteristics. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial randomized 530 participants with T1D, estimated GFR (eGFR) of 40-99.9 mL/min/1.73 m2, SUA ≥4.5 m/dL, and micro- to macroalbuminuric DKD or normoalbuminuria with declining kidney function (NDKF) (defined as historical eGFR decline ≥3 mL/min/1.73 m2/year) to allopurinol or placebo. The primary outcome is baseline-adjusted iohexol GFR (iGFR) after 3 years of treatment plus a 2-month washout period. RESULTS: Participants are 66% male and 84% white. At baseline, median age was 52 years and diabetes duration was 35 years, 93% of participants had hypertension, and 90% were treated with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (median blood pressure 127/71 mmHg). Median HbA1c was 8%, SUA 5.9 mg/dL, iGFR 68 mL/min/1.73 m2, and historical eGFR slope -3.5 mL/min/1.73 m2/year. Compared with participants with albuminuria (n = 419), those with NDKF (n = 94) were significantly older (56 vs. 52 years), had lower HbA1c (7.7 vs. 8.1%) and SUA (5.4 vs. 6.0 mg/dL), and had higher eGFR (82 vs. 74 mL/min/1.73 m2) and historical eGFR loss (-4.7 vs. -2.5 mL/min/1.73 m2/year). These differences persisted when comparing groups with similar rates of historical eGFR loss. CONCLUSIONS: PERL will determine the effect of allopurinol on mild to moderate DKD in T1D, with or without albuminuria. Participants with normoalbuminuria and rapid GFR loss manifested many DKD risk factors of those with albuminuria, but with less severity.

20.
AACE Clin Case Rep ; 5(1): e77-e81, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206028

RESUMO

Objective: Diabetes myonecrosis, also called diabetic muscle infarction (DMI), is a rare complication of diabetes. Given its rarity, our understanding of the underlying causes or the optimal management of DMI cases remains unclear. Methods: We report on a patient who experienced 2 episodes of DMI and we also review the literature. Results: A 46-year-old male with longstanding type 2 diabetes mellitus with multiple microvascular complications presented with acute-onset painful right thigh induration. On physical examination, he had right thigh swelling, tenderness, and crepitus. Blood tests showed leukocytosis, elevated creatine phosphokinase, and elevated acute-phase reactants. Microbiological cultures were negative. Glycated hemoglobin was 6.4% (46 mmol/mol). Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated T2 hyperintensity involving the quadriceps group. The clinical and laboratory signs suggested a muscle infection. A muscle biopsy was suggestive of DMI. Eleven months later, the patient presented again with a 4-week history of left thigh pain and weakness in both legs. On examination, he had bilateral thigh anterior tenderness without evidence of swelling or induration. He also had marked bilateral proximal motor deficiency and inability to stand or ambulate. Despite a different clinical presentation, imaging features were consistent with DMI. The patient was managed with conservative therapy. His strength improved significantly after 3 months of follow up. Conclusion: The typical clinical presentation of DMI includes unilateral acute-onset pain in the quadriceps, local swelling, and the appearance of a palpable painful mass. The second episode in our patient illustrates an atypical clinical presentation of DMI and shows the importance of the correlation of clinical and imaging findings for the diagnosis of DMI.

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