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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122583

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mutations in IKZF1, which encodes Ikaros family zinc finger 1 (IKAROS) transcription factor, are associated with recurrent infections, cytopenia, autoimmune diseases, and hematological malignancies. Diverse clinical phenotypes resulting from IKZF1 mutations include pulmonary fungal infections, cytopenia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), and malignancies. In this study, we aimed to assess the DNA-binding ability and pericentromeric (PC) localization of a variant of IKZF discovered in a patient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DNA-binding ability of a pathogenic IKZF variant was tested using electrophoretic mobility shift assay and PC localization of the variant was assessed by immunofluorescent microscopy in NIH3T3 cells. RESULTS: Clinical features of a 3-month-old male infant who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation because of an IKZF1 mutation-associated common variable immunodeficiency, AIHA, and pancytopenia are described. DNA studies revealed a heterozygous missense variant (IKZF1 NM_006060 c.427C>T; p.R143W). Cotransfection studies revealed that mutant R143W has a partial dominant-negative effect over PC targeting and DNA binding. CONCLUSIONS: IKZF1 mutation must be kept in mind if neonatal AIHA, common variable immunodeficiency, and pancytopenia are observed.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941296

RESUMO

Type 1 plasminogen deficiency is a rare genetic disorder. Type 1 plasminogen deficiency is characterized by fibrin-rich pseudomembrane formation on mucosal surfaces, particularly the conjunctiva. Tracheobronchial tree involvement is a less common reported manifestation of type 1 plasminogen deficiency. Pseudomembranes in the tracheobronchial tree may result in respiratory compromise and ultimately fail if not recognized and treated. Currently, there is no specific replacement therapy approved for the treatment of congenital plasminogen deficiency. In the present paper, we report that type 1 plasminogen deficiency with novel frameshift mutation and pulmonary involvement was treated initially with systemic fresh frozen plasma followed by pulmonary lavage with fresh frozen plasma and tissue plasminogen activator.

3.
Transfus Apher Sci ; : 102900, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773318

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia is a rare type of acquired aplastic anemia that occurs after hepatitis. This study investigated cases with hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia. METHODS: The files of patients with hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia who were followed up in our hospital between 2011-2019 were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: A total of 15 patients with hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (10 males, 5 girls; mean age 10.26 ± 3.61 years) were analyzed. The mean duration between hepatitis and aplastic anemia was 5.06 ± 4.19 months. The majority of patients had mild hepatitis. The causes of hepatitis were detected only in six patients: three had hepatitis B, one had hepatitis A, one had autoimmune hepatitis and, one had a hydatid cyst. The cause of hepatitis was not found in nine patients. Only one patient with hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia developed spontaneous remission, and the others required immunosuppressive therapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Only one patient died because of sepsis. The other patients are still under follow-up and treatment. CONCLUSION: Patients with hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia, mostly of unknown cause, can be successfully treated with immunosuppressive therapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

4.
Biomed Microdevices ; 22(3): 48, 2020 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661698

RESUMO

We report a time and cost-efficient microfluidic chip for screening the leukemia cells having three specific antigens. In this method, the target blast cells are double sorted with immunomagnetic beads and captured by the 3rd antibody immobilized on the gold surface in a microfluidic chip. The captured blast cells in the chip were imaged using a bright-field optical microscope and images were analyzed to quantify the cells. First sorting was performed with nano size immunomagnetic beads and followed by 2nd sorting where micron size immunomagnetic beads were used. The low-cost microfluidic platform is made of PMMA and glass including micro size gold pads. The developed microfluidic platform was optimized with cultured B type lymphoblast cells and tested with the samples of leukemia patients. The 8 bone marrow samples of 4 leukemia patients on the initial diagnosis and on the 15th day after the start of the chemotherapy treatment were tested both with the developed microfluidic platform and the flow cytometry. A 99% statistical agreement between the two methods shows that the microfluidic chip is able to monitor the decrease in the number of blast cells due to the chemotherapy. The experiments with the patient samples demonstrate that the developed system can perform relative measurements and have a potential to monitor the patient response to the applied therapy and to enable personalized dose adjustment.

5.
Blood ; 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603431

RESUMO

Biallelic mutations in the genes encoding CD27 or its ligand CD70 underlie inborn errors of immunity characterized predominantly by EBV-associated immune dysregulation, such as chronic viremia, severe infectious mononucleosis, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), lymphoproliferation and malignancy. A comprehensive understanding of the natural history, immune characteristics and transplant outcomes has remained elusive. Here, in a multi-institutional global collaboration, we collected clinical information of 49 patients from 29 families (CD27 n=33, CD70 n=16), including 24 previously unreported individuals and identified a total of 16 distinct mutations in CD27, and 8 in CD70, respectively. The majority (90%) of patients were EBV+ at diagnosis, but only ~30% presented with infectious mononucleosis. Lymphoproliferation and lymphoma were the main clinical manifestations (70% and 43%, respectively), and 9 of the CD27-deficient patients developed HLH. Twenty-one (43%) patients developed autoinflammatory features including uveitis, arthritis and periodic fever. Detailed immunological characterization revealed aberrant generation of memory B and T cells, including a paucity of EBV-specific T cells, and impaired effector function of CD8+ T cells, thereby providing mechanistic insight into cellular defects underpinning the clinical features of disrupted CD27/CD70 signaling. Nineteen patients underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) prior to adulthood predominantly because of lymphoma, with 95% survival without disease recurrence. Our data highlight the marked predisposition to lymphoma of both CD27- and CD70-deficient patients. The excellent outcome after HSCT supports the timely implementation of this treatment modality particularly in patients presenting with malignant transformation to lymphoma.

6.
Turk J Pediatr ; 62(2): 289-292, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital fibrinogen deficiency is one of the rare inherited coagulation disorders. Congenital fibrinogen deficiency complicated with a hematological malignancy can be life threatening. CASE: We present a four-year-old girl with congenital fibrinogen deficiency complicated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. CONCLUSION: This case aims to highlight therapeutic approaches for the management of afibrinogenemia patients with acute leukemia.

8.
Clin Immunol ; 214: 108376, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135276

RESUMO

Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are a heterogeneous group of monogenic inborn errors of immunity. The genetic causes of these diseases can be identified using whole exome sequencing (WES). Here, DNA samples from 106 patients with a clinical suspicion of PID were subjected to WES in order to test the diagnostic yield of this test in a highly consanguineous community. A likely genetic diagnosis was achieved in 70% of patients. Several factors were considered to possibly influence the diagnostic rate of WES among our cohort including early age, presence of consanguinity, family history suggestive of PID, the number of family members who underwent WES and the clinical phenotype of the patient. The highest diagnostic rate was in patients with combined immunodeficiency or with a syndrome. Notably, WES findings altered the clinical management in 39% (41/106) of patients in our cohort. Our findings support the use of WES as an important diagnostic tool in patients with suspected PID, especially in highly consanguineous communities.


Assuntos
Mutação , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Consanguinidade , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Genótipo , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/epidemiologia , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/genética , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/terapia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205782

RESUMO

Various autoimmune diseases may be associated with primary immune deficiencies. We reported a case with a loss-of-function mutation in DNASE1L3, a gene described previously in families with systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition, the patient showed a novel homozygous missense variant in DOCK8, a gene known to be responsible for the hyper-IgE recurrent infection syndrome (HIES). A 3-year-old girl born to consanguine parents presented with chronic urticarial rash, hemolytic anemia, pulmonary hemorrhage, and hypovolemic shock findings. She had a low hemoglobin level, a positive direct antiglobulin test, antinuclear antibody and anti-double stranded DNA, low C3 and C4, third-degree tricuspid regurgitation, and severe enlargement of the right ventricle on echocardiography, suggesting pulmonary embolism. Despite treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, pulse metilprednisolone, rituximab, and supportive treatment for shock, the patient died on the seventh day. Whole-exome sequencing indicated a homozygous stop variant c.537G>A (p. Trp179Ter) in DNASE1L3. In addition, a possibly pathogenic homozygous missense variant in the HIES gene DOCK8 was detected. The occurrence of potentially clinically relevant, genetic variants in several genes posed various challenges with respect to diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

10.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 61(6): 1465-1474, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037917

RESUMO

We examined outcomes of 51 pediatric patients with relapsed acute leukemia (AL) who underwent a second allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT). After a median follow-up of 941 days (range, 69-2842 days), leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS) at 3 years were 26.6% and 25.6%, respectively. The nonrelapse mortality rate (NMR) and cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) were 36.4% and 42.4%, respectively. The Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the risk factors at second transplantation for predicting limited LFS were active disease (hazard ratio (HR) = 5.1), reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) (HR = 5.0), matched unrelated donor (MUD) (HR = 3.4) and performance score <80 (HR = 3.2). Pediatric patients with AL who relapsed after their first alloHSCT may survive with a second alloHSCT. Disease status, conditioning intensity, donor type, and performance score at the second transplantation are the relevant risk factors. A score based on these factors may predict the results of the second transplantation.

11.
Turk J Haematol ; 37(3): 145-153, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026663

RESUMO

Objective: Hemophilia A (HA) is the most severe X-linked inherited bleeding disorder caused by hemizygous mutations in the factor 8 (F8) gene. The aim of this study is to determine the mutation spectrum of the F8 gene in a large HA cohort from Turkey, and then to establish a phenotype-genotype correlation. Materials and Methods: All HA cases (270 patients) analyzed molecularly in the Ege University Pediatric Genetics Molecular Laboratory between March 2017 and March 2018 were included in this study. To identify intron 22 inversion (Inv22), intron 1 inversion (Inv1), small deletion/insertions, and point mutations, molecular analyses of F8 were performed using a sequential application of molecular techniques. Results: The mutation detection success rate was 95.2%. Positive Inv22 was found in 106 patients (39.3%), Inv1 was found in 4 patients (1.5%), and 106 different disease-causing sequence variants were identified in 137 patients (50.6%). In 10 patients (3.7%), amplification failures involving one or more exonic regions, considered to be large intragenic deletions, were identified. Of 106 different F8 mutations, 36 were novel. The relationship between F8 genotype and inhibitor development was considered significant. Conclusion: A high mutation detection rate was achieved via the broad molecular techniques applied in this study, including 36 novel mutations. With regard to mutation types, mutation distribution and their impact on clinical severity and inhibitor development were found to be similar to those previously reported in other hemophilia population studies.

12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1031, 2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098969

RESUMO

Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is critical for internalisation of molecules across cell membranes. The FCH domain only 1 (FCHO1) protein is key molecule involved in the early stages of CME formation. The consequences of mutations in FCHO1 in humans were unknown. We identify ten unrelated patients with variable T and B cell lymphopenia, who are homozygous for six distinct mutations in FCHO1. We demonstrate that these mutations either lead to mislocalisation of the protein or prevent its interaction with binding partners. Live-cell imaging of cells expressing mutant variants of FCHO1 provide evidence of impaired formation of clathrin coated pits (CCP). Patient T cells are unresponsive to T cell receptor (TCR) triggering. Internalisation of the TCR receptor is severely perturbed in FCHO1-deficient Jurkat T cells but can be rescued by expression of wild-type FCHO1. Thus, we discovered a previously unrecognised critical role of FCHO1 and CME during T-cell development and function in humans.


Assuntos
Endocitose/fisiologia , Mutação com Perda de Função , Linfopenia/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/deficiência , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/genética , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Linfopenia/patologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Linhagem , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/virologia
13.
Haematologica ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949009

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the treatment of choice for autosomal recessive osteopetrosis caused by defects in the TCIRG1 gene. Despite recent progress in conditioning, a relevant number of patients are not eligible for allogeneic stem cell transplantation because of the severity of the disease and significant transplant-related morbidity. We exploited peripheral CD34+ cells, known to circulate at high frequency in the peripheral blood of TCIRG1-deficient patients, as a novel cell source for autologous transplantation of gene corrected cells. Detailed phenotypical analysis showed that circulating CD34+ cells have a cellular composition that resembles bone marrow, supporting their use in gene therapy protocols. Transcriptomic profile revealed enrichment in genes expressed by hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). To overcome the limit of bone marrow harvest/ HSPC mobilization and serial blood drawings in TCIRG1 patients, we applied UM171-based ex-vivo expansion of HSPCs coupled with lentiviral gene transfer. Circulating CD34+ cells from TCIRG1-defective patients were transduced with a clinically-optimized lentiviral vector (LV) expressing TCIRG1 under the control of phosphoglycerate promoter and expanded ex vivo. Expanded cells maintained long-term engraftment capacity and multi-lineage repopulating potential when transplanted in vivo both in primary and secondary NSG recipients. Moreover, when CD34+ cells were differentiated in vitro, genetically corrected osteoclasts resorbed the bone efficiently. Overall, we provide evidence that expansion of circulating HSPCs coupled to gene therapy can overcome the limit of stem cell harvest in osteopetrotic patients, thus opening the way to future gene-based treatment of skeletal diseases caused by bone marrow fibrosis.

14.
Turk J Med Sci ; 50(1): 18-24, 2020 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655501

RESUMO

Background/aim: Non-Wilms renal tumors (NWRTs) are rarely encountered in children. The aim of this study is to determine the treatment strategies, prognosis, outcomes, and survival of children with NWRTs at Erciyes University in Kayseri, Turkey. Materials and methods: Medical records of all patients (n = 20) treated for NWRTs over a 23-year period (1995­2018) were reviewed retrospectively. Results: There was male predominance (female/male: 7/13); the median age at diagnosis was 3.2 years old (0.1­13.5 years old). The major histological groups included mesoblastic nephroma (MBN), (n: 5, 25%), malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT), (n: 5, 25%), renal cell carcinoma, (n: 3, 15%), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (n: 2, 10%), multilocular cystic renal tumors (n: 2, 10%), metanephric adenoma (n: 1, 5%), renal neuroblastoma (n: 1, 5%), and bilateral renal Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) (n: 1, 5%). All of the patients with NWRTs had radical nephrectomy except the child with bilateral renal ES/PNET. Six children died because of progressive disease; the mortality rate was 30% (n: 6). Conclusion: We have made the first report of bilateral renal involvement of ES/PNET in the English medical literature. Physicians dealing with pediatric renal masses should be alert to the high mortality rate in children with MRT, MBN, and ES/PNET and they should design substantial management plans for NWRTs.

15.
J Clin Invest ; 130(1): 507-522, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714901

RESUMO

X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, EBV infection, and neoplasia (XMEN) disease are caused by deficiency of the magnesium transporter 1 (MAGT1) gene. We studied 23 patients with XMEN, 8 of whom were EBV naive. We observed lymphadenopathy (LAD), cytopenias, liver disease, cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), and increased CD4-CD8-B220-TCRαß+ T cells (αßDNTs), in addition to the previously described features of an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio, CD4+ T lymphocytopenia, increased B cells, dysgammaglobulinemia, and decreased expression of the natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) receptor. EBV-associated B cell malignancies occurred frequently in EBV-infected patients. We studied patients with XMEN and patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) by deep immunophenotyping (32 immune markers) using time-of-flight mass cytometry (CyTOF). Our analysis revealed that the abundance of 2 populations of naive B cells (CD20+CD27-CD22+IgM+HLA-DR+CXCR5+CXCR4++CD10+CD38+ and CD20+CD27-CD22+IgM+HLA-DR+CXCR5+CXCR4+CD10-CD38-) could differentially classify XMEN, ALPS, and healthy individuals. We also performed glycoproteomics analysis on T lymphocytes and show that XMEN disease is a congenital disorder of glycosylation that affects a restricted subset of glycoproteins. Transfection of MAGT1 mRNA enabled us to rescue proteins with defective glycosylation. Together, these data provide new clinical and pathophysiological foundations with important ramifications for the diagnosis and treatment of XMEN disease.

17.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 42(2): 156-159, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033788

RESUMO

Gain of function mutations in the p110δ catalytic subunit of the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PIK3CD) classified as activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta syndrome (APDS) are the cause of a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent sinopulmonary infections, and lymphoproliferation. Previously, autoimmunity and Epstein-Barr virus-related B-cell lymphoma have been documented for patients with APDS; here, we present a case that extends the picture, as the patient shows the full diagnostic criteria of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis at 6 months of age. He experienced Hodgkin lymphoma as a 2.5-year-old baby. Next-generation sequencing returned a de novo heterozygous missense variant in PIK3CD (LRG_191t1: c.3061G>A; p.Glu1021Lys), confirming the primary immunodeficiency. After 2 courses of ifosfamide, cisplatin, and etoposide combined with brentuximab, the patient successfully underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from his HLA full matched sister, and he has been well for 18 months after that. The hematologist treating Hodgkin lymphoma and/or hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis should be vigilant about the possible underlying immune deficiency, and they should consider APDS in their differential diagnosis.

18.
Allergy ; 75(4): 921-932, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) deficiency is the main cause of the autosomal recessive hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES). We previously reported the selective loss of group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC) number and function in a Dock8-deficient mouse model. In this study, we sought to test whether DOCK8 is required for the function and maintenance of ILC subsets in humans. METHODS: Peripheral blood ILC1-3 subsets of 16 DOCK8-deficient patients recruited at the pretransplant stage, and seven patients with autosomal dominant (AD) HIES due to STAT3 mutations, were compared with those of healthy controls or post-transplant DOCK8-deficient patients (n = 12) by flow cytometry and real-time qPCR. Sorted total ILCs from DOCK8- or STAT3-mutant patients and healthy controls were assayed for survival, apoptosis, proliferation, and activation by IL-7, IL-23, and IL-12 by cell culture, flow cytometry, and phospho-flow assays. RESULTS: DOCK8-deficient but not STAT3-mutant patients exhibited a profound depletion of ILC3s, and to a lesser extent ILC2s, in their peripheral blood. DOCK8-deficient ILC1-3 subsets had defective proliferation, expressed lower levels of IL-7R, responded less to IL-7, IL-12, or IL-23 cytokines, and were more prone to apoptosis compared with those of healthy controls. CONCLUSION: DOCK8 regulates human ILC3 expansion and survival, and more globally ILC cytokine signaling and proliferation. DOCK8 deficiency leads to loss of ILC3 from peripheral blood. ILC3 deficiency may contribute to the susceptibility of DOCK8-deficient patients to infections.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651726

RESUMO

Although familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) generally manifest with a combination of unremitting fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia; unusual presentations should also be taken into account. Herein, we present 3 FHL cases with 2 novel mutations with different initial presentations. The first patient bearing a homozygous truncation mutation in UNC13D (c.2650C>T.p.Gln884Ter) presented with central nervous system involvement and skin rash. The patient responded to the HLH-2004 protocol, and allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was performed from her healthy sister. The second and third patients with homozygous splice site mutation (c.430-1G>A) in STXBP2 were siblings who presented at birth with fevers, elevated aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and hyperferritinemia but did not fulfill FHL criteria. The last 2 infants died despite intervention. Hematologists should be vigilant about the different presentation of FHL in children.

20.
Blood ; 134(18): 1510-1516, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501153

RESUMO

Dysregulated immune responses are essential underlying causes of a plethora of pathologies including cancer, autoimmunity, and immunodeficiency. We here investigated 4 patients from unrelated families presenting with immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and malignancy. We identified 4 distinct homozygous mutations in TNFRSF9 encoding the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member CD137/4-1BB, leading to reduced, or loss of, protein expression. Lymphocytic responses crucial for immune surveillance, including activation, proliferation, and differentiation, were impaired. Genetic reconstitution of CD137 reversed these defects. CD137 deficiency is a novel inborn error of human immunity characterized by lymphocytic defects with early-onset Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma. Our findings elucidate a functional role and relevance of CD137 in human immune homeostasis and antitumor responses.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Linfoma/genética , Membro 9 da Superfamília de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Linfoma/imunologia , Masculino , Linhagem , Membro 9 da Superfamília de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/deficiência
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