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1.
J Clin Invest ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714901

RESUMO

X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, and neoplasia (XMEN) disease is caused by deficiency of the magnesium transporter 1 gene (MAGT1). We studied 23 XMEN patients, 8 of whom were EBV-naïve. We observed lymphadenopathy (LAD), cytopenias, liver disease, cavum septum pellucidum, and increased CD4-CD8-B220-TCRalpha/beta+ T (abDNT) cells, in addition to the previously described features of an inverted CD4:CD8 ratio, CD4+ T lymphocytopenia, increased B cells, dysgammaglobulinemia, and decreased expression of the "Natural-Killer Group 2, member D" (NKG2D) receptor. EBV-associated B cell malignancies occurred frequently in EBV-infected patients. We investigated XMEN patients and autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) patients by deep immunophenotyping (32 immune markers) using Time of Flight Mass Cytometry (CyTOF). Our analysis revealed that the abundance of two populations of naïve B cells (CD20+CD27-CD22+IgM+HLA-DR+CXCR5+CXCR4++CD10+CD38+ and CD20+CD27-CD22+IgM+HLA-DR+CXCR5+CXCR4+CD10-CD38-) could differentially classify XMEN, ALPS, and normal individuals. We also performed glycoproteomics analysis on T lymphocytes and show that XMEN disease is a congenital disorder of glycosylation that affects a restricted subset of glycoproteins. Transfection of MAGT1 mRNA enabled us to rescue proteins with defective glycosylation. Together, these data provide new clinical and pathophysiological foundations with important ramifications for the diagnosis and treatment of XMEN disease.

2.
Allergy ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) deficiency is the main cause of the autosomal recessive hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES). We previously reported the selective loss of group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC) number and function in a Dock8-deficient mouse model. In this study, we sought to test whether DOCK8 is required for the function and maintenance of ILC subsets in humans. METHODS: Peripheral blood ILC1-3 subsets of 16 DOCK8-deficient patients recruited at the pretransplant stage, and seven patients with autosomal dominant (AD) HIES due to STAT3 mutations, were compared with those of healthy controls or post-transplant DOCK8-deficient patients (n = 12) by flow cytometry and real-time qPCR. Sorted total ILCs from DOCK8- or STAT3-mutant patients and healthy controls were assayed for survival, apoptosis, proliferation, and activation by IL-7, IL-23, and IL-12 by cell culture, flow cytometry, and phospho-flow assays. RESULTS: DOCK8-deficient but not STAT3-mutant patients exhibited a profound depletion of ILC3s, and to a lesser extent ILC2s, in their peripheral blood. DOCK8-deficient ILC1-3 subsets had defective proliferation, expressed lower levels of IL-7R, responded less to IL-7, IL-12, or IL-23 cytokines, and were more prone to apoptosis compared with those of healthy controls. CONCLUSION: DOCK8 regulates human ILC3 expansion and survival, and more globally ILC cytokine signaling and proliferation. DOCK8 deficiency leads to loss of ILC3 from peripheral blood. ILC3 deficiency may contribute to the susceptibility of DOCK8-deficient patients to infections.

3.
Turk J Med Sci ; 2019 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Non Wilms renal tumors (NWRT) are rarely encountered in children. The aim of this study is to determine the treatment strategies, prognosis, outcomes and survival of children with NWRT at Erciyes University, Kayseri Materials and methods: Medical records of all patients (n=20) treated for NWRT over a 23-years period (1995-2018) were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: There was male predominance (female/male: 7/13); median age at the diagnosis was 3.2 years old (0.1-13.5 years old). The major histological groups included mesoblastic nephroma (MBN), (n:5, 25%); malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT), (n:5, 25%); renal cell carcinoma, (n:3, 15%); inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (n:2, 10%), multilocular cystic renal tumors (n:2, 10%), metanephric adenoma (n:1, 5%), renal neuroblastoma (n:1, 5%) and bilateral renal Ewing sarcoma/ primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) (n:1, %5). All of the patients with NWRT had radical nephrectomy except the child with bilateral renal ES/PNET. Six children died because of progressive disease; the mortality rate was 30% (n:6). CONCLUSION: We firstly report bilateral renal involvement of ES/PNET in the English medical literature. Physicians dealing with pediatric renal mass should be alert about the high mortality rate in children with MRT, MBN and ES/PNET; and should plan a substantial management plan for NWRT.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651726

RESUMO

Although familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) generally manifest with a combination of unremitting fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia; unusual presentations should also be taken into account. Herein, we present 3 FHL cases with 2 novel mutations with different initial presentations. The first patient bearing a homozygous truncation mutation in UNC13D (c.2650C>T.p.Gln884Ter) presented with central nervous system involvement and skin rash. The patient responded to the HLH-2004 protocol, and allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was performed from her healthy sister. The second and third patients with homozygous splice site mutation (c.430-1G>A) in STXBP2 were siblings who presented at birth with fevers, elevated aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and hyperferritinemia but did not fulfill FHL criteria. The last 2 infants died despite intervention. Hematologists should be vigilant about the different presentation of FHL in children.

5.
Blood ; 134(18): 1510-1516, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501153

RESUMO

Dysregulated immune responses are essential underlying causes of a plethora of pathologies including cancer, autoimmunity, and immunodeficiency. We here investigated 4 patients from unrelated families presenting with immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and malignancy. We identified 4 distinct homozygous mutations in TNFRSF9 encoding the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member CD137/4-1BB, leading to reduced, or loss of, protein expression. Lymphocytic responses crucial for immune surveillance, including activation, proliferation, and differentiation, were impaired. Genetic reconstitution of CD137 reversed these defects. CD137 deficiency is a novel inborn error of human immunity characterized by lymphocytic defects with early-onset Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma. Our findings elucidate a functional role and relevance of CD137 in human immune homeostasis and antitumor responses.

6.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 25(11): 1788-1795, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with very early onset inflammatory bowel diseases (VEO-IBD) often have a refractory and severe disease course. A significant number of described VEO-IBD-causing monogenic disorders can be attributed to defects in immune-related genes. The diagnosis of the underlying primary immunodeficiency (PID) often has critical implications for the treatment of patients with IBD-like phenotypes. METHODS: To identify the molecular etiology in 5 patients from 3 unrelated kindred with IBD-like symptoms, we conducted whole exome sequencing. Immune workup confirmed an underlying PID. RESULTS: Whole exome sequencing revealed 3 novel CARMIL2 loss-of-function mutations in our patients. Immunophenotyping of peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed reduction of regulatory and effector memory T cells and impaired B cell class switching. The T cell proliferation and activation assays confirmed defective responses to CD28 costimulation, consistent with CARMIL2 deficiency. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights that human CARMIL2 deficiency can manifest with IBD-like symptoms. This example illustrates that early diagnosis of underlying PID is crucial for the treatment and prognosis of children with VEO-IBD.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033788

RESUMO

Gain of function mutations in the p110δ catalytic subunit of the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PIK3CD) classified as activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta syndrome (APDS) are the cause of a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent sinopulmonary infections, and lymphoproliferation. Previously, autoimmunity and Epstein-Barr virus-related B-cell lymphoma have been documented for patients with APDS; here, we present a case that extends the picture, as the patient shows the full diagnostic criteria of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis at 6 months of age. He experienced Hodgkin lymphoma as a 2.5-year-old baby. Next-generation sequencing returned a de novo heterozygous missense variant in PIK3CD (LRG_191t1: c.3061G>A; p.Glu1021Lys), confirming the primary immunodeficiency. After 2 courses of ifosfamide, cisplatin, and etoposide combined with brentuximab, the patient successfully underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from his HLA full matched sister, and he has been well for 18 months after that. The hematologist treating Hodgkin lymphoma and/or hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis should be vigilant about the possible underlying immune deficiency, and they should consider APDS in their differential diagnosis.

8.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(4): 391-400, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025232

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Interleukin-2-inducible T cell kinase (ITK) is an important mediator of T cell receptor signaling. Loss of function mutations in ITK results in hypogammaglobulinemia and CD4+ T cell loss in humans, and the patients often present with EBV-associated B cell lymphoproliferative syndrome. Itk-deficient mice show loss of T cell naivety, impaired cytolytic activity of CD8+ T cells, and defects in CD4+ T cell lineage choice decisions. In mice, Itk mutations were shown to affect Th17-Treg lineage choice in favor of the latter. In this study, we explored whether human ITK reciprocally regulates Th17-Treg balance as its murine ortholog. METHODS: Whole Exome Sequencing was used to identify the mutation. ITK-deficient peripheral blood lymphocytes were characterized by FACSAria III-based flow cytometric assays with respect to proliferation, apoptosis, cytokine production, and innate lymphoid cell (ILC) frequency. Sorted T cells from healthy donors were exposed to ibrutinib, an irreversible ITK inhibitor, to assess ITK's contribution to Th17 and Treg cell generation and functions. RESULTS: In this study, we report a child with a novel ITK mutation who showed impaired CD3/CD28 induced proliferation in T cells. ITK-mutant cells were more apoptotic irrespective of TCR activation. More importantly, T cells produced less Th17-associated cytokines IL-17A, IL-22, and GM-CSF. Conversely, Th1-associated IFN-γ production was increased. An irreversible inhibitor of ITK, ibrutinib, blocked ex vivo Th17 generation and IL-17A production, conversely augmented FOXP3 expression only at low doses in Treg cultures. Finally, we analyzed peripheral ILC populations and observed a relative decrease in ILC2 and ILC3 frequency in our ITK-deficient patient. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that both genetic and chemical inhibition of ITK result in reduced Th17 generation and function in humans. We also report, for the first time, a reduction in ILC2 and ILC3 populations in an ITK-deficient human patient.

9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(6): 1970-1985.e4, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although autoimmunity and hyperinflammation secondary to recombination activating gene (RAG) deficiency have been associated with delayed diagnosis and even death, our current understanding is limited primarily to small case series. OBJECTIVE: Understand the frequency, severity, and treatment responsiveness of autoimmunity and hyperinflammation in RAG deficiency. METHODS: In reviewing the literature and our own database, we identified 85 patients with RAG deficiency, reported between 2001 and 2016, and compiled the largest case series to date of 63 patients with prominent autoimmune and/or hyperinflammatory pathology. RESULTS: Diagnosis of RAG deficiency was delayed a median of 5 years from the first clinical signs of immune dysregulation. Most patients (55.6%) presented with more than 1 autoimmune or hyperinflammatory complication, with the most common etiologies being cytopenias (84.1%), granulomas (23.8%), and inflammatory skin disorders (19.0%). Infections, including live viral vaccinations, closely preceded the onset of autoimmunity in 28.6% of cases. Autoimmune cytopenias had early onset (median, 1.9, 2.1, and 2.6 years for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively) and were refractory to intravenous immunoglobulin, steroids, and rituximab in most cases (64.7%, 73.7%, and 71.4% for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively). Evans syndrome specifically was associated with lack of response to first-line therapy. Treatment-refractory autoimmunity/hyperinflammation prompted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in 20 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Autoimmunity/hyperinflammation can be a presenting sign of RAG deficiency and should prompt further evaluation. Multilineage cytopenias are often refractory to immunosuppressive treatment and may require hematopoietic cell transplantation for definitive management.

10.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 41(4): 256-260, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections, including hepatosplenic fungal infections (HSFI), cause significant morbidity and mortality in children with leukemia. There are not enough data to support for the best approach to diagnosis of HSFI in children, nor for the best treatment. PROCEDURE: In this multicentric study, we assessed the demographic data, clinical and radiologic features, treatment, and outcome of 40 children with leukemia and HSFI from 12 centers. RESULTS: All cases were radiologically diagnosed with abdominal ultrasound, which was performed at a median of 7 days, of the febrile neutropenic episode. Mucor was identified by histopathology in 1, and Candida was identified in blood cultures in 8 patients. Twenty-two had fungal infection in additional sites, mostly lungs. Nine patients died. Four received a single agent, and 36 a combination of antifungals. CONCLUSIONS: Early diagnosis of HSFI is challenging because signs and symptoms are usually nonspecific. In neutropenic children, persistent fever, back pain extending to the shoulder, widespread muscle pain, and increased serum galactomannan levels should alert clinicians. Abdominal imaging, particularly an abdominal ultrasound, which is easy to perform and available even in most resource-limited countries, should be recommended in children with prolonged neutropenic fever, even in the absence of localizing signs and symptoms.

11.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 47(4): 578-584, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656483

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke is a significant health condition, whose frequency in childhood is increasing day by day. Although many factors are effective in development of the stroke, it has been showed that individuals having risk factors have a genetic predisposition. The aim of the study is to determine whether distinct genetic mutations are risk factors for children with history of ischemic stroke. Our sample data is taken from 58 patients (29 male and 29 female) who applied our hospital between 2012 and 2016 with diagnosis of acute or chronic arterial stroke and from 70 healthy children (32 male and 38 female) with similar particularities in the sense of age and sex, who have not any chronical disease. Blood samples are taken from each child participated in the study to conduct genetic analysis. It has been examined whether a mutation exists in gene locations of CDKN2B-AS1 (Rs2383206), HDAC9 (Rs11984041), NINJ2 (Rs12425791), NAA25 (Rs17696736). Moreover, whether there are significant difference between patient and control group has been investigated. In the genetic analysis of patients and control groups, no significant difference has been found for any of the genes. Mutations in gene locations of CDKN2B-AS1 (Rs2383206), HDAC9 (Rs11984041), NINJ2 (Rs12425791), NAA25 (Rs17696736) are not risk factors for ischemic stroke in childhood. However this study showed us, the patients who inherit CDKN2B-AS1 and HDCA9 gene mutations had poor prognosis. However, this study should be replicated for a wider sample of patient population.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p15/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Mutação , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal B/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
14.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 18(4): 760-772, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630937

RESUMO

Neutrophil granulocytes are critical mediators of innate immunity and tissue regeneration. Rare diseases of neutrophil granulocytes may affect their differentiation and/or functions. However, there are very few validated diagnostic tests assessing the functions of neutrophil granulocytes in these diseases. Here, we set out to probe omics analysis as a novel diagnostic platform for patients with defective differentiation and function of neutrophil granulocytes. We analyzed highly purified neutrophil granulocytes from 68 healthy individuals and 16 patients with rare monogenic diseases. Cells were isolated from fresh venous blood (purity >99%) and used to create a spectral library covering almost 8000 proteins using strong cation exchange fractionation. Patient neutrophil samples were then analyzed by data-independent acquisition proteomics, quantifying 4154 proteins in each sample. Neutrophils with mutations in the neutrophil elastase gene ELANE showed large proteome changes that suggest these mutations may affect maturation of neutrophil granulocytes and initiate misfolded protein response and cellular stress mechanisms. In contrast, only few proteins changed in patients with leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Strikingly, neutrophil transcriptome analysis showed no correlation with its proteome. In case of two patients with undetermined genetic causes, proteome analysis guided the targeted genetic diagnostics and uncovered the underlying genomic mutations. Data-independent acquisition proteomics may help to define novel pathomechanisms in neutrophil diseases and provide a clinically useful diagnostic dimension.

15.
Biotechnol Prog ; 2018 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353996

RESUMO

One way to monitor minimal residual disease (MRD) is to screen cells for multiple surface markers using flow cytometry. In order to develop an alternative microfluidic based method, isolation of B type acute lymphoblastic cells using two types of antibodies should be investigated. The immunomagnetic beads coated with various antibodies are used to capture the B type acute lymphoblastic cells. Single beads, two types of beads and surface immobilized antibody were used to measure the capture efficiency. Both micro and nanosize immunomagnetic beads can be used to capture B type acute lymphoblastic cells with a minimum efficiency of 94% and maximum efficiency of 98%. Development of a microfluidic based biochip incorporating immunomagnetic beads and surface immobilized antibodies for monitoring MRD can be an alternative to current cost and time inefficient laboratory methods. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2018.

18.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; : 1076029618792302, 2018 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099920

RESUMO

Intracranial hemorrhage due to vitamin K deficiency is a serious disease that can lead to morbidity, mortality, and mental retardation. Our goal in this study is to determine the frequency of VKORC1-1639 G>A polymorphism in patients who have undergone intracranial hemorrhage due to vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB). To study VKORC1-1639 G>A polymorphism, blood was drawn from patients (n = 51, age 8:0 ± 6:5 years) followed at the Pediatric Neurology and Hematology section, Faculty of Medicine, Erciyes University, between 1990 and 2016, diagnosed with VKDB as idiopathic or from patients diagnosed with intracranial hemorrhage due to secondary vitamin K deficiency and also from volunteers (n = 51, age 11 ± 4.5 years). Intensive care and nutrition needs of patients and the laboratory radiological imaging results and treatments that were applied were analyzed through scanning the files of the patients and information received from families. Through detailed physical examination, patients with neurologic sequelae and ongoing epilepsy were determined. The results were compared to clinical and laboratory results with control group. Eight (15.7%) of the patients were normal, 29 (56.9%) heterozygous carrier, and 14 (27.5%) homozygous mutants. In the control group, 19 (37.3%) were normal, 19 (37.3%) heterozygous carriers, and 13 (25.5%) homozygous mutants. The VKOR1-1639>A (SNP:rs9923231) mutant positivity (homozygous plus heterozygous mutant) was significantly higher in the patient group when compared to controls. There were no significant differences between patient and control groups in terms of the prognosis.

19.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(6): 699-710, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30030704

RESUMO

PURPOSE: RAS guanyl-releasing protein 1 (RASGRP1) deficiency has recently been shown to cause a primary immunodeficiency (PID) characterized by CD4+ T cell lymphopenia and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B cell lymphoma. Our report of three novel patients widens the scope of RASGRP1 deficiency by providing new clinical and immunological insights on autoimmunity, immune cell development, and predisposition to lymphoproliferative disease. METHODS: One patient of Turkish origin (P1) and two Palestinian patients (P2, P3) were evaluated for immunodeficiency. To decipher the molecular cause of disease, whole exome sequencing was conducted. Identified mutations were validated by immunological and biochemical assays. RESULTS: We report three patients presenting with similar clinical characteristics of immunodeficiency and EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease. In addition, P2 and P3 exhibited overt autoimmune manifestations. Genetic screening identified two novel loss-of-function mutations in RASGRP1. Immunoblotting and active Ras pull-down assays confirmed perturbed ERK1/2 signaling and reduced Ras-GTPase activity in heterologous Jurkat cells with ectopic expression of RASGRP1 mutants. All three patients had CD4+ T cell lymphopenia. P2 and P3 showed decreased mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation, reduced T cell receptor excision circles, abnormal T cell receptor (TCR) Vß repertoires, and increased frequencies of TCRγδ cells. TCR gamma repertoire diversity was significantly reduced with a remarkable clonal expansion. CONCLUSIONS: RASGRP1 deficiency is associated with life-threatening immune dysregulation, severe autoimmune manifestations, and susceptibility to EBV-induced B cell malignancies. Early diagnosis is critical and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation might be considered as curative treatment.

20.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 40(6): e369-e372, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29668537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare cerebrovascular disease that may be life-threatening, especially in children. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical presentation, radiologic imaging, underlying conditions, treatment, and outcomes of children with CSVT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In total, 23 consecutive children aged between 1 month to 18 years with CSVT, who were followed-up in Erciyes University Children's Hospital, were retrospectively enrolled in the study from January 2000 to December 2016. RESULTS: The median age of the 23 children (13 female patients, 10 male patients) at initial diagnosis was 60 months (1 to 204 mo). The most common clinical manifestation was headache/irritability (n=9). The most common site of the CSVT was the transverse sinus (n=16). The most common prothrombotic risk factor was protein C deficiency (n=4). Underlying risk factors were detected in 15 patients. Genetic risk factors such as protein C deficiency, infections, trauma, malignancies, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, neurometabolic disorders, asphyxia, and cardiac malformations were common risk factors. Six children died. Multiple sinus involvement and parenchymal hemorrhages were seen in 4 and in 3 of the 6 children who died, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Protein C deficiency seemed to be relatively high in the presented children. Multiple sinus involvement and additional parenchymal hemorrhages represent poor prognostic features.

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