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1.
Arch Oral Biol ; 147: 105623, 2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36657276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop clinically applicable methods to characterize occlusal topography and assess possible associations between morphology and caries incidence and development. DESIGN: In this retrospective clinical study, we evaluated caries presence and severity pre- and post-orthodontic treatment for first molars of 147 patients (384 teeth). These teeth were previously scanned using a clinical intraoral scanner, and the obtained digital elevation models were used to 1) analyze the 3D occlusal surface parameters (n = 384) and 2) quantitatively characterize the mandibular molars' (n = 166) fissure patterns using three novel methods. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate the associations among the measurements, and presence/severity of caries pre- and post-treatment were assessed using generalized linear mixed-effects models. RESULTS: Robust quantitative fissure characterizations were developed, and reliable occlusal surface parameters were obtained. In the studied population, none of the parametric measurements (Slope: p = 0.62 for presence, p = 0.96 for severity; Relief Index (RFI): p = 0.36, p = 0.84; Orientation Patch Count rotated (OPCr): p = 0.48, p = 0.13; Dirichlet Normal Energy (DNE): p = 0.91, p = 0.15) or the fissure morphological measurements (Mesial Angle: p = 0.43; Distal Angle: p = 0.86; Average Angle: p = 0.52; Area Difference: p = 0.83; Percent Fissure: p = 0.68) were found to be significantly associated with caries status or severity. CONCLUSION: Despite the lack of correlation in the limited studied sample, the tools developed to characterize occlusal surface topography and fissure morphology have the potential to be used in more comprehensive clinical evaluations.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764513

RESUMO

Dental microwear analysis has been employed in studies of a wide range of modern and fossil animals, yielding insights into the biology/ecology of those taxa. Some researchers have suggested that dental microwear patterns ultimately relate back to the material properties of the foods being consumed, whereas others have suggested that, because exogenous grit is harder than organic materials in food, grit should have an overwhelming impact on dental microwear patterns. To shed light on this issue, laboratory-based feeding experiments were conducted on tufted capuchin monkeys [Sapajus apella] with dental impressions taken before and after consumption of different artificial foods. The foods were (1) brittle custom-made biscuits laced with either of two differently-sized aluminum silicate abrasives, and (2) ductile custom-made "gummies" laced with either of the two same abrasives. In both cases, animals were allowed to feed on the foods for 36 hours before follow-up dental impressions were taken. Resultant casts were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope. We asked five questions: (1) would the animals consume different amounts of each food item, (2) what types of dental microwear would be formed, (3) would rates of dental microwear differ between the consumption of biscuits (i.e., brittle) versus gummies (i.e., ductile), (4) would rates of dental microwear differ between foods including larger- versus smaller-grained abrasives, and (5) would rates of dental microwear differ between molar shearing and crushing facets in the animals in these experiments? Results indicated that (1) fewer biscuits were consumed when laced with larger-grained abrasives (as opposed to smaller-grained abrasives), but no such difference was observed in the consumption of gummies, (2) in all cases, a variety of dental microwear features was formed, (3) rates of dental microwear were higher when biscuits versus gummies were consumed, (4) biscuits laced with larger-grained abrasives caused a higher percentage of new features per item consumed, and (5) the only difference between facets occurred with the processing of biscuits, where crushing facets showed a faster rate of wear than shearing facets. These findings suggest that the impact of exogenous grit on dental microwear is the result of a dynamic, complex interaction between (at the very least) grit size, food material properties, and time spent feeding - which is further evidence of the multifactorial nature of dental microwear formation.

3.
Clin Oral Investig ; 25(6): 4069-4074, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464418

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the use of 3D intraoral scanner/image analysis for the detection and monitoring of simulated non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 288 NCCLs of different severities and simulated using a laboratorial model associating toothbrush stiffness (soft, medium, and hard) and toothpaste abrasivity (low, medium, high, and negative control) were analyzed. Dental impressions were taken from specimens before and after 35K and 65K brushing strokes, and then scanned with a CEREC Omnicam scanner. 3D models were analyzed for volumetric tooth loss. 3D optical profilometry was considered as the gold standard. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD tests (alpha = 0.05), and agreement between methods by using intraclass correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Toothbrushes of hard and mid stiffness caused higher tooth loss than soft when associated with the highest abrasive, at 35K and 65K strokes (p < 0.001). Variation in slurry abrasivity led to differences in tooth loss (with control < low < medium < high, p < 0.0001) after both 35K and 65K strokes, regardless of the type of toothbrush used, except at 35K, wherein control = low (p = 0.55). 35K strokes caused less tooth loss than 65K for all abrasive slurries (p < 0.0001) except controls. The intraclass correlation coefficient for agreement between the test and gold standard methods was 0.85. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of 3D images from intraoral scanner could detect and monitor NCCL progression, although this ability was limited on incipient lesions. Overall good agreement was found between the test method and optical profilometry. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The suggested method may be applicable to detect and monitor NCCLs clinically.


Assuntos
Abrasão Dentária , Erosão Dentária , Humanos , Escovação Dentária , Cremes Dentais
4.
J Dent ; 102: 103467, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916231

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This in vitro study explored quantitative outcome measures as clinical indicators of simulated occlusal tooth wear progression. METHODS: Ten sound, extracted human premolars were selected and submitted to occlusal tooth wear simulation in 0.5-mm steps (0/0.5/1.0/1.5 mm). At each step, enamel thickness on the buccal cusp tips was evaluated using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) and micro-computed tomography (µ-CT). The occlusal surface of each premolar was also scanned at each step using a 3D digital intraoral scanner, followed by morphological characterization using standard topography attributes (Slope, Relief, RFI, OPCr). Repeated measures ANOVA assessed differences in simulated wear levels for the µ-CT and CP-OCT data as well as the topography values. Correlations were also calculated between the µ-CT/CP-OCT and topography data. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed for enamel thickness at each simulation wear stage, for both CP-OCT (p < 0.001) and µ-CT (p < 0.001), with good agreement between methods (intraclass correlation: 0.89). For topography analysis, as wear increased, the average Slope, RFI, and Relief values decreased, and average OPCr values increased, with more significant differences shown for Slope. Slope showed significant (p < 0.05) positive correlations with CP-OCT. OPCr showed significant negative correlations with µ-CT, and CP-OCT (p < 0.05). RFI and Relief were not correlated with either µ-CT or CP-OCT (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the potential of PS-OCT for measuring enamel thickness changes in the cusp tips of the occlusal surface. Similarly, conventional intraoral scanners can serve effectively for monitoring overall tooth wear when combined with dental topographic analyses of resultant point clouds. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: CP-OCT measures of enamel thickness and dental 3D topographic attributes showed potential as objective outcomes for the clinical monitoring of occlusal tooth wear. Their combination provided a comprehensive understanding of the tooth wear development process.


Assuntos
Atrito Dentário , Desgaste dos Dentes , Esmalte Dentário/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Desgaste dos Dentes/diagnóstico por imagem , Microtomografia por Raio-X
5.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 171(3): 439-455, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922261

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study seeks to determine if (a) consumption of hard food items or a mixture of food items leads to the formation of premolar or molar microwear in laboratory capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella) in one feeding session and (b) rates of microwear formation are associated with the number of food items consumed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five adult male capuchins were used in two experiments, one where they were fed unshelled Brazil nuts, and the other where they were fed a mixture of food items. Dental impressions were taken before and after each feeding session. Epoxy casts made from those impressions then were used in SEM analyses of rates of microwear formation. Upper and lower premolars and molars were analyzed. Qualitative comparisons were made and Spearman's rank-order correlations used to examine the relationship between rates of microwear formation and number of Brazil nuts consumed. RESULTS: Premolars and molars generally showed new microwear in the form of pits and scratches. However, the incidence of those features was low (0-6%). Rates of microwear formation were highest during the consumption of Brazil nuts. DISCUSSION: Variations in the rate of microwear formation on the premolars likely reflected patterns of ingestion whereas consistency in the rate of microwear on the molars likely reflected patterns of chewing. While dental microwear formation seemed to be correlated with the number of hard objects consumed, rates did differ between individuals. Differences in results between the two experiments demonstrate some of the limitations in our knowledge of dental microwear formation.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Doenças dos Macacos/patologia , Sapajus apella , Desgaste dos Dentes/veterinária , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Masculino , Sapajus apella/anatomia & histologia , Desgaste dos Dentes/patologia
6.
J Hum Evol ; 140: 102315, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28499698

RESUMO

Reconstructions of habitat at sites like Kanapoi are key to understanding the environmental circumstances in which hominins evolved during the early Pliocene. While Australopithecus anamensis shows evidence of terrestrial bipedality traditionally associated with a more open setting, its enamel has low δ13C values consistent with consumption of C3 foods, which predominate in wooded areas of tropical Africa. Habitat proxies, ranging from paleosols and their carbonates to associated herbivore fauna and their carbon isotope ratios, suggest a heterogeneous setting with both grass and woody plant components, though the proportions of each have been difficult to pin down. Here we bring dental microwear texture analysis of herbivorous fauna to bear on the issue. We present texture data for fossil bovids, primates, rodents, and suids (n = 107 individuals in total) from the hominin bearing deposits at Kanapoi, and interpret these in the light of closely related extant mammals with known differences in diet. The Kanapoi bovid results, for example, are similar to those for extant variable grazers or graze-browse intermediate taxa. The Kanapoi suid data vary by taxon, with one similar to the pattern of extant grazers and the other more closely resembling mixed feeders. The Kanapoi primates and rodents are more difficult to associate with a specific environment, though it seems that grass was likely a component in the diets of both. All taxa evince microwear texture patterns consistent with a mosaic of discrete microhabitats or a heterogeneous setting including both tree and grass components.


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos , Dieta/veterinária , Meio Ambiente , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Primatas , Roedores , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Artiodáctilos/anatomia & histologia , Biota , Herbivoria , Primatas/anatomia & histologia , Roedores/anatomia & histologia
7.
Ecol Evol ; 9(13): 7597-7612, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346425

RESUMO

The dentition is an extremely important organ in mammals with variation in timing and sequence of eruption, crown morphology, and tooth size enabling a range of behavioral, dietary, and functional adaptations across the class. Within this suite of variable mammalian dental phenotypes, relative sizes of teeth reflect variation in the underlying genetic and developmental mechanisms. Two ratios of postcanine tooth lengths capture the relative size of premolars to molars (premolar-molar module, PMM), and among the three molars (molar module component, MMC), and are known to be heritable, independent of body size, and to vary significantly across primates. Here, we explore how these dental traits vary across mammals more broadly, focusing on terrestrial taxa in the clade of Boreoeutheria (Euarchontoglires and Laurasiatheria). We measured the postcanine teeth of N = 1,523 boreoeutherian mammals spanning six orders, 14 families, 36 genera, and 49 species to test hypotheses about associations between dental proportions and phylogenetic relatedness, diet, and life history in mammals. Boreoeutherian postcanine dental proportions sampled in this study carry conserved phylogenetic signal and are not associated with variation in diet. The incorporation of paleontological data provides further evidence that dental proportions may be slower to change than is dietary specialization. These results have implications for our understanding of dental variation and dietary adaptation in mammals.

8.
J R Soc Interface ; 16(153): 20180957, 2019 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940029

RESUMO

Dental microwear texture analysis (DMTA) quantifies microscopic scar or wear patterns left on teeth by different foods or extraneous ingested items such as grit. It can be a powerful tool for deducing the diets of extinct mammals. Here we investigate how intraspecific variation in the dental microwear of macropodids (kangaroos and their close relatives) can be used to maximize the dietary signal inferable from an inherently limited fossil record. We demonstrate significant intraspecific variation for every factor considered here for both scale-sensitive fractal analysis and International Organization for Standardization surface texture analysis variables. Intraspecific factors were then incorporated into interspecific (dietary) analyses through the use of Linear Mixed Effects modelling, incorporating Akaike's Information Criterion to compare models, and testing models through independent cross-validation. This revealed that for each DMTA variable only a small number of intraspecific factors need to be included to improve differentiation between species. Including specimen as a random factor accounted for stochastic inter-individual variation, and facet, incorporated effects of sampling location. Intraspecific effects of ecoregion, microscope, tooth position and wear were often but not universally important. We conclude that models of microwear data that include intraspecific variation can improve the resolution of dietary reconstructions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Fósseis , Macropodidae/fisiologia , Desgaste dos Dentes , Dente , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 169(2): 356-367, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973975

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Studies of dental microwear of bioarchaeological assemblages and extant mammals from museum collections show that surface texture can provide a valuable proxy for reconstructing diets of past peoples and extinct species. However, no study to date has focused on occlusal surface microwear textures of living hunter-gatherers. Here we present the first such study of the Hadza foragers of Tanzania. METHODS: We took high-resolution dental impressions of occlusal surfaces for a total of 43 molds representing 25 men and women, 1-3 samples each, at different times during the rainy and dry seasons. Dental replicas were prepared and scanned by confocal profilometry and standard microwear texture parameters were calculated. Central tendencies and dispersions of variable scores were compared by season and by sex. RESULTS: We found no differences between sexes or seasons in texture attribute central tendency, but some for dispersion. Females had notably low microwear texture dispersion in the dry season while males had higher dispersion in some attributes, particularly in the dry season. These differences seem to be driven primarily by low variance among females in the dry season. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates microwear texture data can be generated for living foragers. Given caveats of small samples available and consideration of foraging groups in transition, this study hints at variation in microwear texture dispersion between sexes and seasons for the Hadza, suggesting that such analyses might be of value for assessing hunter-gatherer diet.


Assuntos
Dieta Paleolítica , Desgaste dos Dentes/patologia , Antropologia Física , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Tanzânia
10.
R Soc Open Sci ; 6(2): 190229, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891305

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1098/rsos.181376.].

11.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 169(1): 179-185, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768782

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There remain many idiosyncrasies among the values calculated for varying dental topography metrics arising from differences in software preferences among research groups. The aim of this work is to compare and provide potential conversion formulae for dental topography metrics calculated using differing software platforms. METHODS: Three software packages: ArcGIS, Surfer Manipulator, and molaR were used to calculate orientation patch count rotated (OPCR), Dirichlet normal energy (DNE), occlusal relief (OR), slope (m), and angularity (a) on platyrrhine second upper molars. Values derived from the various software packages were compared for distributional consistency and correlation. Where appropriate, formulae for conversion between like measures calculated on different software platforms were developed. RESULTS: When compared with the same measurement across software, OPCR, OR, and slope were all highly correlated. However, only OR demonstrated distributional consistency (i.e., nearly consistent mean, median, max, and min). Slope and OPCR were both higher when calculated by molaR as compared to Surfer Manipulator and ArcGIS calculations, conversion formulae are provided for these measures. DNE is only weakly correlated with angularity; but is correlated with orientation patch count across taxa. DISCUSSION: We explore why there is variation in the dental topography values calculated among the various software packages. The conversion formulae provided in this work will make possible direct comparisons among studies conducted across multiple research groups.


Assuntos
Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Odontometria/métodos , Platirrinos/anatomia & histologia , Software , Animais , Antropologia Física , Dieta , Platirrinos/fisiologia
13.
Ecol Evol ; 8(22): 11359-11362, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30519448

RESUMO

A new study by Fraser et al (2018) urges the use of phylogenetic comparative methods, whenever possible, in analyses of mammalian tooth wear. We are concerned about this for two reasons. First, this recommendation may mislead the research community into thinking that phylogenetic signal is an artifact of some sort rather than a fundamental outcome of the evolutionary process. Secondly, this recommendation may set a precedent for editors and reviewers to enforce phylogenetic adjustment where it may unnecessarily weaken or even directionally alter the results, shifting the emphasis of analysis from common patterns manifested by large clades to rare cases.

14.
Sci Am ; 319(1): 42-49, 2018 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924104
15.
J Dent ; 74: 107-112, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800639

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This retrospective in-vitro study investigated tooth age effect on dental hard-tissue conditions. METHODS: Unidentified extracted premolars (n = 1500) were collected and their individual age was estimated (10-100 (±10) years old (yo)) using established dental forensic methods Dental caries, fluorosis and tooth wear (TW) were assessed using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS; 0-5 for crown and 0-2 for root), Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TFI; 0-9) and Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE; 0-3) indices, respectively. Staining and color were assessed using the modified-Lobene (MLI) (0-3) and VITA shade (B1-C4) indices, respectively. Relationships between indices and age were tested using regression models. RESULTS: Starting at age ∼10yo, presence of caries increased from 35% to 90% at ∼50yo (coronal), and from 0% to 35% at ∼80yo (root). Caries severity increased from ICDAS 0.5 to 2 at ∼40yo and from ICDAS 0 to 0.5 at ∼60yo for coronal and root caries, respectively. Presence of TW increased from 25% (occlusal) and 15% (smooth-surfaces) to 100% at ∼80yo. TW severity increased from BEWE 0.5 to 2 at ∼50yo (occlusal) and ∼0.3 to 1.5 at ∼50yo (smooth-surfaces). Percentage and severity of fluorosis decreased from 70% to 10% at ∼80yo, and from TFI 1 to 0 at ∼90yo, respectively. Percentage of extrinsic staining increased from 0% to 85% at ∼80yo and its severity increased from MLI 0 to 2 at ∼70yo. Color changed from A3 to B3 at ∼50yo (crown), and from C2 to A4 at ∼85yo (root). CONCLUSIONS: Aging is proportionally related to the severity of caries, TW, staining, and inversely to dental fluorosis. Teeth become darker with age.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/patologia , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Dentina/patologia , Fluorose Dentária/patologia , Desgaste dos Dentes/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Determinação da Idade pelos Dentes/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Dente Pré-Molar , Criança , Cor , Feminino , Odontologia Legal , Dureza , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Coroa do Dente , Doenças Dentárias , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Hum Evol ; 119: 42-63, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29685753

RESUMO

The importance of diet in primate ecology has motivated the use of a variety of methods to reconstruct dietary habits of extinct hominin taxa. Dental microwear is one such approach that preserves evidence from consumed food items. This study is based on 44 specimens of Australopithecus africanus from Makapansgat and Sterkfontein, and 66 specimens of Paranthropus robustus from Swartkrans, Kromdraai and Drimolen. These samples enable examination of potential differences between the two assemblages of A. africanus, and among the various assemblages of P. robustus in relation to the paleoenvironmental reconstructions that have been proffered for each fossil site. Sixteen microwear texture variables were recorded for each specimen from digital elevation models generated using a white-light confocal profiler. Only two of these differ significantly between the Makapansgat and Sterkfontein samples of A. africanus. None of the microwear texture variables differs significantly among the samples of P. robustus. On the other hand, P. robustus has significantly higher values than A. africanus for 11 variables related to feature complexity, size, and depth; P. robustus exhibits rougher surfaces that comprise larger, deeper features. In contrast, A. africanus has smoother, simpler wear surfaces with smaller, shallower and more anisotropic features. As for possible habitat differences among the various sites, only a relatively small number of subtle differences are evident between the specimens of A. africanus from Makapansgat and Sterkfontein, and there are none among the specimens of P. robustus from various deposits. As such, it is reasonable to conclude that, while subtle differences in microwear textures may reflect differences in background habitats, the wear fabric differences between P. robustus and A. africanus are most reasonably interpreted as having been driven by dietary differences.


Assuntos
Dieta , Meio Ambiente , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Hominidae/fisiologia , Paleodontologia , África do Sul
17.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 166(1): 228-235, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29399788

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A recent study of dental chipping suggested that Homo naledi teeth were exposed to "acute trauma" on a regular basis during life, presumably from the consumption of grit-laden foods. This follows debate concerning the etiology of dental chips in South African hominin teeth that dates back more than half a century. Some have argued that antemortem chips result from consumption of hard foods, such as nuts and seeds or bone, whereas others have claimed that exogenous grit on roots and tubers are responsible. Here we examine the dental microwear textures of H. naledi, both to reconstruct aspects of diet of these hominins and to assess the possibility that hard foods (gritty or otherwise) are the culprits for the unusually high antemortem chip incidence reported. METHODS: We made high-resolution replicas of original molars and found that ten individuals preserve antemortem wear. These were scanned by white-light scanning confocal profilometry and analyzed using scale-sensitive fractal analysis. Resulting data were compared with those published for other fossil hominins and extant non-human primates. RESULTS: Our results indicate that H. naledi had complex microwear textures dominated by large, deep pits. The only known fossil hominin with higher average texture complexity is Paranthropus robustus, and the closest extant primates in a comparative baseline series appear to be the hard-object feeder, Cercocebus atys, and the eurytopic generalist, Papio ursinus. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that H. naledi likely consumed hard and abrasive foods, such as nuts or tubers, at least on occasion, and that these might well be responsible for the pattern of chipping observed on their teeth.


Assuntos
Dieta/história , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Hominidae/fisiologia , Desgaste dos Dentes/patologia , Dente/patologia , Animais , Antropologia Física , História Antiga
18.
J R Soc Interface ; 14(135)2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29070592

RESUMO

The nanoscale responses of teeth to chewing loads are poorly understood. This has contributed to debate concerning the aetiology of enamel wear and resistance to fracture. Here we develop a new model for reactions of individual hydroxyapatite nanofibres to varying loads and directions of force. Hydroxyapatite nanofibres, or crystallites, composed of chains of bonded nanospheres, are the fundamental building blocks of enamel. This study indicates that these nanofibres respond to contact pressure in three distinct ways depending on force magnitude and direction: (i) plucking (nanosphere loss when the strength of the bonding protein 'glue' is exceeded), (ii) plastic deformation (compression to gradually bend nanofibres and squeeze the protein layer), and (iii) fragmentation (nanofibres fracture when the strength of H-bonds that bind smaller nanoparticles into nanospheres is exceeded). Critical contact pressure to initiate plucking is the lowest, followed by plastic deformation, and then fragmentation. Further, lower contact pressures are required for a response with shear forces applied perpendicular to the long axes of crystallites than with crushing forces parallel to them alone. These nanoscale responses are explained as a function of the interfacial nanochemical bonding between and within individual crystallites. In other words, nanochemistry plays a critical role in the responses of enamel to varying chewing loads.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/fisiologia , Mastigação/fisiologia , Dente Molar/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Força de Mordida , Humanos
19.
Am J Primatol ; 79(12)2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28926116

RESUMO

Dental microwear textures have been examined for a broad range of extant primates to assess their efficacy for reconstructing diets of fossil species. To date though, no dental microwear texture data have been published for pitheciid molars, despite reported variation in degree of sclerocarpy and, by extension, the fracture properties of foods these platyrrhines eat. While all pitheciids eat hard or tough seeds, Chiropotes and Pithecia have been documented to consume more than Callicebus. In this study, we explored whether measures of molar microwear texture complexity discriminate taxa following variation in reliance upon seeds, and whether dispersion among variables is greatest in Callicebus, which has the most variable diet. Here we report results for a study of microwear textures on M2 "Phase II" facets of Ch. satanas (N = 14), P. irrorata (N = 8), and Ca. moloch (N = 24) from the Brazilian Amazon (Oriximina, UHE Samuel, and Taperinha, respectively). Textures examined using a scanning confocal profiler showed significant differences in central tendencies for three measures: mean dale area (Sda), anisotropy (Str), and heterogeneity (HAsfc9 ). Ten measures showed significant differences in dispersion, with Callicebus being significantly more variable in eight of those ten. These results demonstrate that the pitheciids with different morphological adaptations and dietary reliance on seeds differ in their dental microwear textures, though less than initially hypothesized. Measures of dispersion, especially, show potential for identifying dietary variability.


Assuntos
Dieta , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Pitheciidae/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Brasil
20.
J Hum Evol ; 105: 13-23, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28366197

RESUMO

The causes of Neandertal anterior tooth wear patterns, including labial rounding, labial scratches, and differential anterior-posterior wear, have been debated for decades. The most common explanation is the "stuff-and-cut" hypothesis, which describes Neandertals clamping down on a piece of meat and slicing a portion close to their lips. "Stuff-and-cut" has been accepted as a general aspect of Neandertal behavior without fully assessing its variability. This study analyzes anterior dental microwear textures across habitats, locations, and time intervals to discern possible variation in Neandertal anterior tooth-use behavior. Forty-five Neandertals from 24 sites were analyzed, represented by high-resolution replicas of permanent anterior teeth. The labial surface was scanned for antemortem microwear using a white-light confocal profiler. The resultant 3D-point clouds, representing 204 × 276 µm for each specimen, were uploaded into SSFA software packages for texture characterization. Statistical analyses, including MANOVAs, ANOVAs, and pairwise comparisons, were completed on ranked microwear data. Neandertal descriptive statistics were also compared to 10 bioarchaeological samples of known or inferred dietary and behavioral regimes. The Neandertal sample varied significantly by habitat, suggesting this factor was a principal driving force for differences in Neandertal anterior tooth-use behaviors. The Neandertals from open habitats showed significantly lower anisotropy and higher textural fill volume than those inhabiting more closed, forested environments. The texture signature from the open-habitat Neandertals was most similar to that of the Ipiutak and Nunavut, who used their anterior teeth for intense clamping and grasping behaviors related to hide preparation. Those in more closed habitats were most similar to the Arikara, who did not participate in non-dietary behaviors. These Neandertal individuals had a broad range of texture values consistent with non-dietary and dietary behaviors, suggesting they varied more in anterior tooth-use behaviors and exploited a wider variety of plant and animal resources than did those from open habitats.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ecossistema , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Homem de Neandertal , Desgaste dos Dentes/patologia , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Geografia , Oriente Médio , Homem de Neandertal/anatomia & histologia
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