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1.
Curr Diabetes Rev ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the non-communicable diseases plaguing the world and contributes a major part to the total disease burden. Diabetes has been prevalent in all countries throughout the years, with the majority of diabetics living in low- and middle-income countries. Madras Diabetes Research Foundation developed the Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS), a simple and cost-effective method to assess the chances of developing diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To assess the diabetes risk profile of office workers using IDRS and to determine the proportion of individual risk factors of diabetes among the participants. METHODS: This cross sectional study included 94 non-diabetic office workers working in two health care institutions situated in coastal South India. Data was collected by a study questionnaire consisting of three sections. Section A included details related to participant characteristics, Section B included anthropometric measurements, and Section C consisted of the Indian Diabetes Risk Score. The collected data were coded and entered into Statistical Package for Social Sciences. RESULTS: The mean age of the study participants was 40.88 (±9.761) years, and the mean BMI was 23.8 (±3.6) kg/m2. Majority (n=65, 67%) of the study participants did not have a family history of diabetes. One-third of the study participants had IDRS ≥ 60, which allocated them in the high risk category for type 2 diabetes (n=34, 35.1%). CONCLUSION: It has been conclusively shown from the study that most of the office workers have moderate to high risk of developing diabetes and are also overweight or obese.

2.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 28: 341-347, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite proven health benefits of regular participation in physical activities (PA), adults with stroke fail to achieve recommended levels of PA. Sports being an enjoyable activity is more likely to encourage participation. Therefore, the objectives of the present study are i) to develop and test the feasibility of adaptive sports for promoting PA and Quality of Life (QoL) in community-dwelling adults with stroke, and ii) to explore the participants perception and experiences of playing adaptive sports. METHODS: Two focus groups were conducted among the eight experts and a person with stroke to develop adaptive sports. To test the feasibility of these adaptive sports, in a multi methods study eighteen community dwelling adults with stroke were recruited. Participants played adaptive sports twice a week for two months in a community center. Participants pre and post intervention PA levels and QoL were measured. Participants were also interviewed at the end of the program to explore their experiences of participation in adaptive sports. RESULTS: At the end of the program retention rate of the participants was 83.33% and there was a significant improvement in PA levels, while the improvement in QoL was not statistically significant. Participants expressed positive experience with the program. There were no adverse events during or after the participation. Health benefits, fitness, and fun were reported as facilitators, while lack of access to the sporting facility and lack of caregiver support were reported as barriers to participation. CONCLUSION: Adaptive sports appear to be safe, feasible, and well accepted by the adults with stroke.

3.
F1000Res ; 10: 186, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631015

RESUMO

Background: Vaccine hesitancy (VH) has been identified by the World Health Organization as one among the top ten threats to global public health. There is limited literature regarding VH from developing countries like India. Methods: In this facility based cross-sectional study, 172 mothers of under-five children were assessed regarding VH using the parental attitude towards childhood vaccination questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of VH was 3.4% (n=6). Only 7.6% (n=13) of the study participants had refused vaccination for their child and the most common reason cited for vaccine refusal was that they thought it was not safe (n=6). Government health facilities was the place of routine immunization for 60.5% (n=104) participants. Health care providers (n =79, 46%) were the major source of information regarding vaccines. Conclusions: Our study highlights the presence of very low prevalence of VH in Mangalore compared to similar studies from India and other parts of the world. The limited number of participants had refused vaccination due to concerns related to vaccine safety.


Assuntos
Mães , Vacinas , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Vacinação
4.
Rehabil Res Pract ; 2021: 9758640, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462670

RESUMO

Methods: In this study, 24 children with spastic CP aged between 8 and 15 years were recruited. They were classified based on their functional performance using Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Trunk control and trunk position sense were assessed using the trunk control measurement scale (TCMS) and digital goniometer, respectively. The correlation between these variables was tested using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results: Significant negative correlation was found between trunk position sense and TCMS score. Similarly, a significant moderate correlation was found between trunk position sense and GMFCS. A strong negative correlation was also found between GMFCS and TCMS. Conclusion: Children with spastic CP with better trunk position sense had better trunk control. Similarly, children with higher functional performance had better trunk control and lesser error in trunk position sense. The current findings imply the relevance of proprioceptive training of the trunk for enhancing trunk motor control in children with spastic CP.

5.
F1000Res ; 10: 121, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113435

RESUMO

Background: The major determinant to the well-being of infants and young children (IYC) is their feeding practices. These practices are the responsibility of both parents, meaning that fathers have an equal role to mothers. Fathers' involvement can have an impact on the overall health of the children. Despite this, paternal involvement towards IYC feeding (IYCF) have not been studied adequately. Methods: This randomized control trial (n=120) will be conducted among fathers of infants (children aged <1 year) and young children (children aged 12-23 months) in selected households in Dakshina Kannada District of the southern Indian State of Karnataka. The study will be conducted after an initial baseline assessment on awareness, attitude and involvement of fathers in IYCF. Fathers with scores less than the 50 th percentile in the practice component will be categorized as fathers with poor involvement and will be potential participants for the trial. A visual module will be developed and validated for improving paternal involvement in IYCF. Using a simple randomization technique, the participants will be allocated to modular intervention and control group (1:1 allocation). Each participant in the intervention arm will be visited once a month to implement the module, for six months on a one-to-one basis. Following the intervention, a post-test assessment will be done for both groups to measure the level of paternal involvement in IYCF. Ethics and dissemination: Approval has been obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee of Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, India. The dissemination plans include scientific conferences and publication in scientific journals. Registration: The study is registered with Clinical Trial Registry of India ( CTRI/2017/06/008936).


Assuntos
Pai , Mães , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Escolaridade , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 661058, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34150705

RESUMO

Context: The feeding practices during first 2 years of life determine the overall health and survival during childhood and beyond. Child nutrition is responsibility of both parents and so far emphasis has been laid mostly on mothers. Fathers' involvement toward Infant and Young child feeding (IYCF) has been proved to be of paramount importance and yet it is given limited importance. Objectives: This study aims to study the level of paternal involvement toward IYCF and its associated factors and to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices toward IYCF in Dakshina Kannada District in South Indian State of Karnataka. Settings and Design: This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the coastal District of Dakshina Kannada; Karnataka State in India. Methods: The study included 450 fathers of infant and young children (aged <2 years) in five taluks of Dakshina Kannada district. They were assessed for knowledge, attitude, and practices related to IYCF. Median score for the practice component was considered cut off to classify involvement in IYCF. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 25.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. Chi-square-test and Binary Logistic Regression with Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit model were used. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were generated. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Mean age of the study population was 34.6 years (SD, 5.4). The practice scores median (IQR) was 34.0 (IQR, 31.0-39.0), and 40.9% of the participants had poor involvement in IYCF. This was significantly higher among fathers from predominantly urban area. Those who had education above graduation and younger fathers had better involvement in IYCF. Conclusions: Less than half of fathers had poor involvement in IYCF, and it was lower among fathers from urban areas, higher age, and lower educational levels.


Assuntos
Pai , Mães , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Masculino
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e043122, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858867

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Health insurance is one of the important approaches that can help in boosting universal healthcare coverage through improved healthcare utilisation and financial protection. This objectives of this review are to identify various interventions implemented in India to promote awareness of health insurance, and to provide evidence for the effectiveness of such interventions on the awareness and uptake of health insurance by the resident Indian population. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic review will be carried out based on the Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. The review will include experimental and analytical observational studies that have included adult population (>18 years) in India. We will include any intervention, policy or programme that directly or indirectly affects awareness or uptake of health insurance. The following outcomes will be eligible to be included: awareness or health insurance literacy, attitude such as readiness to buy health insurance or decision making, uptake of health insurance, demand-side and supply-side factors for awareness of health insurance, and awareness as a factor for uptake and re-enrolment in health insurance. Databases such as MEDLINE (PubMed), Web of Science, Scopus, 3ie impact evaluation repository and Social Science Research Network will be searched from January 2010 to 15 July 2020. Additionally, important government websites and references of the included studies will be scanned to identify potential records. Three authors, independently, will carry out screening and data extraction. Studies will be categorised into quantitative and qualitative, and mixed-methods synthesis will be employed to analyse the findings. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This review will be based on published studies and will not recruit human participants directly, therefore, ethical clearance is not applicable. We will disseminate the final review findings in a national or international conference and publish in a peer-reviewed journal.


Assuntos
Seguro Saúde , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Adulto , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
8.
Indian Pediatr ; 58(6): 537-541, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612490

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of school-based interventions in promoting child safety and reducing unintentional childhood injuries. METHODS: This cluster randomized trial with 1:1 allocation of clusters to intervention and control arm was conducted in the public and private schools of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka, over a period of 10 months. Study participants included children from standard 5-7 in schools selected for the study. 10 schools that could accommodate 1100 students each, were randomly allocated to the interventional and control arm. A comprehensive child safety and injury prevention module was developed based on the opinions of school teachers through focus group discussions. This module was periodically taught to the students of intervention arm by the teachers. The children in control arm did not receive any intervention. Outcome was assessed by determining the incidence of unintentional injuries and type of injuries from the questionnaire used at the baseline, and at the end of three, six, and ten months. RESULTS: Unintentional injuries declined progressively from baseline until the end of the study in both the interventional arm (from 52.9% to 2.5%) and control arm (from 44.7% to 32%) [AOR (95% CI) 0.458 (0.405-0.518); P value <0.001]. The decline in incidence of injuries in the interventional arm was higher than that in the control arm (50.4% vs 12.7%; P <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: School based educational intervention using child safety and injury prevention modules is effective in reducing unintentional injuries among school children over a 10-month period.


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 11(2): 150-154, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605117

RESUMO

The world stunned by a pandemic of such cataclysmic scale is reeling under the joint burden of health impact unleashed by the diseases and the strain on the economy. Glaring shortfalls and inconsistencies in strategies to combat the pandemic have surfaced worldwide irrespective of the country's economic and health care status. The responses have vacillated from mute to drastic. Gaps in health preparedness coupled with administrative tardiness, lack of co-ordination and foresight has heightened the impact of pandemic. Coordinated holistic approach with structured policies in place is the need of the hour. Surveillance and epidemiological models to predict the unpredictable and preempt the backlash will dictate our future successes and failures in this protracted fight against the pandemic. This article attempts to review the present status of health policy on COVID in general and with specific reference to India and their outcome thus far. We also propose a simple and practical framework on which a decisive, well-knit, reliable and acceptable policy can be framed.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Política de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 15(1): e6-e9, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576311

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 outbreak has surfaced as an imminent threat for the public health. Because India is a populous country, it is important for Indians to be aware of the basic modes of prevention that can diminish the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. AIM: The present questionnaire study was carried out among the undergraduate students to assess the awareness regarding the spread and control of COVID-19. METHODS: The questionnaire was circulated among the undergraduate students as a Google form. RESULTS: The study included responses of 868 undergraduate students belonging to 2 university colleges. The majority of the participants were females (63%; n = 547) in the age range of 18-23 y. Approximately 98.3% (853) had awareness regarding COVID-19. Approximately 94.7% (822) were washing their hands after visiting public places, out of which only 90.6% (786) were aware of proper steps to be followed in hand washing. It was concluded that it is required to create awareness among 20.8% (181) of our study participants regarding the importance of hand washing to control COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Awareness regarding COVID-19 among study participants was good. However, a small part of the study population is required to be educated on proper steps to be followed in hand washing.


Assuntos
Conscientização , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Higiene das Mãos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
11.
Curr Diabetes Rev ; 17(1): 101-106, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a serious chronic condition affecting millions of people globally. The focus of our future health care providers should not lie primarily on increasing the "quantity" of life but also on improving the Quality of Life of the patient. There is a serious lack of awareness and adherence regarding self-care for Diabetes in countries like India. OBJECTIVES: To determine the Quality of Life and self-care behavior among people living with Diabetes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 190 of all patients diagnosed with Diabetes mellitus type II of the duration of one year and more who came to Government Wenlock Hospital, Mangalore. The Quality of Life was assessed using the WHO BREF questionnaire. Data was entered and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. RESULTS: Amongst 190 participants, 151 (79.5%) of them had a good physical and psychological QOL. In a social relationship and environmental health domain, good quality of life was observed among 81.6% (n=155) and 89.5% (n=170) of study participants, respectively. It was noted that out of 190 people with Diabetes, only 24 (12.6%) participants inspected their feet daily. CONCLUSION: The Quality of Life was found to be good amongst the majority of the study participants. Results of the study point that the majority of the patients enjoy a good quality of life but also reinstate the importance of self-care activities for the betterment of health.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Autocuidado , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(5): 989-992, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310069

RESUMO

In India, under the National Tuberculosis Elimination Programme, the government provides free treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; however, many patients seek care elsewhere, which is costly. To determine those out-of-pocket expenses, we interviewed 40 presumptive patients and found that they spent more than their median annual income before registering for the government program.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Tuberculose , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Índia/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia
13.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 549549, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33665173

RESUMO

Context: Anemia is a public health problem that can lead to growth, cognitive, and motor impairments. Objective: To collate evidence on interventions for addressing childhood and adolescent anemia. Methods: In this overview of systematic reviews, we included Cochrane as well as non-Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) irrespective of language and publication status. Two sets of review authors independently screened articles for eligibility and extracted data from relevant SRs. We present data in a tabular format and summarize results based on outcome reported, age of participants, and type of interventions. We also adopt a "measurement for change" approach to assess the utility of measurement for development of interventions in childhood and adolescent anemia. Results: Our search yielded 2,601 records of which 31 SRs were found eligible for inclusion. Results were favorable for fortification and supplementation with clear reduction in the risk of anemia and increase in hemoglobin levels across all age groups. Other interventions reported by the SRs were inconclusive and suggest further research. Conclusions: Current evidence suggests that fortification or supplementation with iron and micronutrients leads to better reduction in the risk of anemia and improvements in hemoglobin levels among children and adolescents. Results of this overview can help decision makers in informing selection of interventions to address childhood and adolescent anemia. Review Registration: PROSPERO CRD42016053687.

14.
AIDS Res Treat ; 2019: 4712908, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781388

RESUMO

Background: HIV/AIDS has a greater impact on children. Besides being orphaned by the untimely demise of one or both parents due to the disease, these children are more prone for discrimination by the society. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 86 children orphaned by AIDS residing in care giving institutions for HIV positive children in Mangalore were assessed for their clinico-epidemiological profile and nutritional status. Institutional Ethics Committee clearance was obtained before the commencement of the study. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 11.5 and the results expressed in mean (standard deviation) and proportions. BMI was calculated and nutritional status assessed using WHO Z scores (BMI for Age) for children between 5 and 19 years separately for boys and girls. Results: The mean age of the children was 13.2 ± 3 years. Majority (n = 56, 65.1%) of the children were double orphans. Most of the children orphaned by AIDS (n = 78, 90.7%) had a history of both the parents being HIV positive. The median CD4 count of participants at the time of our study was 853.5 (IQR 552-1092) cells/microliter. A higher percentage of orphans were malnourished compared to nonorphans. (41.1% vs. 36.7%). All the educational institutions, wherein the children orphaned by AIDS were enrolled, were aware about their HIV status. Five of the participants felt discriminated in their schools. Only two of the participants felt discriminated by their friends because of their HIV status. Conclusion: From our study we draw conclusion that even though the children orphaned due to AIDS are rehabilitated in terms of having shelter and provision of education and health care, much needs to be done in terms of improving the nutritional status of these children and alleviating the discriminatory attitude of the society towards them.

15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2019(10)2019 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rice fortification with vitamins and minerals has the potential to increase the nutrition in rice-consuming countries where micronutrient deficiencies exist. Globally, 490 million metric tonnes of rice are consumed annually. It is the dominant staple food crop of around three billion people. OBJECTIVES: To determine the benefits and harms of rice fortification with vitamins and minerals (iron, vitamin A, zinc or folic acid) on micronutrient status and health-related outcomes in the general population. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and 16 other databases all up to 10 December 2018. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov, and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) on 10 December 2018. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised and quasi-randomised trials (with either individual or cluster randomisation) and controlled before-and-after studies. Participants were populations older than two years of age (including pregnant women) from any country. The intervention was rice fortified with at least one micronutrient or a combination of several micronutrients (iron, folic acid, zinc, vitamin A or other vitamins and minerals) compared with unfortified rice or no intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two review authors independently screened studies and extracted data. MAIN RESULTS: We included 17 studies (10,483 participants) and identified two ongoing studies. Twelve included studies were randomised-controlled trials (RCTs), with 2238 participants after adjusting for clustering in two cluster-RCTs, and five were non-randomised studies (NRS) with four controlled before-and-after studies and one cross-sectional study with a control (8245 participants). Four studies were conducted in India, three in Thailand, two in the Philippines, two in Brazil, one each in Bangladesh, Burundi, Cambodia, Indonesia, Mexico and the USA. Two studies involved non-pregnant, non-lactating women and 10 involved pre-school or school-age children. All 17 studies reported fortification with iron. Of these, six studies fortified rice with iron only; 11 studies had other micronutrients added (iron, zinc and vitamin A, and folic acid). One study had one arm each with vitamin A alone and carotenoid alone. Elemental iron content ranged from 0.2 to 112.8 mg/100 g uncooked rice given for a period varying from two weeks to 48 months. Thirteen studies did not clearly describe either sequence generation or allocation concealment. Eleven studies had a low attrition rate. There was no indication of selective reporting in the studies. We considered two RCTs at low overall risk of bias and 10 at high overall risk of bias. One RCT was at high or unclear risk of bias for most of the domains. All controlled before-and-after studies had a high risk or unclear risk of bias in most domains. The included studies were funded by Government, private and non-governmental organisations, along with other academic institutions. The source of funding does not appear to have altered the results. We used the NRS in the qualitative synthesis but we excluded them from the quantitative analysis and review conclusions since they provided mostly contextual information and limited quantitative information. Rice fortified with iron alone or in combination with other micronutrients versus unfortified rice (no micronutrients added) Fortification of rice with iron (alone or in combination with other micronutrients) may make little or no difference in the risk of having anaemia (risk ratio (RR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54 to 0.97; I2 = 74%; 7 studies, 1634 participants; low-certainty evidence) and may reduce the risk of iron deficiency (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.84; 8 studies, 1733 participants; low-certainty evidence). Rice fortification may increase mean haemoglobin (mean difference (MD) 1.83, 95% CI 0.66 to 3.00; I2 = 54%; 11 studies, 2163 participants; low-certainty evidence) and it may make little or no difference to vitamin A deficiency (with vitamin A as one of the micronutrients in the fortification arm) (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.29; I2 = 37%; 4 studies, 927 participants; low-certainty evidence). One study reported that fortification of rice (with folic acid as one of the micronutrients) may improve serum or plasma folate (nmol/L) (MD 4.30, 95% CI 2.00 to 6.60; 215 participants; low-certainty evidence). One study reported that fortification of rice with iron alone or with other micronutrients may slightly increase hookworm infection (RR 1.78, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.70; 785 participants; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain about the effect of fortified rice on diarrhoea (RR 3.52, 95% CI 0.18 to 67.39; 1 study, 258 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Rice fortified with vitamin A alone or in combination with other micronutrients versus unfortified rice (no micronutrients added) One study had one arm providing fortified rice with vitamin A only versus unfortified rice. Fortification of rice with vitamin A (in combination with other micronutrients) may increase mean haemoglobin (MD 10.00, 95% CI 8.79 to 11.21; 1 study, 74 participants; low-certainty evidence). Rice fortified with vitamin A may slightly improve serum retinol concentration (MD 0.17, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.21; 1 study, 74 participants; low-certainty evidence). No studies contributed data to the comparisons of rice fortification versus no intervention. The studies involving folic acid and zinc also involved iron in the fortification arms and hence we reported them as part of the first comparison. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Fortification of rice with iron alone or in combination with other micronutrients may make little or no difference in the risk of having anaemia or presenting iron deficiency and we are uncertain about an increase in mean haemoglobin concentrations in the general population older than 2 years of age. Fortification of rice with iron and other micronutrients such as vitamin A or folic acid may make little or no difference in the risk of having vitamin A deficiency or on the serum folate concentration. There is limited evidence on any adverse effects of rice fortification.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitaminas/prevenção & controle , Alimentos Fortificados , Micronutrientes , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Ferropriva/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Oryza , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Telemed Appl ; 2019: 5903106, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186627

RESUMO

Background: Stroke is a leading cause of disability and requires continued care after hospital discharge. Mobile-based interventions are suitable to reduce the cost of stroke rehabilitation and facilitate self-management among stroke survivors. However, before attempting to use mobile-based home exercise program, it is crucial to recognize the readiness of stroke survivors and their caregivers to opt for such interventions. Objective: To assess the acceptability and attitude towards a mobile-based home exercise program among stroke survivors and their primary caregivers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 102 participants to understand their attitude and acceptability towards mobile-based home exercise program. A validated 10-item questionnaire was adapted for the study. The questions which assessed the attitude were rated on a three-point Likert scale, with three denoting agree and one denoting disagree. The acceptability was assessed by their willingness to opt for a mobile-based home program services. A Chi-square analysis and cross-tabulation were performed to test differences between caregivers and patients. A logistic regression was performed to determine the effects of age, gender, and mobile phone on acceptability. Results: Ninety-two percent of caregivers and 90% of patients showed willingness to opt for mobile-based intervention. Majority of the participants showed a positive attitude towards this mode of treatment. There was no difference in the attitude noted among caregivers and patients (p>0.05) towards mobile-based intervention. Conclusion: The stroke survivors and caregivers welcomed the concept of mobile-based home exercise program even in a low-resource settings, but further studies to understand treatment and cost-effectiveness of this technology among the stroke survivors would lead to better implementation.

17.
Int J Dent ; 2019: 1964158, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930947

RESUMO

Background: Antimicrobial agents serve as an effective adjunct in plaque control, and chlorhexidine has been the gold standard. However, the philosophy that natural agents are better for children's oral health is on the rise. Probiotic technology represents a breakthrough approach to maintain oral health by utilizing natural beneficial bacteria commonly found in healthy mouths. Aim and Objective: To compare efficacy of probiotic and chlorhexidine oral rinses in orthodontic patients. Materials and Methods: 30 healthy patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment were randomly selected for the study by block randomization and allocation concealment and were divided into three groups: group a, 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash; group b, probiotic mouthwash; and group c, a control group. Results: Probiotic and chlorhexidine groups had significantly decreased plaque indices as compared to the control group. However, greater improvement was seen in the gingival indices than plaque indices with better results in the probiotic group than the chlorhexidine group. No statistical significance was observed in the streptococcus count of probiotic and chlorhexidine groups at the end of the intervention period. Conclusion: The comparison of probiotics to chlorhexidine has proven that probiotics are as effective as chlorhexidine as an adjunctive chemical plaque control agent.

18.
Ann Neurosci ; 26(3-4): 10-16, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843828

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to find the immediate as well as short-term effect on pelvic alignment and forward arm reach distance in sitting among stroke patients following thoracic spine and abdominal muscles taping along with conventional therapy. METHODS: Thirty subjects with stroke attending the physiotherapy programme at Department of Physiotherapy at a tertiary care hospital underwent this randomized controlled experimental study. Subjects in the experimental group received taping, along with conventional physiotherapy treatment, for restricting thoracic kyphosis and facilitating abdominal muscles. Subjects in the control group received only conventional physiotherapy treatment. To assess the change in pelvic alignment and forward arm reach distance while sitting, Palpation MeterTM (PALMTM) and sit and reach test were used, respectively. RESULTS: In the experimental group, pelvic obliquity was corrected (4.1 ± 0.94) and anterior pelvic tilt revealed improvement (4.9 ± 2.1, p value < 0.001). In the control group, no improvement in pelvic alignment was recorded. Improvement in forward arm reach distance was similar in both groups (p value = 0.804). CONCLUSION: Taping as an adjunctive treatment method to physiotherapy can cause immediate as well as short-term improvement of pelvic alignment in sitting, following stroke. It also, immediately improves the sit and reach distance in the same population.

19.
F1000Res ; 8: 498, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035900

RESUMO

Background: Delays in initiating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) treatment adds risk to individual patients and the community due to disease progression, and on-going transmission. The Government of India offers free TB diagnosis and treatment, however many presumptive MDR TB patients wander within the Indian healthcare system and delay accessing the programme. To improve access to care, it is imperative to understand the treatment pathways taken by MDR TB patients. We aimed to describe the diagnostic and treatment pathway taken by presumptive MDR TB patients registered under Programmatic Management of Drug-resistant TB Program. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study amongst patients registered during August 2016 - April 2017 at one District Drug Resistance Tuberculosis centre of Dakshina Kannada district in Karnataka, India. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the number, type (private and public sector), and dates of healthcare facilities (HCFs) visits prior to the initiation of MDR TB treatment. Delays in pathway were measured in days and summarised as median and interquartile range (IQR), from the date of onset of illness until the initiation of MDR TB treatment. Results: We found that patients preferred private HCFs; however, due to lack of treatment and unaffordability they shifted to public HCFs. Median delay to register under the program was more in private HCFs (180 days) in comparison with public HCFs (120 days). We also found that the detection rates were much higher in public HCFs (80%). Conclusion: The present study found that there was substantial patient delay and total delay in diagnosis and treatment of MDR TB patients. Private HCF was first point of contact for most of the patients; however the diagnostic yield was high in public HCF. The government should involve private HCFs to provide standard diagnostics and treatment to the patients seeking a private facility.

20.
Int J Telemed Appl ; 2018: 7573614, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30584424

RESUMO

Introduction: Social media has a potential to bring about major changes in the healthcare system. Objective: To find out the pattern of use of social media among healthcare professionals (HCPs) and perception, facilitators, and barriers of using social media, to translate evidence into clinical practice. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 196 HCPs of institutions attached to a university using a self-administered questionnaire. Result: 97.3% used social media; however, only 63.4% used it for research. YouTube was the most preferred media. Majority of people believed that social media enables wide range of evidence over the shorter span of time, poses a threat to privacy, and cannot replace face to face interaction. Perceived barriers were the privacy concern, unprofessional behavior, lack of reliability, and information overload. Conclusion: There is a need for the development of appropriate guidelines for sharing the research output among various stakeholders using social media.

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