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1.
Molecules ; 25(18)2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962285

RESUMO

Mast cells are key actors in inflammatory reactions. Upon activation, they release histamine, heparin and nerve growth factor, among many other mediators that modulate immune response and neuron sensitization. One important feature of mast cells is that their population is usually increased in animal models and biopsies from patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Therefore, mast cells and mast cell mediators are regarded as key components in IBS pathophysiology. IBS is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder affecting the quality of life of up to 20% of the population worldwide. It is characterized by abdominal pain and altered bowel habits, with heterogeneous phenotypes ranging from constipation to diarrhea, with a mixed subtype and even an unclassified form. Nutrient intake is one of the triggering factors of IBS. In this respect, certain components of the daily food, such as fatty acids, amino acids or plant-derived substances like flavonoids, have been described to modulate mast cells' activity. In this review, we will focus on the effect of these molecules, either stimulatory or inhibitory, on mast cell degranulation, looking for a nutraceutical capable of decreasing IBS symptoms.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383958

RESUMO

Coffee is one of the most popular beverages consumed worldwide. Roasted coffee is a complex mixture of thousands of bioactive compounds, and some of them have numerous potential health-promoting properties that have been extensively studied in the cardiovascular and central nervous systems, with relatively much less attention given to other body systems, such as the gastrointestinal tract and its particular connection with the brain, known as the brain-gut axis. This narrative review provides an overview of the effect of coffee brew; its by-products; and its components on the gastrointestinal mucosa (mainly involved in permeability, secretion, and proliferation), the neural and non-neural components of the gut wall responsible for its motor function, and the brain-gut axis. Despite in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies having shown that coffee may exert multiple effects on the digestive tract, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative effects on the mucosa, and pro-motility effects on the external muscle layers, much is still surprisingly unknown. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms of action of certain health-promoting properties of coffee on the gastrointestinal tract and to transfer this knowledge to the industry to develop functional foods to improve the gastrointestinal and brain-gut axis health.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cafeína/farmacologia , Café/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bebidas , Fibras na Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Humanos , Membrana Mucosa , Polímeros , Polifenóis
3.
J Food Biochem ; 43(12): e13062, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571257

RESUMO

Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is related to increased risk of early death due to cardiovascular complications, among others. Dietary intervention has been suggested as the safest and most cost-effective alternative for treatment of those alterations in patients with MS. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different egg white hydrolysates (HEW1 and HEW2) in obese Zucker rats, focus on the development of cardiovascular complications. Blood pressure, heart rate, basal cardiac function and vascular reactivity in aorta and mesenteric resistance arteries were evaluated. Reactive oxygen species production by dihydroethidium-emitted fluorescence, NOX-1 mRNA levels by qRT-PCR, angiotensin-converting enzyme activity by fluorimetry and kidney histopathology were also analysed. Both hydrolysates improve the endothelial dysfunction occurring in resistance arteries. Additionally, HEW2 reduced vascular oxidative stress. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Egg white is a good source of bioactive peptides, some of them with high antioxidant activity. They may be used as functional foods ingredients and could serve as an alternative therapeutic option to decrease some Metabolic Syndrome-related complications. This study suggests that these hydrolysates could be an interesting non-pharmacological tool to control cardiovascular complications related to Metabolic Syndrome.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Clara de Ovo/química , Artérias Mesentéricas/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/complicações , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrolisados de Proteína/metabolismo , Animais , Ratos , Ratos Zucker
4.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234581

RESUMO

The bioaccessibility, metabolism, and excretion of lipids composing spent coffee grounds (SCGs) were investigated. An analysis of mycotoxins and an acute toxicity study in rats were performed for safety evaluation. Total fat, fatty acids, and diterpenes (cafestol and kahweol) were determined in SCGs and their digests obtained in vitro. A pilot repeated intake study was carried out in Wistar rats using a dose of 1 g SCGs/kg b.w. for 28 days. Fat metabolism was evaluated by analysis of total fat, cholesterol, and histology in liver. The dietary fiber effect of SCGs was measured radiographically. The absence of mycotoxins and toxicity was reported in SCGs. A total of 77% of unsaturated fatty acids and low amounts of kahweol (7.09 µg/g) and cafestol (414.39 µg/g) were bioaccessible after in vitro digestion. A significantly lower (p < 0.1) accumulation of lipids in the liver and a higher excretion of these in feces was found in rats treated with SCGs for 28 days. No lipid droplets or liver damage were observed by histology. SCGs acutely accelerated intestinal motility in rats. SCGs might be considered a sustainable, safe, and healthy food ingredient with potential for preventing hepatic steatosis due to their effect as dietary fiber with a high fat-holding capacity.


Assuntos
Coffea/metabolismo , Diterpenos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Biotransformação , Coffea/toxicidade , Diterpenos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Fezes/química , Feminino , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Eliminação Intestinal , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/toxicidade , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Curr Med Chem ; 25(16): 1879-1908, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29210639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) receptor is a transmembrane receptor, predominantly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, which is considered to play a main role in homeostasis and function of the digestive tract. The endogenous ligands for this receptor are the paracrine hormones uroguanylin and guanylin. Upon ligand binding, GC-C receptors increase cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels, regulating a variety of key cell-type specific processes such as chloride and bicarbonate secretion, epithelial cell growth, regulation of intestinal barrier integrity and visceral sensitivity. It has been suggested that GC-C acts as an intestinal tumor suppressor with the potential to prevent the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer. In fact, loss of ligand expression is a universal step in sporadic colorectal carcinogenesis. Interestingly, the role of GC-C is not limited to the digestive tract but it has been extended to several other systems such as the cardiovascular system, kidney, and the central nervous system, where it has been involved in a gut-hypothalamus endocrine axis regulating appetite. Objetive: In this review we summarize the physiology of the GC-C receptor and its ligands, focusing on newly developed drugs like linaclotide, and their suggested role to reverse/prevent the diseases in which the receptor is involved. CONCLUSION: Available data points toward a relationship between uroguanylin and guanylin and their receptor and pathological processes like gastrointestinal and renal disorders, colorectal cancer, obesity, metabolic syndrome and mental disorders among others. Recent pharmacological developments in the regulation of GC-receptor may involve further improvements in the treatment of relevant diseases.


Assuntos
GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Guanilato Ciclase/metabolismo , Receptores de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Nefropatias/terapia , Peptídeos Natriuréticos/metabolismo , Obesidade/terapia , Ligação Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Pharmacol Rep ; 68(4): 816-26, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27267792

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis; Crohn's disease) are debilitating relapsing inflammatory disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract, with deleterious effect on quality of life, and increasing incidence and prevalence. Mucosal inflammation, due to altered microbiota, increased intestinal permeability and immune system dysfunction underlies the symptoms and may be caused in susceptible individuals by different factors (or a combination of them), including dietary habits and components. In this review we describe the influence of the Western diet, obesity, and different nutraceuticals/functional foods (bioactive peptides, phytochemicals, omega 3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, probiotics and prebiotics) on the course of IBD, and provide some hints that could be useful for nutritional guidance. Hopefully, research will soon offer enough reliable data to slow down the spread of the disease and to make diet a cornerstone in IBD therapy.


Assuntos
Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/dietoterapia , Humanos
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