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1.
Dis Markers ; 2020: 8848225, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670436

RESUMO

Background: Urolithiasis is the process of stone formation in the urinary tract. Its etiology is only partly known, and efficient therapeutic approaches are currently lacking. Metabolomics is increasingly used in biomarkers discovery for its ability to identify mediators of relevant (patho)physiological processes. Amino acids may be involved in kidney stone formation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of an amino acid signature in stone former urine through a targeted metabolomic approach. Methods: A panel of 35 amino acids and derivatives was assessed in urines from 15 stone former patients and 12 healthy subjects by UPLC-MS. Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) was used to define amino acid profiles of cases and controls. Results and Discussion. Our approach led to the definition of a specific amino acid fingerprint in people with kidney stones. A urinary amino acid profile of stone formers was characterized by lower levels of α-aminobutyric acid, asparagine, ethanolamine, isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine, serine, tryptophan, and valine. Metabolomic analysis may lend insights into the pathophysiology of urolithiasis and allow tracking this prevalent condition over time.

2.
Mol Diagn Ther ; 24(4): 473-485, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Generalized glucocorticoid resistance is characterized by impaired cortisol signaling, resulting from mutations in the NR3C1 gene coding the human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR). Most of the pathogenic hGR variants are identified in the ligand-binding domain (LBD). However, we report a new case associated with a novel NR3C1 pathogenic variant in the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the hGR. METHODS: The index case was an Italian 31-year-old woman with a history of chronic fatigue, anxiety, hirsutism, irregular menstrual cycles, and infertility, but no clinical manifestations suggestive of Cushing's syndrome. Standard clinical methods were used to assess the patient's hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Molecular analysis of the NR3C1 gene was performed by Sanger sequencing. In addition, we perform an extensive survey of all clinical pathogenic variants modifying the whole sequence of the NR3C1 gene. RESULTS: Endocrinologic evaluation revealed elevated serum cortisol, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone, and androstenedione concentration and increased urinary free cortisol excretion. Morning serum cortisol levels remained elevated and were not suppressed during a 2-day, 2-mg dexamethasone suppression test. The identification of the novel p.(Glu123Ter) NR3C1 variant confirmed the diagnosis of glucocorticoid resistance. CONCLUSION: Our findings improve the understanding of NR3C1 mutational spectrum in patients affected by glucocorticoid resistance syndrome and contribute to precise diagnosis and genetic counseling.

3.
J Proteomics ; 226: 103890, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629195

RESUMO

Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF), a plasma-derived exudate present in the gingival crevice was collected from deciduous, exfoliating and permanent teeth from 20 children (60 samples) with the aim to characterize and quantify by a mass spectrometry based top-down proteomic approach, the peptide/proteins in the fluid and verify possible variations occurring during the exfoliating process. The results obtained confirmed the presence in GCF of α-Defensins 1-4, Thymosin ß4 and Thymosin ß10, as described in previous works and revealed the presence of other interesting peptides never described before in GCF such as specific fragments of α-1-antitrypsin, α-1-antichymotrypsin; fragments of Thymosin ß4 and Thymosin ß10; Fibrinopeptide A and its fragments and Fibrinopeptide B; S100A8 and S100A9, LVV Hemorphin-7 (hemoglobin chain ß fragment), as well as some other peptides deriving from α and ß subunits of hemoglobin. Statistical analysis evidenced different levels in 5 proteins/peptides in the three groups. Our study demonstrate that an in-depth analysis of a biological fluid like GCF, present in small amount, can provide useful information for the understanding of different biological processes like teeth eruption. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD016010 and PXD016049. SIGNIFICANCE: GCF due to his site-specific nature has a great potential in containing factors that are specific for action at a given site and might have diagnostic value to detect qualitative and quantitative variations of proteins/peptides composition linked to physiological or pathological conditions.

4.
Geroscience ; 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488674

RESUMO

Physical frailty and sarcopenia (PF&S) is a prototypical geriatric condition characterized by reduced physical function and low muscle mass. The aim of the present study was to provide an initial selection of biomarkers for PF&S using a novel multivariate analytic strategy. Two-hundred community-dwellers, 100 with PF&S and 100 non-physically frail, non-sarcopenic (nonPF&S) controls aged 70 and older were enrolled as part of the BIOmarkers associated with Sarcopenia and Physical frailty in EldeRly pErsons (BIOSPHERE) study. A panel of 74 serum analytes involved in inflammation, muscle growth and remodeling, neuromuscular junction damage, and amino acid metabolism was assayed. Biomarker selection was accomplished through sequential and orthogonalized covariance selection (SO-CovSel) analysis. Separate SO-CovSel models were constructed for the whole study population and for the two genders. The model with the best prediction ability obtained with the smallest number of variables was built using seven biomolecules. This model allowed correct classification of 80.6 ± 5.3% PF&S participants and 79.9 ± 5.1% nonPF&S controls. The PF&S biomarker profile was characterized by higher serum levels of asparagine, aspartic acid, and citrulline. Higher serum concentrations of platelet-derived growth factor BB, heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72), myeloperoxidase, and α-aminobutyric acid defined the profile of nonPF&S participants. Gender-specific SO-CovSel models identified a "core" biomarker profile of PF&S, characterized by higher serum levels of aspartic acid and Hsp72 and lower concentrations of macrophage inflammatory protein 1ß, with peculiar signatures in men and women.SO-CovSel analysis allowed identifying a set of potential biomarkers for PF&S. The adoption of such an innovative multivariate approach could help address the complex pathophysiology of PF&S, translate biomarker discovery from bench to bedside, and unveil novel targets for interventions.

5.
J Nephrol ; 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514990

RESUMO

Kidney stone disease is a common condition with a high recurrence rate and elevated costs. Despite the well-known positive effects of high fluid intake, there are little data about the roles of water composition and timing of ingestion during the day. This study examines the effect of two different waters [calcium-bicarbonate water (CBW) and oligomineral water (OW)] consumed at different times during the day on urine composition in a group of healthy volunteers. In a cross-over randomized trial, 12 healthy volunteers were assigned to a different sequence of four combined interventions (1 L of water consumed during fasting and 1 L of water consumed with meals): CBW/OW; OW/CBW; CBW/CBW; OW/OW. Participants were instructed to follow the same diet and to avoid smoking, caffeine and other beverages during the day of intervention, and to collect their urine every 2 h during the day, followed by a single overnight collection. The relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate was higher for CBW/CBW compared with all other interventions, while relative supersaturation for calcium phosphate was lower for the combination OW/CBW with meals. Urinary excretion of oxalate was lower in all interventions including CBW, while no significant differences were found for urinary calcium. Water composition and timing of ingestion have complex and interacting effects on lithogenic risk. Depending on individual characteristics, a strategy involving either OW or a mix of CBW during meals and OW outside of meals could be effective in modulating the lithogenic profile.Trial registered at clinicaltrial.gov: Protocol ID NCT03447847.

7.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(6): 4897-4903, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468256

RESUMO

Resistance can be the result of secondary tissue variants (STVs), which restore the open reading frame of the germline BRCA allele, producing functional BRCA protein in germline BRCA1/2 (BRCA) pathogenic variant (PV) carriers, treated with platinum-based chemotherapy or poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARP-1). We reported recently a BRCA2 mutant high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) patient with acquired resistance to the PARP-1 olaparib due to a STV detected by next generation tumor sequencing (NGTS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the versatility of the high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) obtained by magnetic induction cycler (MIC) to monitor the BRCA2 status in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples of this patient and to compare the results obtained by NGTS. HRMA highlighted the BRCA2 STV previously detected in the IIIrd HGSOC recurrence following the tissue BRCA2 tissue status comparing the high resolution melting profiles (HRMPs). HRMPs differentiate not only BRCA2 alleles, but also their different allele abundance. We underline that (1) the MIC uses a latest generation technology guaranteeing temperature uniformity and maintenance in each well allowing high and accurate performance to obtain reported results and (2) the HRMA maintains a high sensitivity and specificity when it is performed on FFPE samples. Finally, this study represents an additional use of the HRMA, confirming its extreme versatility in the diagnostic environment.

8.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(6): 4857-4860, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388698

RESUMO

The first person-to-person transmission of the 2019-novel coronavirus in Italy on 21 February 2020 led to an infection chain that represents one of the largest known COVID-19 outbreaks outside Asia. Hospitals have been forced to reorganized their units in response to prepare for an unforeseen healthcare emergency. In this context, our laboratory (Molecular and Genomic Diagnostics Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS) re-modulated its priorities by temporarily interrupting most of the molecular tests guaranteeing only those considered "urgent" and not postponable. In particular, this paper details changes regarding the execution of germline BRCA (gBRCA) testing in our laboratory. A substantial reduction in gBRCA testing (about 60%) compared to the first 2 months of the current year was registered, but the requests have not been reset. The requesting physicians were mainly gynaecologists and oncologists. These evidences further emphasize the new era of gBRCA testing in the management of cancer patients and confirms definitively the integration of gBRCA testing/Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) into clinical oncology. Finally, a re-organization of gBRCA testing in our Unit, mainly related to delayed and reduced arrival of tests was necessary, ensuring, however, a high-quality standard and reliability, mandatory for gBRCA testing in a clinical setting.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 144: 76-86, 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454060

RESUMO

The mitochondrial permeability transition, an established mechanism for heart diseases, is a long-standing mystery of mitochondrial biology and a prime drug target for cardioprotection. Several hypotheses about its molecular nature have been put forward over the years, and the prevailing view is that permeabilization of the inner mitochondrial membrane follows opening of a high-conductance channel, the permeability transition pore, which is also called mitochondrial megachannel or multiconductance channel. The permeability transition strictly requires matrix Ca2+ and is favored by the matrix protein cyclophilin D, which mediates the inhibitory effects of cyclosporin A. Here we provide a review of the field, with specific emphasis on the possible role of the adenine nucleotide translocator and of the F-ATP synthase in channel formation, and on currently available small molecule inhibitors. While the possible mechanisms through which the adenine nucleotide translocator and the F-ATP synthase might form high-conductance channels remain unknown, reconstitution experiments and site-directed mutagenesis combined to electrophysiology have provided important clues. The hypothesis that more than one protein may act as a permeability transition pore provides a reasonable explanation for current controversies in the field, and holds great promise for the solution of the mystery of the permeability transition.

10.
Geroscience ; 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458283

RESUMO

Dopaminergic nigrostriatal denervation and widespread intracellular α-synuclein accumulation are neuropathologic hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). A constellation of peripheral processes, including metabolic and inflammatory changes, are thought to contribute to neurodegeneration. In the present study, we sought to obtain insight into the multifaceted pathophysiology of PD through the application of a multi-marker discovery approach. Fifty older adults aged 70+, 20 with PD and 30 age-matched controls were enrolled as part of the EXosomes in PArkiNson Disease (EXPAND) study. A panel of 68 circulating mediators of inflammation, neurogenesis and neural plasticity, and amino acid metabolism was assayed. Biomarker selection was accomplished through sequential and orthogonalized covariance selection (SO-CovSel), a multi-platform regression method developed to handle highly correlated variables organized in multi-block datasets. The SO-CovSel model with the best prediction ability using the smallest number of variables was built with seven biomolecules. The model allowed correct classification of 94.2 ± 3.1% participants with PD and 100% controls. The biomarker profile of older adults with PD was defined by higher circulating levels of interleukin (IL) 8, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1ß, phosphoethanolamine, and proline, and by lower concentrations of citrulline, IL9, and MIP-1α. Our innovative approach allowed identifying and evaluating the classification performance of a set of potential biomarkers for PD in older adults. Future studies are warranted to establish whether these biomolecules could serve as biomarkers for PD as well as unveil new targets for interventions.

11.
Microbes Infect ; 22(4-5): 182-187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446902

RESUMO

Envelope protein of coronaviruses is a structural protein existing in both monomeric and homo-pentameric form. It has been related to a multitude of roles including virus infection, replication, dissemination and immune response stimulation. In the present study, we employed an immunoinformatic approach to investigate the major immunogenic domains of the SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein and map them among the homologue proteins of coronaviruses with tropism for animal species that are closely inter-related with the human beings population all over the world. Also, when not available, we predicted the envelope protein structural folding and mapped SARS-CoV-2 epitopes. Envelope sequences alignment provides evidence of high sequence homology for some of the investigated virus specimens; while the structural mapping of epitopes resulted in the interesting maintenance of the structural folding and epitope sequence localization also in the envelope proteins scoring a lower alignment score. In line with the One-Health approach, our evidences provide a molecular structural rationale for a potential role of taxonomically related coronaviruses in conferring protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection and identifying potential candidates for the development of diagnostic tools and prophylactic-oriented strategies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Saúde Única , Pandemias , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de Proteína
12.
Protein Pept Lett ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370701

RESUMO

Male hypogonadism is "a clinical syndrome that results from failure of the testis to produce physiological concentrations of testosterone and/or a normal number of spermatozoa due to pathology at one or more concentrations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis". The diagnostic protocol of male hypogonadism includes accurate medical history, physical exam, as well as hormone assays and instrumental evaluation. Basal hormonal evaluation of serum testosterone, LH, and FSH is important in the evaluation of diseases of the hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis. Total testosterone levels < 8 nmol/l profoundly suggest the diagnosis of hypogonadism. An inadequate androgen status is moreover possible if the total testosterone levels are 8-12 nmol/L. In this "grey zone" the diagnosis of hypogonadism is debated and the appropriateness for treating these patients with testosterone should be fostered by symptoms, although often non-specific. Up to now, no markers of androgen tissue action can be used in clinical practice. The identification of markers of androgens action might be useful in supporting diagnosis, testosterone replacement treatment (TRT) and clinical follow-up. The aim of this review is to analyze the main findings of recent studies in the field of discovering putative diagnostic markers of male hypogonadism in seminal plasma by proteomic techniques. The identified proteins might represent a "molecular androtest" useful as a seminal fingerprint of male hypogonadism, for the diagnosis of patients with moderate grades of testosterone reduction and in the follow-up of testosterone replacement treatment.

13.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 56(1): 122-127, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242544

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant inherited disease characterized by elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Targeted Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is a new opportunity to expand the existing pathogenic variants (PVs) spectrum associated to FH. Our aim was to report a diagnostic NGS-based approach to detect variants associated to FH. METHODS: We report two patients: a 48-year-old Asian woman, without known history of hypercholesterolemia and a 46-year-old Caucasian man, with childhood hypercholesterolemia. RESULTS: An effective NGS-based pipeline, FH-Devyser kit/Amplicon Suite, beginning from sequencing to data analysis, did not identify known PVs in the LDLR, APOB, APOE, LDLRAP1, STAP1 and PCSK9 genes, but revealed two novel LDLR variants (c.1564A>T, p.Ile522Phe and c.1688C>T, p.Pro563Leu). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that an effective NGS-based pipeline led to a definitive diagnosis in two FH families, allowing to plan their therapeutic treatment. Although the functional consequence of the two LDLR variants needs to be assessed in vitro, the in silico analysis and high preservation of the two amino acid positions observed in the LDLR protein, across different animal species, suggest that both variants are deleterious.

14.
Microbes Infect ; 22(4-5): 188-194, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302675

RESUMO

Several research lines are currently ongoing to address the multitude of facets of the pandemic COVID-19. In line with the One-Health concept, extending the target of the studies to the animals which humans are continuously interacting with may favor a better understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 biology and pathogenetic mechanisms; thus, helping to adopt the most suitable containment measures. The last two decades have already faced severe manifestations of the coronavirus infection in both humans and animals, thus, circulating epitopes from previous outbreaks might confer partial protection from SARS-CoV-2 infections. In the present study, we provide an in-silico survey of the major nucleocapsid protein epitopes and compare them with the homologues of taxonomically-related coronaviruses with tropism for animal species that are closely inter-related with the human beings population all over the world. Protein sequence alignment provides evidence of high sequence homology for some of the investigated proteins. Moreover, structural epitope mapping by homology modelling revealed a potential immunogenic value also for specific sequences scoring a lower identity with SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid proteins. These evidence provide a molecular structural rationale for a potential role in conferring protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection and identifying potential candidates for the development of diagnostic tools and prophylactic-oriented strategies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Epitopos , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
Thyroid ; 30(7): 1091-1094, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122271

RESUMO

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are associated with several endocrine side effects. In particular, the use of programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors is related to a higher incidence of thyroid dysfunction. Patient Findings: An 85 years-old patient, diagnosed with a metastatic melanoma treated with nivolumab, presented to our hospital with severe ICI-related thyrotoxicosis. Diagnosis was complicated by a biochemical interference on thyroid hormones assay, probably induced by nivolumab. Summary: Baseline laboratory examination conducted before onset of anticancer therapy showed normal thyroid function test (TFTs). A few days after receiving the second nivolumab administration, the patient developed a severe thyrotoxicosis. According to destructive thyroiditis, in a short period thyrotropin (TSH) levels normalized and rapidly increased, but free thyroxine (fT4) levels were inappropriately elevated and did not decrease as expected. The sample was processed by using a Siemens Centaur® immunoassay. We reanalyzed the same sample at another laboratory and with a different immunoassay method (Roche Elecsys®). The results obtained from this assay confirmed severe hypothyroidism with appropriately low fT4 levels. We suspected a possible nivolumab-associated interference on the fT4 assay. Therefore, we subjected the same sample to a polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 precipitation, a simple method for the removal of macromolecules, before assaying for fT4 levels. Evaluation of the post-PEG-precipitation sample (Siemens Centaur immunoassay) revealed appropriately low fT4 levels. The patient was started on levothyroxine (LT4) therapy, with monthly TFT monitoring using the Roche immunoassay. Approximately 9 months after starting nivolumab therapy, the patient was advised treatment cessation. A month later, the TFTs were retested on a Siemens Centaur immunoassay, and appropriate fT4 levels were observed in accordance with normal TSH levels on adequate LT4 replacement therapy. Conclusions: We report a possible novel nivolumab-induced biochemical interference on assays of fT4 levels. The hypothesis of a biochemical drug-induced interference is further supported by the disappearance of the interference after the withdrawal of nivolumab. Further studies are needed to prove the biochemical mechanisms of this interference.

16.
Microbes Infect ; 22(4-5): 218-220, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194253

RESUMO

Outside the Hubei province, China, the mild form of infection and the progressive recover of the COVID-19 patients suggest the intervention of "unconventional" biological mechanisms worthy of attention. Based on the high-homology between the Spike protein epitopes of taxonomically-related coronaviruses, we hypothesized that past contact with infected dogs shield humans against the circulating SARS-CoV-2. Elseways, the recurrent virus exposure over a short time-lapse might result in the Antibody Dependent Enhancement, triggering the violent immune reaction responsible for the severe clinical outcomes observed in the Hubei province. Nevertheless, further experimental studies are desired for a confidential evaluation of the postulated hypotheses.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Facilitadores , Antígenos Virais/química , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade , Saúde Única , Pandemias , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Tropismo Viral
17.
J Proteomics ; 215: 103636, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918033

RESUMO

Food allergy is the disease where the immune system is elicited by antigens in food. Although innocuous for immune-tolerant individuals, an ever-growing number of food allergenic people are being registered worldwide. To date, no treatment to cure food allergy is available and the disease management relies on the careful exclusion of the allergenic food from the diet of the allergic individuals. Great efforts are ongoing to clarify the allergenic mechanisms of the diverse allergenic proteins of food origin, aimed to both designing suitable therapies and for a timely and precise diagnosis of the allergic condition. Among the other omics sciences, mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is gaining a steadily increasing interest by the whole scientific community acknowledged its high versatility. In the present work, the latest proteomics based-studies on allergenic proteins are reviewed to provide guidance on the different MS-based methodologies adopted in the research on food allergens. Our review points to highlight the strengths of the MS-based proteomics and how these have been exploited to address specific research questions. Also, the most common drawbacks encountered in a proteomic study are discussed, providing an overview that helps novel researchers in choosing the more suitable experimental workflow. SIGNIFICANCE: Wide wealth of knowledge arising from the various MS-based proteomic investigations is improving our understanding of food allergy through molecular characterization of food allergens. The present work reviews the key aspects to be evaluated while investigating food allergens by means of MS-based proteomics and provide guidance to the novel research groups approaching to the fascinating world of MS-based food allergens detection.

18.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(2): 1513-1520, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833030

RESUMO

Correct classification of genomic variants causing potentially aberrant splicing is of utmost importance for patient management, especially in clinically actionable genes such as BRCA1/2. In this article, we report molecular evaluation of the BRCA1 c.439T>C (rs794727800, p.Leu147=) variant based on RNA of a patient suffering with high-grade serous ovarian cancer syndrome, to add new evidence to the only in silico data available for this variant. High Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA) was used for the first time to investigate the spliceogenicity of a BRCA1 variant. HRMA with Sanger sequencing provided evidence that the c.439C allele does not cause aberrant splicing of the BRCA1 exon 7. In addition, HRMA with Sanger highlighted a different expression of the naturally occurring BRCA1 r.442_444del (c.442_444delCAG, p.Gln148del, at DNA level) isoform between blood and tumor, in this patient. HRMA is an alternative molecular approach to analyze spliceogenic properties of the c.439T>C variant and potentially for all those BRCA1/2 variants affecting splicing sites. These new evidences allowed to classify definitively the c.439T>C variant as benign. Furthermore, the different BRCA1 r.442_444del expression opens the discussion to consider a wider classification criteria for the splicing variants, including molecular evaluation at tissue level, which is an aspect currently scarcely considered in BRCA1/2 variant classification recommendations.

19.
J Clin Med ; 8(12)2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816910

RESUMO

In the grey zone of testosterone levels between 8 and 12 nmol/L, the usefulness of therapy is controversial; as such, markers of tissue action of androgens may be helpful in adjusting clinical decisions. To better understand the effect of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis on male accessory secretion, we performed a proteomic quantitative analysis of seminal plasma in patients with secondary hypogonadism, before and after testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). Ten male patients with postsurgical hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism were enrolled in this study, and five of these patients were evaluated after testosterone treatment. Ten men with proven fertility were selected as a control group. An aliquot of seminal plasma from each individual was subjected to an in-solution digestion protocol and analyzed using an Ultimate 3000 RSLC-nano HPLC apparatus coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer. The label-free quantitative analysis was performed via Precursor Ions Area Detector Node. Eleven proteins were identified as decreased in hypogonadic patients versus controls, which are primarily included in hydrolase activity and protein binding activity. The comparison of the proteome before and after TRT comes about within the discovery of six increased proteins. This is the primary application of quantitative proteomics pointed to uncover a cluster of proteins reflecting an impairment not only of spermatogenesis but of the epididymal and prostate epithelial cell secretory function in male hypogonadism. The identified proteins might represent putative clinical markers valuable within the follow-up of patients with distinctive grades of male hypogonadism.

20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(1)2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877774

RESUMO

In order to effectively develop personalized medicine for kidney diseases we urgently need to develop highly accurate biomarkers for use in the clinic, since current biomarkers of kidney damage (changes in serum creatinine and/or urine albumin excretion) apply to a later stage of disease, lack accuracy, and are not connected with molecular pathophysiology. Analysis of urine peptide content (urinary peptidomics) has emerged as one of the most attractive areas in disease biomarker discovery. Urinary peptidome analysis allows the detection of short and long-term physiological or pathological changes occurring within the kidney. Urinary peptidomics has been applied extensively for several years now in renal patients, and may greatly improve kidney disease management by supporting earlier and more accurate detection, prognostic assessment, and prediction of response to treatment. It also promises better understanding of kidney disease pathophysiology, and has been proposed as a "liquid biopsy" to discriminate various types of renal disorders. Furthermore, proteins being the major drug targets, peptidome analysis may allow one to evaluate the effects of therapies at the protein signaling pathway level. We here review the most recent findings on urinary peptidomics in the setting of the most common kidney diseases.


Assuntos
Nefropatias/urina , Peptídeos/urina , Proteômica/métodos , Biomarcadores/química , Biomarcadores/urina , Humanos , Nefropatias/patologia , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Peptídeos/química , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Urinálise/métodos
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