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1.
Kidney Int ; 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930411

RESUMO

To demonstrate feasibility of acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) for acute kidney injury during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we performed a multicenter, retrospective, observational study of 94 patients who received acute PD in New York City in the spring of 2020. Patient comorbidities, severity of disease, laboratory values, kidney replacement therapy, and patient outcomes were recorded. The mean age was 61 ± 11 years; 34% were women; 94% had confirmed COVID-19; 32% required mechanical ventilation on admission. Compared to the levels prior to initiation of kidney replacement therapy, the mean serum potassium level decreased from 5.1 ± 0.9 to 4.5 ± 0.7 mEq/L on PD day 3 and 4.2 ± 0.6 mEq/L on day 7 (P < 0.001 for both); mean serum bicarbonate increased from 20 ± 4 to 21 ± 4 mEq/L on PD day 3 (P = 0.002) and 24 ± 4 mEq/L on day 7 (P < 0.001). After a median follow-up of 30 days, 46% of patients had died and 22% had undergone renal recovery. Male sex and mechanical ventilation on admission were significant predictors of mortality. The rapid implementation of an acute PD program was feasible despite resource constraints and can be lifesaving during crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(5): 1025-1028, 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769949

RESUMO

Two papers, one in 1986 and another one in 1988, reported a strong inverse correlation between urinary anion gap (UAG) and urine ammonia excretion (UNH4) in patients with metabolic acidosis and postulated that UAG could be used as an indirect measure of UNH4 This postulation has persisted until now and is widely accepted. In this review, we discuss factors regulating UAG and examine published evidence to uncover errors in the postulate and the design of the original studies. The essential fact is that, in the steady state, UAG reflects intake of Na, K, and Cl. Discrepancy between intake and urinary output of these electrolytes (i.e, UAG) indicates selective extrarenal loss of these electrolytes or nonsteady state. UNH4 excretion, which depends, in the absence of renal dysfunction, mainly on the daily acid load, has no consistent relationship to UAG either theoretically or in reality. Any correlation between UAG and UNH4, when observed, was a fortuitous correlation and cannot be extrapolated to other situations. Furthermore, the normal value of UAG has greatly increased over the past few decades, mainly due to increases in dietary intake of potassium and widespread use of sodium salts with anions other than chloride as food additives. The higher normal values of UAG must be taken into consideration in interpreting UAG.

4.
Thorax ; 76(3): 292-294, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443194

RESUMO

We examined 4388 children from the 2003 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and used survey-design-adjusted multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations between dietary advanced glycation end product (AGE) and meat consumption frequencies and respiratory symptoms. Higher AGE intake was significantly associated with increased odds of wheezing (adjusted OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.36), wheeze-disrupted sleep (1.26; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.51) and exercise (1.34; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.67) and wheezing requiring prescription medication (1.35; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.63). Higher intake of non-seafood meats was associated with wheeze-disrupted sleep (2.32; 95% CI 1.11 to 4.82) and wheezing requiring prescription medication (2.23; 95% CI 1.10 to 4.54).


Assuntos
Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Inquéritos Nutricionais/métodos , Sons Respiratórios/fisiologia , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Blood Purif ; : 1-5, 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503613

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: When choosing a modality for outpatient renal replacement therapy, patients and medical providers have 3 options to choose from in-center hemodialysis (HD), home HD (HHD), and peritoneal dialysis (PD). In 2017, just over 10% of incident ESKD patients were on a home dialysis modality. We set out to determine outcomes of dialysis modality education in both pre-dialysis and dialysis patients. Moreover, we examined barriers that preclude patients from choosing home dialysis. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective study looking at patients who were referred to the CKD educator for dialysis modality education between January 1, 2019, and March 31, 2020. Patient demographics, preferred language of communication, stage of renal disease, and reasons for patients' refusal to undertake a home dialysis modality were recorded. Patients' average household income and driving distance to our home dialysis unit were calculated using their home zip code. RESULTS: 167 patients were referred for CKD education. Mean age was 60 years, and 59% male, 42% African American, 22% White, 7% Asian, and 28% were Hispanic or Latino. Only 23% of the total cohort chose in-center HD, while 74% chose a home dialysis modality (59% PD and 15% HHD), and the remaining patients remained undecided. 56% of in-center HD patients chose a home dialysis modality. The most commonly cited barriers to home dialysis were lack of a care partner, lack of home space, and patient preference. LIMITATIONS: Over 90% of our patients reside in NY City where home space is limited. We require in our home HD program that patients have a trained care partner present during their treatments. We cannot assume that all CKD stage-4 patients or higher were either referred for CKD education or followed through on the referral. CONCLUSIONS: A large discrepancy between informed patients' choices and the reality of the current dialysis landscape. Absence of a care partner, lack of home space, and patients not deemed appropriate surgical candidates were the main driving forces in their not opting for a home modality.

6.
Kidney Med ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283182

RESUMO

Rationale & Objectives: Previously we reported a cohort of COVID19-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) patients with striking biochemical evidence of tissue breakdown in the absence of apparent rhabdomyolysis. Herein we sought to quantify the extent of tissue catabolism in similar patients. Study design: During acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) in COVID-AKI patients we measured urea Kt/V adequacy and calculated daily urea nitrogen generation rate while quantifying their daily protein intake. Setting and population: We did calculations in 8 COVID-AKI patients undergoing acute PD at the Mount Sinai Hospital in NYC. As a comparator we obtained urea kinetic parameters from our database of ambulatory patients on maintenance PD. Exposure or predictors: 8 COVID-AKI patients undergoing acute PD. Outcomes: Urea nitrogen generation rate in relation to daily protein intake. Analytical Approach: Urea nitrogen generation rate from urea kinetics was related to measured daily dietary protein intake in these patients and compared it to this relationship in ambulatory maintenance PD patients where both parameters were calculated from urea kinetics. Results: Urea nitrogen generation rate in AKI patients was 10.2 + 5g/day, which is >2 fold higher than stable outpatients on maintenance PD (4.7 + 3g/day), despite similar dietary protein intake (74.8 + 11g/day vs 67.2 + 29g/day, respectively). This strongly suggests endogenous protein breakdown, probably from muscle. Urea nitrogen generation rate in these AKI patients corresponds to 315g/day of ongoing muscle breakdown and cumulative 2.5kg muscle breakdown during the early course of AKI. Limitations: Small number of participants as well as assumptions in comparing Urea nitrogen generation rate with protein intake. Conclusions: In highly catabolic patients, an endogenous source of urea generation, such as muscle protein breakdown, seems to be the most likely explainable cause for our findings. This is the first study that we are aware of to quantify the degree of endogenous protein breakdown induced by COVID cytokine storm.

8.
Kidney Med ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200122

RESUMO

Reports of the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with COVID-19 have varied greatly from 0.5% to as high as 39%, with onset generally within 7 days from time of admission1. The nature of the kidney insult is acute tubular necrosis, immune cell infiltration or rhabdomyolysis as demonstrated in autopsy reports2 , 3. Moreover, infection with COVID-19 has been associated with coagulation abnormalities4, as well as complement-mediated generalized thrombotic microvascular injury5. These patients have been found to have high D-dimer, fibrin degradation product and fibrinogen values, an elevated INR, normal PTT and normal platelet counts. Renal artery thrombosis is a rare condition, the most common cause of which is atrial fibrillation. However, bilateral completely occlusive renal artery thrombosis is even rarer. We present a case of a patient with COVID-19 on systemic anticoagulation who presented with a serum creatinine of 6.04mg/dL requiring the initiation of kidney replacement therapy and was found to have bilateral renal artery thrombosis.

9.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076217

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High serum concentrations of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in older adults and diabetics are associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of long-term adherence to a dietary intervention designed to decrease intake and exposure to circulating AGEs among older adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Herein, 75 participants were randomized to either a standard of care (SOC) control arm or to an intervention arm receiving instruction on reducing dietary AGEs intake. The primary outcome was a change in serum AGEs at the end of the intervention. Secondary and exploratory outcomes included adherence to diet and its association with circulating AGEs. Cognitive function and brain imaging were also assessed but were out of the scope of this article (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02739971). RESULTS: The intervention resulted in a significant change over time in several serum AGEs compared to the SOC guidelines. Very high adherence (above 80%) to the AGE-lowering diet was associated with a greater reduction in serum AGEs levels. There were no significant differences between the two arms in any other metabolic markers. CONCLUSIONS: A long-term dietary intervention to reduce circulating AGEs is feasible in older adults with type 2 diabetes, especially in those who are highly adherent to the AGE-lowering diet.

10.
Hemodial Int ; 24(4): 495-505, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809268

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A previous study demonstrated that the surface area-normalized standard Kt/V (SAstdKt/V) was better associated with mortality than standard Kt/V (stdKt/V). This study investigates the association of SAstdKt/V and stdKt/V with mortality, anemia, and hypoalbuminemia in a larger patient cohort with a longer follow-up period. METHODS: We included adult patients on thrice-weekly hemodialysis in the USRDS database and excluded amputated patients. StdKt/V and SAstdKt/V were calculated from the available single-pool Kt/V. Patients were categorized into five groups according to their stdKt/V and SAstdKt/V: <2.00, 2.00-2.19, 2.20-2.39, 2.40-2.59, and ≥2.60. Hazard ratios (HR) and odds ratios (OR) were calculated using Cox and logistic regression analysis respectively. FINDINGS: There were 507,656 patients included in the analysis. The patients had a median age of 65.5 years with a median follow-up period of 2 years. Thirty-four percent died during follow-up. HRs for mortality progressively decreased as SAstdKt/V increased in both unadjusted and adjusted models. Unlike SAstdKt/V, HRs were the lowest in the categories with stdKt/V of 2.40-2.59 and they increased in the higher stdKt/V category. The adjusted HR for SAstdKt/V vs. stdKt/V were 0.68 vs. 0.62 in the category of 2.40-2.59, and 0.63 vs. 0.73 in the category of ≥2.60. The adjusted ORs for anemia progressively decreased as SAstdKt/V increased, whereas ORs decreased to the lowest in stdKt/V category 2.40-2.59 and increased in the ≥2.60 category. The adjusted ORs for hypoalbuminemia progressively decreased as SAstdKt/V and stdKt/V increased which were both 0.45 in 2.40-2.59 category and decreased to 0.29 and 0.42 in the ≥2.60 category. DISCUSSION: SAstdKt/V is better associated with mortality, anemia, and hypoalbuminemia than stdKt/V. SAstdKt/V is a better parameter in defining hemodialysis dosing which can be calculated by an available online tool. Further studies to determine the optimal SAstdKt/V dose required to achieve improved clinical outcomes with better cost-effectiveness are needed.

11.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771650

RESUMO

Phosphate binders are among the most common medications prescribed to patients with kidney failure receiving dialysis and are often used in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). In patients with CKD glomerular filtration rate category 3a (G3a) or worse, including those with kidney failure who are receiving dialysis, clinical practice guidelines suggest "lowering elevated phosphate levels towards the normal range" with possible strategies including dietary phosphate restriction or use of binders. Additionally, guidelines suggest restricting the use of oral elemental calcium often contained in phosphate binders. Nutrition guidelines in CKD suggest<800-1,000mg of calcium daily, whereas CKD bone and mineral disorder guidelines do not provide clear targets, but<1,500mg in maintenance dialysis patients has been previously recommended. Many different classes of phosphate binders are now available and clinical trials have not definitively demonstrated the superiority of any class of phosphate binders over another with regard to clinical outcomes. Use of phosphate binders contributes substantially to patients' pill burden and out-of-pocket costs, and many have side effects. This has led to uncertainty regarding the use and best choice of phosphate binders for patients with CKD or kidney failure. In this controversies perspective, we discuss the evidence base around binder use in CKD and kidney failure with a focus on comparisons of available binders.

14.
medRxiv ; 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511564

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Preliminary reports indicate that acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 patients and is associated with worse outcomes. AKI in hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the United States is not well-described. OBJECTIVE: To provide information about frequency, outcomes and recovery associated with AKI and dialysis in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: Observational, retrospective study. SETTING: Admitted to hospital between February 27 and April 15, 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged ≥18 years with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 Exposures: AKI (peak serum creatinine increase of 0.3 mg/dL or 50% above baseline). Main Outcomes and Measures: Frequency of AKI and dialysis requirement, AKI recovery, and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with mortality. We also trained and tested a machine learning model for predicting dialysis requirement with independent validation. RESULTS: A total of 3,235 hospitalized patients were diagnosed with COVID-19. AKI occurred in 1406 (46%) patients overall and 280 (20%) with AKI required renal replacement therapy. The incidence of AKI (admission plus new cases) in patients admitted to the intensive care unit was 68% (553 of 815). In the entire cohort, the proportion with stages 1, 2, and 3 AKI were 35%, 20%, 45%, respectively. In those needing intensive care, the respective proportions were 20%, 17%, 63%, and 34% received acute renal replacement therapy. Independent predictors of severe AKI were chronic kidney disease, systolic blood pressure, and potassium at baseline. In-hospital mortality in patients with AKI was 41% overall and 52% in intensive care. The aOR for mortality associated with AKI was 9.6 (95% CI 7.4-12.3) overall and 20.9 (95% CI 11.7-37.3) in patients receiving intensive care. 56% of patients with AKI who were discharged alive recovered kidney function back to baseline. The area under the curve (AUC) for the machine learned predictive model using baseline features for dialysis requirement was 0.79 in a validation test. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: AKI is common in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, associated with worse mortality, and the majority of patients that survive do not recover kidney function. A machine-learned model using admission features had good performance for dialysis prediction and could be used for resource allocation.

16.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 192, 2020 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kidney transplantation remains the optimal therapy for patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD), though a small fraction of patients on dialysis are on organ waitlists. An important barrier to both preemptive kidney transplantation and successful waitlisting is timely referral to a kidney transplant center. We implemented a quality improvement strategy to improve outpatient kidney transplant referrals in a single center academic outpatient nephrology clinic. METHODS: Over a 3 month period (July 1-September 30, 2016), we assessed the baseline kidney transplantation referral rate at our outpatient nephrology clinic for patients 18-75 years old with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of less than 20 mL/min/1.73m2 (2 values over 90 days apart). Charts were manually reviewed by two reviewers to look for kidney transplant referrals and documentation of discussions about kidney transplantation. We then performed a root cause analysis to explore potential barriers to kidney transplantation. Our intervention began on July 1, 2017 and included the implementation of a column in the electronic medical record (EMR) which displayed the patient's last eGFR as part of the clinic schedule. In addition, physicians were given a document listing their patients to be seen that day with an eGFR of < 20 mL/min/1.73m2. Annual education sessions were also held to discuss the importance of timely kidney transplant referral. RESULTS: At baseline, 54 unique patients with eGFR ≤20 ml/min/1.73 m2 were identified who were seen in the Clinic between July 1, 2016 and September 30, 2016. 29.6% (16) eligible patients were referred for kidney transplantation evaluation. 69.5% (37) of these patients were not referred for kidney transplant evaluation. 46.3% (25) did not have documentation regarding kidney transplant in the EMR. nephrologist's most recent note. Following the intervention, 66 unique patients met criteria for eligibility for kidney transplant evaluation. Kidney transplant referrals increased to 60.6% (p <  0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our pilot implementation study of a strategy to improve outpatient kidney transplant referrals showed that a free, simple, scalable intervention can significantly improve kidney transplant referrals in the outpatient setting. This intervention targeted the nephrologist's role in the transplant referral, and facilitated the process of patient recognition and performing the referral itself without significantly interrupting the workflow. Next steps include further investigation to study the impact of early referral to kidney transplant centers on preemptive and living donor kidney transplantation as well as successful waitlisting.

17.
Nutr Res Rev ; : 1-16, 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450931

RESUMO

The present review aims to give dietary recommendations to reduce the occurrence of the Maillard reaction in foods and in vivo to reduce the body's advanced glycation/lipoxidation end products (AGE/ALE) pool. A healthy diet, food reformulation and good culinary practices may be feasible for achieving the goal. A varied diet rich in fresh vegetables and fruits, non-added sugar beverages containing inhibitors of the Maillard reaction, and foods prepared by steaming and poaching as culinary techniques is recommended. Intake of supplements and novel foods with low sugars, low fats, enriched in bioactive compounds from food and waste able to modulate carbohydrate metabolism and reduce body's AGE/ALE pool is also recommended. In conclusion, the recommendations made for healthy eating by the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition (SENC) and Harvard University seem to be adequate to reduce dietary AGE/ALE, the body's AGE/ALE pool and to achieve sustainable nutrition and health.

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