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1.
Health Psychol Res ; 10(4): 38956, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36452903

RESUMO

Background: Depression is a common disorder that affects millions globally and is linked to reduced quality of life and mortality. Its pathophysiology is complex and there are several forms of treatment proposed in the literature with differing side effect profiles. Many patients do not respond to treatment which warrants augmentation with other treatments and the investigation of novel treatments. One of these treatments includes testosterone therapy which evidence suggests might improve depressed mood in older patients with low levels of testosterone and helps restore physical impairments caused by age-related hormonal changes. Objective: The objective of this review is to synthesize information regarding clinical depression, its treatment options, and the efficacy and safety of testosterone treatment for the treatment of depression. Methods: This review utilized comprehensive secondary and tertiary data analysis across many academic databases and published work pertaining to the topic of interest. Results: Within some subpopulations such as men with dysthymic disorder, treatment resistant depression, or low testosterone levels, testosterone administration yielded positive results in the treatment of depression. Additionally, rodent models have shown that administering testosterone to gonadectomized male animals reduces symptoms of depression. Conversely, some studies have found no difference in depressive symptoms after treatment with testosterone when compared with placebo. It was also noted that over administration of testosterone is associated with multiple adverse effects and complications. Conclusion: The current evidence provides mixed conclusions on the effectiveness of testosterone therapy for treating depression. More research is needed in adult men to see if declining testosterone levels directly influence the development of depression.

2.
Health Psychol Res ; 10(4): 38759, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36425228

RESUMO

Dhat syndrome is a culture-bound psychiatric syndrome most commonly found in the Indian subcontinent. It has been characterized as the experiential fear of losing semen through ejaculation, nocturnal emission, or other means. While Dhat syndrome is common in the Indian subcontinent, given the lack of representativeness, generalizability, and closer connection to Ayurvedic system, there have been limited studies or recognition of symptoms among healthcare providers around the world. In this review, we describe Dhat syndrome, its epidemiology, risk factors, comorbidities, diagnosis, treatment, and its management. For patients with Dhat syndrome, it becomes important to appreciate how generalized depression and anxiety may persist alongside the disorder and those symptoms can be common and non-specific. Related to its strong cultural connection with South Asia such as the belief on Dhat's role in health and vitality influence, it also becomes important to recognize that the syndrome can be found in other populations and the importance of cultural humility and nonconfrontational approach for patient care. In summary, this review provides an informative understanding of Dhat syndrome for non-Indian clinicians who may not be prepared for a patient encounter with vague somatic symptoms in the context of semen loss. Treatment for Dhat syndrome is the same as treatments for major depressive disorder.

3.
Health Psychol Res ; 10(4): 38954, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36425232

RESUMO

The intention of utilizing chaperones during sensitive physical exams is to show respect to the patient, while simultaneously providing protection to both the patient and the medical provider. Despite clinical practice recommendations to offer chaperones for sensitive urologic exams, there is no data regarding the consistency of chaperone utilization. Our aim was to summarize the patient and provider perspectives on the role of chaperones in urology as well as identify barriers to implement chaperone consistency. In the present investigation, we conducted a systematic review of prospective, case-control, and retrospective studies and followed the PRISMA 2020 guidelines for data reporting. Studies were identified from PubMed, MEDLINE, and PMC using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms "chaperones, patient", "chaperones, medical", and keywords "chaperones", and "urology". Studies were included if they addressed patient/provider perspectives on chaperone utilization in urology specifically and were excluded if they investigated perspectives on chaperone utilization in other specialties. Preliminary study identification yielded 702 studies, 9 of which were eligible for this review after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of these, 4 studies focused on the patient perspective and 5 focused on the provider perspective. The percentage of patients that did not have a chaperone present during their urologic exam ranged from 52.9-88.5%. A greater proportion of these patients were male. Patients (59%) prefer a family member compared to a staff member as a chaperone. Physicians (60%) prefer staff member chaperones compared to family members. One study reported that 25.6% of patients did not feel comfortable to ask for a chaperone if they were not offered one. Two studies reported the percentage of patients who believed chaperones should be offered to all urology patients, ranging from 73-88.4%. Three studies reported the use of chaperones in the clinic which ranged from 5-72.5%. Two studies reported chaperone utilization documentation, ranging between 16-21.3%. Two studies reported the likelihood of chaperone utilization depending on gender of the physician, showing that male physicians were more likely to utilize chaperones and were 3x more likely to offer chaperones to their patients compared to female physicians. Research suggests that there are differing perspectives between patients and physicians regarding the specific role and benefits chaperones offer during a sensitive urologic examination, as well as differences in preferences of who should perform the role of the chaperone. While more work needs to be done to bridge the divide between clinical practice and patient/physician preferences, the act of offering chaperones to urologic patients, regardless if they want to utilize a chaperone for their examination is respectful of patient privacy and decision making.

4.
Health Psychol Res ; 10(4): 40321, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36425233

RESUMO

This review aims to assess the relationship between interstitial cystitis (IC) and significant traumatic events or PTSD. It was shown that there is a strong correlation between past trauma and the development of interstitial cystitis, as well as a much higher incidence of PTSD in patients diagnosed with IC. It was also established that for individuals with early traumatic experiences, the more likely the development of IC later in life, and with more severe symptoms and adverse effects on quality of life. We describe three distinct hypotheses for the possible physiologic mechanism for development of IC with relation to mental health and trauma, although definitive evidence in this area is still lacking, which poses interesting avenues for further research. This review also revealed an apparent lack of, and need for, trauma informed care and screening for PTSD in patients diagnosed with IC or other chronic pain syndromes.

5.
Health Psychol Res ; 10(4): 39654, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36425236

RESUMO

Disparities in prostate cancer (PCa) exist at all stages: screening, diagnosis, treatment, outcomes, and mortality. Although there are a multitude of complex biological (e.g., genetics, age at diagnosis, PSA levels, Gleason score) and nonbiological (e.g., socioeconomic status, education level, health literacy) factors that contribute to PCa disparities, nonbiological factors may play a more significant role. One understudied aspect influencing PCa patients is mental health related to the quality of life. Overall, PCa patients report poorer mental health than non-PCa patients and have a higher incidence of depression and anxiety. Racial disparities in mental health, specifically in PCa patients, and how poor mental health impacts overall PCa outcomes require further study.

6.
Orthop Rev (Pavia) ; 14(4): 39648, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36381501

RESUMO

Objective: Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) is a vital treatment for chronic intractable pain. In the last few years, the field has undergone dramatic changes in new waveform and frequency introduction as well as device miniaturization. It is important to understand contemporary practice patterns regarding these parameters. Methods: We surveyed the active membership of Spine Intervention Society (SIS), and American Society of Regional Anesthesia (ASRA) on their practices regarding various aspects of Spinal Cord Stimulation therapy. Here we report on SCS waveform usage, battery types, and causes of explant in this cohort of providers. Results: There was similar degree of usage of tonic, burst, and 10 kHz usage at 71.5%, 74.1% and 61.7% respectively. Dorsal root ganglion stimulation was used by 32.6% and other modes of stimulation by 13.5%. Rechargeable systems were often or always used by 67.2% whereas 10% never used a rechargeable system. Most common cause of explant was loss of effectiveness, reported by 53.7%. Conclusion: There has been significant adoption of new waveforms in daily practice of spinal cord stimulation therapy and there is robust mixed usage of new waveforms and frequencies. Rechargeable systems are the most commonly used but primary cell is also used in significant numbers. Loss of efficacy remains the most common cause of explant for the majority of practitioners. This survey establishes practice patterns of SCS usage regarding these important variables against which future changes can be gauged.

7.
Orthop Rev (Pavia) ; 14(3): 31915, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415486

RESUMO

Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain is responsible for approximately a third of reported back pain. Patients with SIJ pain report some of the lowest quality of life scores of any chronic disease. Understanding of the physiology and pathology of the SI joint has changed dramatically over the years, and SI joint pain and injury can now be thought of in two broad categories: traumatic and atraumatic. Both categories of SI joint injury are thought to be caused by inflammation or injury of the joint capsule, ligaments, or subchondral bone in the SI joint. Treatment of SI joint pain usually involves a multi-pronged approach, utilizing both, multi-modal medical pain control and interventional pain/surgical techniques such as steroid injections, radiofrequency nerve ablation, and minimally invasive sacroiliac arthrodesis. Though conservative management through multi-modal pain control and physical therapy have their role as first line therapies, an increasing body of evidence supports the use of minimally invasive procedures, both as adjuvant treatments to conservative management and as second line therapies for patient's that fail first line treatment.

8.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 2574-2580, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370066

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The potentially different effects of commonly used anaesthetic agents propofol and sevoflurane on T-cell immune function and Th cell differentiation were investigated in patients with severe mycoplasmal pneumonia (SMPP) undergoing fibreoptic bronchoscopy. METHODS: Sixty children (2-12 years of age) with SMPP were randomized into the sevoflurane group and the propofol group. Patients in the sevoflurane group were anaesthetised with inhalational sevoflurane and intravenous remifentanil. Patients in the propofol group were anaesthetised with intravenous propofol and remifentanil. Patients in both groups underwent fibreoptic bronchoscopy and lavage therapy. We compared the clinical outcomes, cellular immunity function, and Th cell differentiation into Th1 and Th2 levels in both groups. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in clinical outcomes and hospital stay between the two groups (7.94 vs 7.36, p > .05). However, the CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, and CD4+/CD8+ in the propofol group were significantly higher than those in the sevoflurane group (T1 51.96 vs 48.33, T2 58.08 vs 55.31, p < .05). The ratio of Th1/Th2 in the two groups was significantly increased postoperatively in both groups (Sevoflurane 8.53 vs 7.23, Propofol 9.35 vs 7.18), and the propofol group was significantly higher than the sevoflurane group (9.35 vs 8.53, p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Propofol might have a less inhibitory effect on T lymphocytes in children with SMPP than sevoflurane. And propofol may have less impact on the differentiation of Th cells into Th1 cells and better preserving the Th1/Th2 ratio than sevoflurane. KEY MESSAGESThe pathogenesis of SMPP is still unclear, likely through alveolar infiltration with neutrophils and lymphocytes, lymphocyte/plasma cell infiltrates in the peri-bronchovascular area, and immune dysfunction.Recent experimental and clinical studies showed that sevoflurane might have immunosuppressive effects, and multiple studies confirmed that the immune function of children with SMPP had been reduced.This study found that propofol administered in children with SMPP had a less inhibitory effect on T lymphocytes than inhalational sevoflurane, had little inhibitory effect on the differentiation of Th cells into Th1 cells, and better preserve Th1/Th2 ratio and maintain the balanced immune function.


Assuntos
Éteres Metílicos , Propofol , Criança , Humanos , Sevoflurano , Propofol/farmacologia , Remifentanil , Broncoscopia , Éteres Metílicos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T , Diferenciação Celular , Imunidade
9.
Orthop Rev (Pavia) ; 14(4): 38676, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36267543

RESUMO

The knee is the most common joint in adults associated with morbidity. Many pathologies are associated with knee damage, such as gout or rheumathoid arthritis, but the primary condition is osteoarthritis (OA). Not only can osteoarthritis cause significant pain, but it also can result in signficant disability as well. Treatment for this condition varies, starting off with oral analgesics and physical therapy to surgical total knee replacmenet. In the gamut of this various treatments, a conservative approach has included intra articular steroid injections. With time, researchers and clinicians determined that other components injected to the knee may additionally provide relief of this condition. In this investigation, we describe different types of knee injections such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP), hyaluronic acid, stem cells, and prolotherapy. Additionally, we describe the role of geniculate knee injections, radiofrequency, and periopheral nerve stimulation. These treatments should be considered for patients with knee pain refractory to conservative therapies.

10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 156: 113871, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272265

RESUMO

Patients diagnosed with cancer often experience pain during their treatment course, making it difficult to care for themselves and continue with their activities of daily living. When cancer is found at later stages, the pain can become severe and constant; reducing their quality of life and significantly affecting mental and physical well-being. Despite opioids being known to provide adequate analgesia for higher pain levels, they are often the reason for under-dosing because of their adverse effects and concern for addiction. There are also patients who do not respond well to opioids because of genetic anomalies or personal preference. Therefore, there is a need for novel non-opioid cancer pain treatments. There are many new cancer pain treatments that are emerging. This manuscript discusses cancer pain, risk factors, epidemiology, guidelines for the treatment of cancer pain, personalization of cancer pain therapy, breakthrough pain, cancer-induced peripheral neuropathy, established cancer pain treatment options, and novel emerging cancer pain treatment options.


Assuntos
Dor do Câncer , Neoplasias , Humanos , Dor do Câncer/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Atividades Cotidianas , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente
11.
Oncol Ther ; 10(2): 363-375, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36282467

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite the growing evidence for the anticancer effect of metformin or its combination with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), the efficacies and side effects of such strategies in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are not well understood. This meta-analysis was performed to determine the efficacy and side effects of metformin combined with EGFR-TKIs (MET-EGFR-TKIs) for the treatment of NSCLC with or without T2DM. METHODS: PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were used to retrieve relevant studies through August 2020 using the keywords "metformin", "EGFR-TKIs" ("gefitinib" or "erlotinib" or "afatinib" or "icotinib" or "dacomitinib") and "lung cancer". The patients in the experimental group received MET-EGFR-TKIs, while those in the control group received only EGFR-TKIs. The outcome analysis reported overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and disease control rate (DCR). Random-effect models and fixed-effect models were used to estimate the combined hazard ratio (HR) and odds ratio (OR) depending on the data heterogeneity. Three studies (including 1996 patients) were included in the current meta-analysis. RESULTS: There were significant differences in PFS (HR 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75-0.95; P = 0.004) and OS (HR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.50-1.04; P < 0.001) between the MET-EGFR-TKI and EGFR-TKI groups. Although the ORR (OR 1.38; 95% CI 0.66-2.88; P = 0.105) and DCR (OR 2.61, 95% CI 0.68-9.95, P = 0.160) were improved, there was no statistical significance. OS subgroup analysis showed that the combination was more effective in NSCLC with T2DM than in NSCLC without T2DM (HR 0.84; 95% CI 0.74-0.95; P < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: MET-EGFR-TKIs provided benefits for PFS and OS, and OS subgroup analysis showed that patients with NSCLC with T2DM received greater benefit than NSCLC patients without T2DM. However, further large-scale, well-designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are warranted to confirm the findings in the present investigation.

12.
Orthop Rev (Pavia) ; 14(3): 37496, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045694

RESUMO

Morbidity and mortality related to opioid use has generated a public health crisis in the United States. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is an increasingly common procedure and is often accompanied by post-operative opioid utilization. Unfortunately, post-operative opioid usage after TKA has been shown to lead to higher rates of complications, longer hospital stays, increased costs, and more frequent need for revision surgery. Pre-operative opioid utilization has been shown to be one of the most important predictors of post-operative opioid usage. Additional risk factors for continued post-operative opioid utilization after TKA include pre-operative substance and tobacco use as well as higher post-operative prescription dosages, younger age, female gender, and Medicaid insurance. One method for mitigating excessive post-operative opioid utilization are Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols, which include a multidisciplinary approach that focuses on perioperative factors to optimize patient recovery and function after surgery. Additional strategies include multimodal pain regimens with epidural anesthetics, extended duration local anesthetics and adjuvants, and ultrasound guided peripheral nerve blocks. In recent years, opioid prescribing duration limitations have also been put into place by state and federal government, hospital systems, and ambulatory surgery centers making effective acute pain management imperative for all stakeholders. In this regard, as rates of TKA continue to increase across the United States, multidisciplinary efforts by all stakeholders are needed to ensure adequate pain control while preventing the negative sequalae of opioid medications.

13.
Health Psychol Res ; 10(3): 38012, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071858

RESUMO

COVID-19 caused a drastic change in clinical medicine around the globe. In the United States, telemedicine was rapidly adopted on a wide scale to minimize direct patient interaction and to reduce the spread of the COVID-19 virus. Telemedicine also went hand in hand with the rapid movement of working remotely. This has provided several challenges to chronic pain management clinics along with other subspecialties. Telemedicine has also opened opportunities for providing valuable care for patients with significant barriers to healthcare professionals. Given the benefits and downfalls of telemedicine, it is ultimately up to the provider who has an established patient-physician relationship and best understands the patient's limitations and healthcare needs who can best determine which patient population telemedicine is appropriate for and how frequently it can be utilized for each individual patient.

14.
Orthop Rev (Pavia) ; 14(3): 37539, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36072502

RESUMO

Introduction: Posterior tarsal tunnel syndrome involves entrapment of the posterior tibial nerve as it travels in the groove posterior to the medial malleolus. Conventional wisdom dictates that patients with tarsal tunnel syndrome be treated with conservative treatment and medical management, with surgical options available for patients with refractory symptoms and good candidacy. Minimally invasive options for neuropathic entrapment syndromes have developed in recent years and may provide a therapeutic role in tarsal tunnel syndrome. Objective: The present investigation provides a summary of the current state of knowledge on tarsal tunnel syndrome and a comparison between minimally invasive and surgical treatment options. Methods: The literature search was performed in Mendeley. Search fields were varied until redundant. All articles were screened by title and abstract and a preliminary decision to include an article was made. A full-text screening was performed on the selected articles. Any question regarding the inclusion of an article was discussed by 3 authors until an agreement was reached. Results: Most commonly tarsal tunnel syndrome is idiopathic. Other reported causes include post-traumatic, lipomas, cysts, ganglia, schwannomas, ganglia, varicose plantar veins, anatomic anomalies, and systematic inflammatory conditions. Several risk factors have been described including female gender, athletic participation, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, systemic sclerosis, chronic renal failure, and hemodialysis use. A few recent studies demonstrate anatomic variants that have not previously been summarized. Three articles describe clinical outcomes after conservative treatment with acceptable results for first line treatment. Two primary articles report on the use of minimally invasive treatment for tarsal tunnel syndrome. Fourteen articles report on the clinical outcomes after surgical management. Conclusion: Clinical understanding of tarsal tunnel syndrome has evolved significantly, particularly with regards to the pathoanatomy of the tarsal canal over the past twelve years. A few novel anatomic studies shed light on variants that can be helpful in diagnosis. Conservative management remains a good option that can resolve the symptoms of many patients. As more prospective cohorts and clinical trials are performed on minimally invasive options, pulsed radiofrequency and neuromodulation may evolve to play a larger role in the treatment of this condition. Currently, surgical treatment is only pursued in a very select group of patients with refractory symptoms that do not respond to medical or minimally invasive options. Surgical outcomes in the literature are good and current evidence is stronger than that for minimally invasive options.

15.
Orthop Rev (Pavia) ; 14(3): 38321, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36168395

RESUMO

Background: Chronic pain is a multifactorial condition that is afflicting populations worldwide causing an increasing economic, physical, mental, and emotional burden. Treatments range from medications to interventional procedures to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as acupuncture. This review aims to discuss the use of acupuncture in the treatment of chronic pain, proposed mechanisms, indications, and efficacy for various chronic pain conditions. Results: Evidence is varied on the efficacy and quality of data on the use of acupuncture in the treatment of chronic pain. Recent studies have demonstrated promising results in the support of acupuncture for the use in the treatment of cancer, neck, and back pain, functional dyspepsia, and various chronic abdominal pain syndromes. Conclusion: Acupuncture, deemed well-tolerated and safe to use, has been increasingly studied and is regarded as effective in clinical practice, but its efficacy is limited by the lack of well-conducted, high-quality clinical trials, lower quality evidence, and conflicting study results. Additionally, the exact analgesic mechanism of acupuncture remains to be fully elucidated. Increasing evidence supports the role of acupuncture as therapy in the treatment of cancer, neck, and back pain and functional dyspepsia. Further rigorous studies are needed to fully assess the use of acupuncture in various chronic pain conditions, determine its indications, and optimal treatment schedule. Overall, future studies could benefit from better designed experimental studies, larger groups, and more objectives ways to measure pain reduction and symptom improvement.

16.
Health Psychol Res ; 10(3): 38358, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36168640

RESUMO

Gender dysphoria is defined by severe or persistent distress associated with an incongruence between one's gender identity and biological sex. It is estimated that 1.4 million Americans and 25 million people worldwide identify as transgender and that 0.6% of Americans experience gender dysphoria. The pathophysiology of gender dysphoria is multifactorial and incompletely understood. Genetics, androgen exposure, neuroanatomy, brain connectivity, history of trauma, parents with psychological disorders, and being raised by less than two parents are associated with gender dysphoria. Gender dysphoria most frequently presents in early teenage years but can present earlier or later. Anxiety and depression are the two most common comorbid diagnoses and may be the reason for presentation to medical care. Diagnosis is established through history and or validated questionnaires. Treatment includes psychosocial therapy, pharmacotherapy for underlying depression and/or anxiety, hormonal therapy, non-genital and/or genital feminization or masculinization operations. The frequency and severity of treatment related morbidity increases progressively as treatments go from conservative to more invasive. Gender dysphoria and its treatment is individualized and not completely understood.

17.
Health Psychol Res ; 10(3): 38352, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36168643

RESUMO

This article is a literature review of mental health concerns in non-oncologic urology patients. Pathologies represented in this review include Peyronie's Disease (PD), erectile dysfunction (ED), urinary incontinence and urinary tract infections (UTI), infertility, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), kidney stones, and urinary retention. While there has been great interventional focus as of late for urogenitary malignancies (i.e. prostate cancer awareness with the Movember campaign), literature studies and intervention focused on non-oncologic urology patients has been limited. As such, we conducted a review on urology patients with non-oncologic pathologies as an effort to increase clinician awareness of mental health concerns among such patients, increase the comfort level for clinician communication on socially sensitive topics surrounding pathologies, and review ongoing interventions conducted within these pathologies. We outlined different ongoing Mental Health Illness (MHI) needs and treatments for various pathologies. Patients with non-cancerous urologic pathologies had lower quality of life and higher incidence of MHI than the general population. As such, in line with the American Urological Association recommendations, psychological and social support from peers, therapists, and healthcare providers further prove to be crucial for some subpopulations. The review also yielded pathology specific interventions such as group therapy for ED patients. Given the higher incidence of MHI in the patient population after the Covid-19 pandemic, MHI awareness in the sphere of non-oncologic urology treatment continues to be crucial when creating a collaborative treatment platform for patients.

18.
Health Psychol Res ; 10(3): 38360, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36168642

RESUMO

Purpose of Review: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorder giving rise to symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattentiveness that can impair daily functioning. Stimulants, such as methylphenidate and amphetamines, are the mainstay of treatment for ADHD. However, nonstimulant drugs such as viloxazine, atomoxetine, guanfacine, and clonidine are becoming more popular due to minimal adverse effects when compared to stimulants. Recent Findings: Viloxazine is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) originally used to treat depression in adults with activity in both the noradrenergic as well as serotonergic pathways. Studies have demonstrated its efficacy for its use in the treatment of ADHD. Unlike stimulants, viloxazine has a decreased chance of substance abuse, drug dependance, and withdrawal symptoms upon the cessation of therapy. Additionally, dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens after treatment with viloxazine are elevated considerably less in comparison with traditional stimulant ADHD treatments. Viloxazine provides an alternative, nonstimulant approach to treating ADHD. Summary: Viloxazine is a recently approved, non-stimulant medication functions by inhibiting the uptake of norepinephrine which has been seen to be decreased in patients with ADHD. When patients do not respond to first-line stimulants, cannot tolerate the side effects, or have contraindications to stimulants, viloxazine may be a nonstimulant option offering patients an increasing arsenal of medications to treat ADHD.

19.
Anesth Pain Med ; 12(2): e127179, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36158140

RESUMO

Background: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is an important modality for intractable pain not amenable to less conservative measures. During percutaneous SCS lead insertion, a critical step is safe access to the epidural space, which can be complicated by a dural puncture. Objectives: In this review, we present and analyze the practices patterns in the event of a dural puncture during a SCS trial or implantation. Methods: We conducted a survey of the practice patterns regarding spinal cord stimulation therapy. The survey was administered to members of the Spine Intervention Society and American Society of Regional Anesthesia specifically inquiring decision making in case of inadvertent dural puncture during spinal cord stimulator lead insertion. Results: A maximum of 193 responded to a question regarding dural punctures while performing a SCS trial and 180 responded to a question regarding dural punctures while performing a SCS implantation. If performing a SCS trial and a dural puncture occurs, a majority of physicians chose to continue the procedure at a different level (56.99%), followed by abandoning the procedure (27.98%), continuing at the same level (10.36%), or choosing another option (4.66%). Similarly, if performing a permanent implantation and a dural puncture occurs, most physicians chose to continue the procedure at a different level (61.67%), followed by abandoning the procedure (21.67%), continuing at the same level (10.56%), or choosing another option (6.11%). Conclusions: Whereas the goals of the procedure would support abandoning the trial but continuing with the permanent in case of inadvertent dural puncture, we found that decision choices were minimally influenced by whether the dural puncture occurred during the trial or the permanent implant. The majority chose to continue with the procedure at a different level while close to a quarter chose to abandon the procedure. This article sets a time stamp in practice patterns from March 20, 2020 to June 26, 2020. These results are based on contemporary SCS practices as demonstrated by this cohort, rendering the options of abandoning or continuing after dural puncture as reasonable methods. Though more data is needed to provide a consensus, providers can now see how others manage dural punctures during SCS procedures.

20.
Health Psychol Res ; 10(3): 38241, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36118980

RESUMO

Background: Vasectomy is a procedure that results in permanent yet reversible sterility and remains a great contraceptive option for many. Previous research studies have highlighted frequency of vasectomy utilization, defining characteristics of individuals who opt for this method, various surgical techniques, and the risks and benefits associated with the procedure. What remains to be defined is why or why not individuals may experience post-vasectomy regret and whether the previous characteristics correlate. Objective: The objective of this review is to synthesize information regarding reasons individuals may regret their vasectomy and seek reversal, what options exist for accomplishing the reversal, and patients' fertility prognosis post-vasovasostomy. Methods: This review utilized a combination of secondary and tertiary data analysis across a wide scope of academic databases pertaining to the topic of interest. Results: Typically, most males who have sought a vasectomy are satisfied with their decision, however, approximately 6% of this population seeks reversal. Key factors influencing vasectomy regret include age at the time of vasectomy, parental status, pre- and post-operative relationship status, unresolved physical and psychosexual problems, and development of chronic scrotal pain following the procedure. Few options exist for vasectomy reversal including microsurgical reconstructive vasectomy reversal (VR) and sperm extraction for in vitro fertilization. There is no guarantee that fertility will be restored in any case but a major predictive factor for success is the time interval prior to reversal. Conclusion: Vasectomy is intended to be a permanent form of contraception; however, a minor chance remains that individuals may experience post-operative regret due to various factors. This warrants proper comprehensive counseling by the patient's provider regarding benefits and risks, procedural outcomes, opportunities for reversal, and fertility prognosis.

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