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2.
Pain Ther ; 2020 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222952

RESUMO

Migraine headache is a common, chronic, debilitating disease with a complex etiology. Current therapy for migraine headache comprises either treatments targeting acute migraine pain or prophylactic therapy aimed at increasing the length of time between migraine episodes. Recent evidence suggests that calcium gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a critical component in the pathogenesis of migraines. Fremanezumab, a monoclonal antibody against CGRP, was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) after multiple studies showed that it was well-tolerated, safe, and effective in the treatment of migraines. Further research is needed to elucidate the long-term effects of fremanezumab and CGRP-antagonists in general, and additional data is required in less healthy patients to estimate its effects in these populations and potentially increase the eligible group of recipients. This is a comprehensive review of the current literature on the efficacy and safety of fremanezumab for the treatment of chronic migraine. In this review we provide an update on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and current treatment of migraine, and summarize the evidence for fremanezumab as a treatment for migraine.

3.
Adv Ther ; 37(4): 1328-1346, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130662

RESUMO

The human gut microbiome partakes in a bidirectional communication pathway with the central nervous system (CNS), named the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The microbiota-gut-brain axis is believed to modulate various central processes through the vagus nerve as well as production of microbial metabolites and immune mediators which trigger changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, and behavior. Little is understood about the utilization of microbiome manipulation to treat disease. Though studies exploring the role of the microbiome in various disease processes have shown promise, mechanisms remain unclear and evidence-based treatments for most illnesses have not yet been developed. The animal studies reviewed here offer an excellent array of basic science research that continues to clarify mechanisms by which the microbiome may affect mental health. More evidence is needed, particularly as it relates to translating this work to human subjects. The studies presented in this paper largely demonstrate encouraging results in the treatment of depression. Limitations include small sample sizes and heterogeneous methodology. The exact mechanism by which the gut microbiota causes or alters neuropsychiatric disease states is not fully understood. In this review, we focus on recent studies investigating the relationship between gut microbiome dysbiosis and the pathogenesis of depression. This article is based on previously conducted studies and does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

6.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 24(5): 16, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198571

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This comprehensive review of current concepts in the management of vertebral compression fractures is a manuscript of vertebral augmentation literature of risk factors, clinical presentation, and management. The objective of this review is to compare outcomes between multiple augmentation techniques and ongoing discussions of effectiveness of vertebral augmentation procedures. RECENT FINDINGS: Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) are a prevalent disease affecting approximately 1.5 million US adults annually. VCFs can cause severe physical limitations, including back pain, functional disability, and progressive kyphosis of the thoracic spine that ultimately results in decreased appetite, poor nutrition, impaired pulmonary function, and spinal cord compression with motor and sensory deficits. The deconditioning that affects patients with vertebral compression fractures leads to mortality at a far higher rate than age-matched controls. The management of vertebral compression fractures has been extensively discussed with opponents arguing in favor or restricting conservative management and against augmentation, while proponents argue in favor of augmentation. The literature is well established in reference to the effects on mortality when patients undergo treatment with vertebral augmentation; in over a million patients with vertebral compression fractures treated with vertebral augmentation as compared with patients treated with non-surgical management, the patients receiving augmentation performed well with a decrease in morbidity and mortality. Summary of the literature review shows that understanding the risk factors, appropriate clinical evaluation, and management strategies are crucial. Analysis of the evidence shows, based on level I and II studies, balloon kyphoplasty had significantly better and vertebroplasty tended to have better pain reduction compared with non-surgical management. In addition, balloon kyphoplasty tended to have better height restoration than vertebroplasty.

7.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 24(5): 19, 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200435

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Migraine headaches are a neurologic disorder characterized by attacks of moderate to severe throbbing headache that are typically unilateral, exacerbated by physical activity, and associated with phonophobia, photophobia, nausea, and vomiting. In the USA, the overall age-adjusted prevalence of migraine in female and male adults is 22.3% and 10.8%, respectively. RECENT FINDINGS: Migraine is a disabling disease that ranks as the 8th most burdensome disease in the world and the 4th most in women. The overarching hypothesis of migraine pathophysiology describes migraine as a disorder of the pain modulating system, caused by disruptions of the normal neural networks of the head. The activation of these vascular networks results in meningeal vasodilation and inflammation, which is perceived as head pain. The primary goals of acute migraine therapy are to reduce attack duration and severity. Current evidence-based therapies for acute migraine attacks include acetaminophen, four nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), seven triptans, NSAID-triptan combinations, dihydroergotamine, non-opioid combination analgesics, and several anti-emetics. Over-the-counter medications are an important component of migraine therapy and are considered a first-line therapy for most migraineurs. These medications, such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen, naproxen, and aspirin, have shown strong efficacy when used as first-line treatments for mild-to-moderate migraine attacks. The lower cost of over-the-counter medications compared with prescription medications also makes them a preferred therapy for some patients. In addition to their efficacy and lower cost, over-the-counter medications generally have fewer and less severe adverse effects, have more favorable routes of administration (oral vs. subcutaneous injection), and reduced abuse potential. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive evidence-based update of over-the-counter pharmacologic options for chronic migraines.

8.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 24(5): 17, 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200490

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hematological disorder which leads to serious complications in multiple organ systems. While significant research has addressed many of the effects of acute pain episodes and end-organ damage connected to this disease, little has approached the chronic pain state associated with this condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Associated chronic pain represents a significant detractor from the quality of life experienced by these patients, affecting over half of those with SCD on more days than not. Current treatment typically is centered upon preventing and responding to acute vasoocclusive crises, presumably because this is the most common reason for hospitalization in these patients. The lack of management of chronic pain symptoms leaves many with SCD in a state of suffering. In this review, the treatment methodologies of SCD patients are examined including alternative treatments, both pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical, as well as procedural approaches specifically aimed at reducing chronic pain in these patients.

10.
Pain Ther ; 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100225

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This compilation presents a comprehensive review of the literature on common chronic pain conditions of the hand. It briefly presents these common conditions with their biological background, diagnosis, and common management options. It then presents and compares the latest literature available for injection techniques to treat these diagnoses and compares the available evidence. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was performed in MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cochrane databases from 1996 to 2019 using the terms "hand pain", "injection techniques", "steroid injection", "chronic pain", "osteoarthritis", "rheumatoid arthritis", "carpal tunnel syndrome", "De Quervain's tenosynovitis", "ganglion cyst", "gout", "Raynaud's", and "stenosing tenosynovitis". RESULTS: Hand pain is a common condition with 9.7% prevalence in men and 21.6% in women and can cause significant morbidity and disability. It also carries a significant cost to the individuals and the healthcare system, totaling in $4 billion dollars in 2003. Injection therapy is an alternative when conservative treatment fails. Osteoarthritis is the most common chronic hand pain syndrome and affects about 16% of the population. Its mechanism is largely mechanic, and as such, there is controversy if steroid injections are of benefit. Hyaluronic acid (HA) appears to provide substantial relief of pain and may increase functionality. More studies of HA are required to make a definite judgment on its efficacy. Similarly, steroid ganglion cyst injection may confer little benefit. Carpal tunnel syndrome is a compressive neuropathy, and only temporarily relieved with injection therapy. US-guidance provides significant improvement and, while severe cases may still require surgery, can provide a valuable bridge therapy to surgery when conservative treatment fails. Similar bridging treatments and increased efficacy under US-guidance are effective for stenosing tenosynovitis ("trigger finger"), though, interestingly, inflammatory background is associated with decreased effect in this case. When the etiology of the pain is inflammatory, such as in RA, corticosteroid (CS) injections provide significant pain relief and increased functionality. They do not, however, change the course of disease (unlike DMARDs). Another such example is De-Quervain tenosynovitis that sees good benefit from CS injections, and an increased efficacy with US-guidance, and similarly are CS injections for gout. For Raynaud's phenomenon, Botox injections have encouraging results, but more studies are needed to determine safety and efficacy, as well as the possible difference in effect between primary and secondary Raynaud's. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic hand pain is a prevalent and serious condition and can cause significant morbidity and disability and interferes with independence and activities of daily living. Conservative treatment remains the first line of treatment; however, when first-line treatments fail, steroid injections can usually provide benefit. In some cases, HA or Botox may also be beneficial. US-guidance is increasing in hand injection and almost ubiquitously provides safer, more effective injections. Hand surgery remains the alternative for refractory pain.

12.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 24(3): 8, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020393

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic ankle pain is a prevalent and significant cause of chronic pain. While the definition of chronic ankle pain is heterogeneous and poorly defined in the literature, systematic reviews and meta-analyses have estimated this condition to be a prevalent and debilitating source of chronic pain. The most identifiable and prominent cause of chronic ankle pain is chronic ankle instability (CAI), a condition defined by instability of the ankle-joint complex. It is a common consequence of lateral ankle sprains or ligamentous injuries and can be described as a failure of the lateral ankle joint complex after an acute, or recurring, ankle injury. The objective of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review of CAI diagnosis and our current understanding of minimally invasive treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: First-line treatment is conservative management, some of which includes neuromuscular rehabilitation, balance training, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), manual mobilization, ice therapy, and compression. While conservative management is effective, additional treatments for those who fail conservative management, or who seek alternative options also have been explored. Recent advances and modern techniques have expanded available treatment options, many of which are becoming less invasive, and have shown improving functionality, recovery, and patient satisfaction. Minimally invasive treatments highlighted in this review include: arthroscopic surgery, steroid injections, plasma-rich plasma injections, hyaluronic acid (HA) injections, medicinal signaling cell injections, radiofrequency therapies, and shockwave therapies. This review will discuss some of these current treatments for minimally invasive treatment of CAI, as well as suggest novel treatments for clinical trials and further investigation.

13.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 24(3): 10, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067155

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Sacral insufficiency fractures (SIF) are a common and often underdiagnosed source of low back pain. In patients with SIF, there is both a compromised sacroiliac joint and weakened sacrum, resulting in decreased resistance to torsional stress, leading to fracture. While conservative medical management is a safe option, minimally invasive intervention may provide improved short and long-term relief of low back pain in patients presenting with SIF. This comprehensive review is undertaken to provide an update to the current understanding of SIF with description of risk factors, clinical presentation, and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Sacroplasty is a minimally invasive procedure in which polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement is inserted into bone to improve its structural integrity and alleviate symptoms. Balloon sacroplasty (BSP) has also been successful in alleviating pain with minimal cement leakage in SIF patients. Various other interventional techniques, including navigation-assisted screw fixation have been used to address SIF and have shown improvement in pain with minimal side effects. This review included various modalities of treatments available to manage SIF. This review shows that in comparison with nonsurgical management, sacroplasty has been shown to have greater pain reduction and improved mobility.

16.
Pain Ther ; 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107725

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This is a comprehensive literature review of the available evidence and techniques of foot injections for chronic pain conditions. It briefly describes common foot chronic pain syndromes and then reviews available injection techniques for each of these syndromes, weighing the available evidence and comparing the available approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: Foot and ankle pain affects 20% of the population over 50 and significantly impairs mobility and ability to participate in activities of daily living (ADLs), as well as increases fall risk. It is commonly treated with costly surgery, at times with questionable efficacy. Injection therapy is challenging when the etiology is anatomical or compressive. Morton's neuroma is a budging of the interdigital nerve. Steroid, alcohol, and capsaicin injections provide some benefit, but it is short lived. Hyaluronic acid (HA) injection provided long-term relief and could prove to be a viable treatment option. Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is most likely secondary to repeat tendon stress-platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) and prolotherapy have been trialed for this condition, but more evidence is required to show efficacy. Similar injections were trials for plantar fasciitis and achieved only short-term relief; however, some evidence suggests that PRP injections reduce the frequency of required therapy. Tarsal tunnel syndrome, a compressive neuropathy carries a risk of permanent neural injury if left untreated. Injection therapy can provide a bridge to surgery; however, surgical decompression remains the definitive therapy. When the etiology is inflammatory, steroid injection is more likely to provide benefit. This has been shown in several studies for gout, as well as osteoarthritis of the foot and ankle and treatment-refractory rheumatoid arthritis. HA showed similar benefit, possibly due to anti-inflammatory effects. Stem cell injections may provide the additional benefit of structure restoration. Chronic foot pain is common in the general population and has significant associated morbidity and disability. Traditionally treated with surgery, these are costly and only somewhat effective. Injections provide an effective alternative financially and some evidence exists that they are effective in pain alleviation. However, current evidence is limited and the benefit described from injection therapy has been short-lived in most cases. Further studies in larger populations are required to evaluate the long-term effects of these treatments.

19.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 24(1): 1, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916041

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Post dural puncture headache (PDPH) is a relatively common complication which may occur in the setting of inadvertent dural puncture (DP) during labor epidural analgesia and during intentional DP during spinal anesthetic placement or diagnostic lumbar puncture. Few publications have established the long-term safety of an epidural blood patch (EBP) for the treatment of a PDPH. RECENT FINDINGS: The aim of this pilot study was to examine the association of chronic low back pain (LBP) in patients who experienced a PDPH following labor analgesia and were treated with an EBP. A total of 146 patients were contacted and completed a survey questionnaire via telephone. The EBP group was found to be more likely to have chronic LBP (percentage difference 20% [95% CI 6-33%], RR 2.6 [95% CI 1.3-5.2]) and also LBP < 6 (percentage difference 24% [95% CI 9- 37%], RR 2.3 [95% CI 1.3-4.1]). There were no significant differences in the severity and descriptive qualities of pain between the EBP and non-EBP groups. Our findings suggest that PDPH treated with an EBP is associated with an increased prevalence of subsequent low back pain in parturients. The findings of this pilot study should spur further prospective research into identifying potential associations between DP, EBP, and chronic low back pain.

20.
Pain Ther ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994018

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cosmetic breast surgery is commonly performed in the United States; 520,000 procedures of the total 1.8 million cosmetic surgical procedures performed in 2018 were breast related. Postoperative chronic pain, defined as lasting 3 or more months, has been reported in a wide variety of breast surgical procedures including breast augmentation, reduction mammaplasty, mastectomy, and mastectomy with reconstruction. Patient characteristics associated with the development of postoperative chronic pain following cosmetic breast surgery include a younger age, larger BMI, smaller height, postoperative hyperesthesia, and elevated baseline depression, anxiety, and catastrophizing scores. The anatomical distribution of chronic pain following breast augmentation procedures is dependent upon incision site placement; pectoral and intercostal nerves have been implicated. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the current literature addressing the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of patients presenting with chronic postoperative pain following cosmetic breast surgery. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was performed in MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cochrane databases from 1996 to 2019 using the terms "cosmetic surgery", "breast surgery", "postoperative pain", and "chronic pain". RESULTS: Cosmetic breast surgery can have a similar presentation as post-mastectomy pain syndrome and thus have overlapping diagnostic criteria. Seven domains are identified for a diagnosis of PBSPS: Pain after breast surgery, neuropathic in nature, at least a moderate intensity of pain, as defined as within the middle one-third of the selected pain scale, pain for at least 6 months, symptoms occurring for 12 or more hours a day for a minimum of 4 days each week, pain in at least one of the following sites: breast, chest wall, axilla, or arm on the affected side, pain exacerbated by movement. Patient risk factors and surgical risk factors may influence the development of chronic post-cosmetic surgery breast pain. Improved perioperative analgesia including preoperative regional nerve anesthesia and postoperative catheter infusion have been shown to improve chronic postoperative pain outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The present review provides a discussion of clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and treatment and preventative strategies for chronic breast pain following cosmetic surgery. This review provides evidence from multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of efficacy and effectiveness. While chronic postoperative breast pain remains challenging to treat, various preventative strategies have been described to improve postoperative pain outcomes.

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