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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609532

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is a paucity of data regarding healthcare costs associated with damage accrual in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We describe costs associated with damage states across the disease course using multi-state modeling. METHODS: Patients from 33 centres in 11 countries were enrolled in the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) inception cohort within 15 months of diagnosis. Annual data on demographics, disease activity, damage (SLICC/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Damage Index [SDI]), hospitalizations, medications, dialysis, and selected procedures were collected. Ten-year cumulative costs (Canadian dollars) were estimated by multiplying annual costs associated with each SDI state by the expected state duration using a multi-state model. RESULTS: 1687 patients participated, 88.7% female, 49.0% of Caucasian race/ethnicity, mean age at diagnosis 34.6 years (SD 13.3), and mean follow up 8.9 years (range 0.6-18.5). Annual costs were higher in those with higher SDIs (SDI ≥ 5: $22 006 2019 CDN, 95% CI $16 662, $27 350 versus SDI=0: $1833, 95% CI $1134, $2532). Similarly, 10-year cumulative costs were higher in those with higher SDIs at the beginning of the 10-year interval (SDI ≥ 5: $189 073, 95% CI $142 318, $235 827 versus SDI=0: $21 713, 95% CI $13 639, $29 788). CONCLUSION: Patients with the highest SDIs incur 10-year cumulative costs that are almost 9-fold higher than those with the lowest SDIs. By estimating the damage trajectory and incorporating annual costs, damage can be used to estimate future costs, critical knowledge for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of novel therapies.

3.
J Autoimmun ; : 102340, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has potential as a prognosis and severity biomarker in several inflammatory and infectious diseases. In a previous cross-sectional study, suPAR levels were shown to reflect damage accrual in cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Herein, we evaluated suPAR as a predictor of future organ damage in recent-onset SLE. METHODS: Included were 344 patients from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Inception Cohort who met the 1997 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria with 5-years of follow-up data available. Baseline sera from patients and age- and sex-matched controls were assayed for suPAR. Organ damage was assessed annually using the SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI). RESULTS: The levels of suPAR were higher in patients who accrued damage, particularly those with SDI≥2 at 5 years (N = 32, 46.8% increase, p = 0.004), as compared to patients without damage. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant impact of suPAR on SDI outcome (SDI≥2; OR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.03-1.26), also after adjustment for confounding factors. In an optimized logistic regression to predict damage, suPAR persisted as a predictor, together with baseline disease activity (SLEDAI-2K), age, and non-Caucasian ethnicity (model AUC = 0.77). Dissecting SDI into organ systems revealed higher suPAR levels in patients who developed musculoskeletal damage (SDI≥1; p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: Prognostic biomarkers identify patients who are at risk of acquiring early damage and therefore need careful observation and targeted treatment strategies. Overall, suPAR constitutes an interesting biomarker for patient stratification and for identifying SLE patients who are at risk of acquiring organ damage during the first 5 years of disease.

4.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) frailty index (FI) has been shown to predict mortality, but its association with other important outcomes is unknown. We examined the association of baseline SLICC-FI values with damage accrual in the SLICC inception cohort. METHODS: The baseline visit was defined as the first at which both organ damage (SLICC/ACR Damage Index [SDI]) and health-related quality of life (Short-Form 36 [SF-36]) were assessed. Baseline SLICC-FI scores were calculated. Damage accrual was measured by the increase in SDI between the baseline assessment and the last study visit. Multivariable negative binomial regression estimated the association between baseline SLICC-FI values and the rate of increase in the SDI during follow-up, adjusting for relevant demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: The 1549 SLE patients eligible for this analysis were mostly female (88.7%) with mean (standard deviation, SD) age 35.7 (13.3) years and median (interquartile range) disease duration 1.2 (0.9-1.5) years at baseline. Mean (SD) baseline SLICC-FI was 0.17 (0.08) with a range of 0-0.51. Over a mean (SD) follow-up of 7.2 (3.7) years, 653 patients (42.2%) had an increase in SDI. Higher baseline SLICC-FI values (per 0.05 increment) were associated with higher rates of increase in the SDI during follow-up (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR] 1.19; 95% CI 1.13-1.25), after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity/region, education, baseline SLEDAI-2K, baseline SDI, and baseline use of corticosteroids, antimalarials, and immunosuppressives. CONCLUSION: The SLICC-FI predicts damage accrual in incident SLE, which further supports the SLICC-FI as a valid health measure in SLE.

5.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(9): 1151-1159, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop new classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) jointly supported by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). METHODS: This international initiative had four phases. (1) Evaluation of antinuclear antibody (ANA) as an entry criterion through systematic review and meta-regression of the literature and criteria generation through an international Delphi exercise, an early patient cohort and a patient survey. (2) Criteria reduction by Delphi and nominal group technique exercises. (3) Criteria definition and weighting based on criterion performance and on results of a multi-criteria decision analysis. (4) Refinement of weights and threshold scores in a new derivation cohort of 1001 subjects and validation compared with previous criteria in a new validation cohort of 1270 subjects. RESULTS: The 2019 EULAR/ACR classification criteria for SLE include positive ANA at least once as obligatory entry criterion; followed by additive weighted criteria grouped in seven clinical (constitutional, haematological, neuropsychiatric, mucocutaneous, serosal, musculoskeletal, renal) and three immunological (antiphospholipid antibodies, complement proteins, SLE-specific antibodies) domains, and weighted from 2 to 10. Patients accumulating ≥10 points are classified. In the validation cohort, the new criteria had a sensitivity of 96.1% and specificity of 93.4%, compared with 82.8% sensitivity and 93.4% specificity of the ACR 1997 and 96.7% sensitivity and 83.7% specificity of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics 2012 criteria. CONCLUSION: These new classification criteria were developed using rigorous methodology with multidisciplinary and international input, and have excellent sensitivity and specificity. Use of ANA entry criterion, hierarchically clustered and weighted criteria reflect current thinking about SLE and provide an improved foundation for SLE research.

6.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(9): 1400-1412, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385462

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop new classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) jointly supported by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). METHODS: This international initiative had four phases. 1) Evaluation of antinuclear antibody (ANA) as an entry criterion through systematic review and meta-regression of the literature and criteria generation through an international Delphi exercise, an early patient cohort, and a patient survey. 2) Criteria reduction by Delphi and nominal group technique exercises. 3) Criteria definition and weighting based on criterion performance and on results of a multi-criteria decision analysis. 4) Refinement of weights and threshold scores in a new derivation cohort of 1,001 subjects and validation compared with previous criteria in a new validation cohort of 1,270 subjects. RESULTS: The 2019 EULAR/ACR classification criteria for SLE include positive ANA at least once as obligatory entry criterion; followed by additive weighted criteria grouped in 7 clinical (constitutional, hematologic, neuropsychiatric, mucocutaneous, serosal, musculoskeletal, renal) and 3 immunologic (antiphospholipid antibodies, complement proteins, SLE-specific antibodies) domains, and weighted from 2 to 10. Patients accumulating ≥10 points are classified. In the validation cohort, the new criteria had a sensitivity of 96.1% and specificity of 93.4%, compared with 82.8% sensitivity and 93.4% specificity of the ACR 1997 and 96.7% sensitivity and 83.7% specificity of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics 2012 criteria. CONCLUSION: These new classification criteria were developed using rigorous methodology with multidisciplinary and international input, and have excellent sensitivity and specificity. Use of ANA entry criterion, hierarchically clustered, and weighted criteria reflects current thinking about SLE and provides an improved foundation for SLE research.

7.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In a multi-ethnic/racial, prospective SLE inception cohort, to determine the frequency, clinical characteristics, associations and outcomes in different types of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease. METHODS: Patients were evaluated annually for 19 neuropsychiatric (NP) events including seven types of PNS disease. SLE disease activity, organ damage, autoantibodies, patient and physician assessment of outcome were measured. Time to event and linear regressions were used as appropriate. RESULTS: Of 1,827 SLE patients, 88.8% were female, 48.8% Caucasian. The mean±SD age was 35.1±13.3 years, disease duration at enrollment 5.6±4.2 months and follow-up 7.6±4.6 years. There were 161 PNS events in 139/1,827 (7.6%) patients. The predominant events were peripheral neuropathy [66/161 (41.0%)], mononeuropathy [44/161 (27.3%)] and cranial neuropathy [39/161 (24.2%)] and the majority were attributed to SLE. Multivariate Cox regressions suggested longer time to resolution in patients with prior history of neuropathy, older age at SLE diagnosis, higher SLEDAI-2K scores, and for peripheral neuropathy versus other neuropathies. Neuropathy was associated with significantly lower SF-36 physical and mental component summary scores versus patients without NP events. By physician assessment, the majority of neuropathies resolved or improved over time and this was associated with improvements in SF-36 summary scores for peripheral neuropathy and mononeuropathy. CONCLUSION: PNS disease is an important component of total NPSLE and has a significant negative impact on health related quality of life. The outcome is favourable for most patients, but we noted several factors associated with longer time to resolution. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236574

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: LN is one of the most common and severe manifestations of SLE. Our aim was to test the association of SLE risk loci with LN risk in childhood-onset SLE (cSLE) and adult-onset SLE (aSLE). METHODS: Two Toronto-based tertiary care SLE cohorts included cSLE (diagnosed <18 years) and aSLE patients (diagnosed ⩾18 years). Patients met ACR and/or SLICC SLE criteria and were genotyped on the Illumina Multi-Ethnic Global Array or Omni1-Quad arrays. We identified those with and without biopsy-confirmed LN. HLA and non-HLA additive SLE risk-weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) were tested for association with LN risk in logistic models, stratified by cSLE/aSLE and ancestry. Stratified effect estimates were meta-analysed. RESULTS: Of 1237 participants, 572 had cSLE (41% with LN) and 665 had aSLE (30% with LN). Increasing non-HLA GRS was significantly associated with increased LN risk [odds ratio (OR) = 1.26; 95% CI 1.09, 1.46; P = 0.0006], as was increasing HLA GRS in Europeans (OR = 1.55; 95% CI 1.07, 2.25; P = 0.03). There was a trend for stronger associations between both GRSs and LN risk in Europeans with cSLE compared with aSLE. When restricting cases to proliferative LN, the magnitude of these associations increased for both the non-HLA (OR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.10, 1.52; P = 0.002) and HLA GRS (OR = 1.99; 95% CI 1.29, 3.08; P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: We observed an association between known SLE risk loci and LN risk in children and adults with SLE, with the strongest effect observed among Europeans with cSLE. Future studies will include SLE-risk single nucleotide polymorphisms specific to non-European ancestral groups and validate findings in an independent cohort.

10.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(6): 802-806, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survival in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has improved substantially in the last 50 years. The aim of the present study was to assess the evolution of the all-cause, cause-specific and age-specific standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) of patients with lupus in Ontario, Canada. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1971 and 2013, 1732 patients were followed in the Toronto Lupus Clinic. Causes of death were retrieved from death certificates, autopsy reports, hospital records or the records of the family physicians. They were categorised as atherosclerotic, infectious, malignancy, active lupus and others. For the calculation of the SMR (indirect standardisation method), data from the general population of Ontario, Canada were used (Statistics Canada). RESULTS: Two hundred and forty-nine patients (205 women) died (infections 24.5%, atherosclerosis 15.7%, active lupus 13.3%, malignancy 9.6%); mean age was 53.2±16.6 years and mean disease duration 15.2±11.7 years. The all-cause SMR was substantially decreased from the 1970s (13.5, 95% CI 8.6 to 18.5) to recent years (2.2, 95% CI 1.4 to 3.1). Similar trends were observed for atherosclerosis, infections and malignancies over time. The all-cause age-specific SMR was particularly high in younger (19-39 years old) patients (SMR=12.4, 95% CI 9.7 to 15.1) as compared with individuals older than 40 years (SMR=3.1, 95% CI 2.6 to 3.6). The cause-specific SMR was also higher in younger patients, particularly for infections and malignancies. CONCLUSIONS: The all-cause and cause-specific SMR significantly decreased over time, likely reflecting the advances in the management of SLE and certain comorbidities. The all-cause and cause-specific SMR was particularly high for younger patients (<40 years old).

11.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To construct a Frailty Index (FI) as a measure of vulnerability to adverse outcomes among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), using data from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) inception cohort. METHODS: The SLICC inception cohort consists of recently diagnosed patients with SLE followed annually with clinical and laboratory assessments. For this analysis, the baseline visit was defined as the first study visit at which sufficient information was available for construction of an FI. Following a standard procedure, variables from the SLICC database were evaluated as potential health deficits. Selected health deficits were then used to generate a SLICC-FI. The prevalence of frailty in the baseline dataset was evaluated using established cutpoints for FI values. RESULTS: The 1683 patients with SLE (92.1% of the overall cohort) eligible for inclusion in the baseline dataset were mostly female (89%) with mean (SD) age 35.7 (13.4) years and mean (SD) disease duration 18.8 (15.7) months at baseline. Of 222 variables, 48 met criteria for inclusion in the SLICC-FI. Mean (SD) SLICC-FI was 0.17 (0.08) with a range from 0 to 0.51. At baseline, 27.1% (95% CI 25.0-29.2) of patients were classified as frail, based on SLICC-FI values > 0.21. CONCLUSION: The SLICC inception cohort permits feasible construction of an FI for use in patients with SLE. Even in a relatively young cohort of patients with SLE, frailty was common. The SLICC-FI may be a useful tool for identifying patients with SLE who are most vulnerable to adverse outcomes, but validation of this index is required prior to its use.

12.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709950

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerotic vascular events (AVE) are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed to determine the effect of early recognition and therapy for both classic risk factors for AVE and for SLE, on the burden of AVE in SLE in recent decades. METHODS: Inception patients who entered the University of Toronto Lupus Clinic between 1975 and 1987 followed to 1992 (Cohort 1), and between 1999 and 2011 followed to 2016 (Cohort 2) were studied. AVE attributed to atherosclerosis and occurring during the 17 years were identified. SLE disease activity and therapy as well as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, and smoking were assessed. Analysis included descriptive statistics on baseline characteristics, traditional risk factors over the followup, outcome rates by each 100 person-years (PY), Kaplan-Meier cumulative AVE curves, as well as competing risk Cox models adjusted by inverse probability weights. RESULTS: Of the 234 patients in Cohort 1, 26 patients (11%) had an AVE compared with 10 of 262 patients (3.8%) in Cohort 2. The rate per 100 PY of followup was 1.8 in Cohort 1 and 0.44 in Cohort 2 (p < 0.0001). Better control of all risk factors and disease activity was achieved in Cohort 2. There was a reduction of 60% in the risk for AVE in Cohort 2. CONCLUSION: The incidence of AVE in SLE in the modern era has declined in large part owing to more effective management of classic coronary artery risk factors and of SLE.

13.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(8): 1297-1307, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771242

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the properties of a frailty index (FI), constructed using data from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) inception cohort, as a novel health measure in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: For this secondary analysis, the baseline visit was defined as the first study visit at which both organ damage (SLICC/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index [SDI]) and health-related quality of life (Short-Form 36 [SF-36] scores) were assessed. The SLICC-FI was constructed using baseline data. The SLICC-FI comprises 48 health deficits, including items related to organ damage, disease activity, comorbidities, and functional status. Content, construct, and criterion validity of the SLICC-FI were assessed. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate the association between baseline SLICC-FI values and mortality risk, adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. RESULTS: In the baseline data set of 1,683 patients with SLE, 89% were female, the mean ± SD age was 35.7 ± 13.4 years, and the mean ± SD disease duration was 18.8 ± 15.7 months. At baseline, the mean ± SD SLICC-FI score was 0.17 ± 0.08 (range 0-0.51). Baseline SLICC-FI values exhibited the expected measurement properties and were weakly correlated with baseline SDI scores (r = 0.26, P < 0.0001). Higher baseline SLICC-FI values (per 0.05 increment) were associated with increased mortality risk (hazard ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval 1.35-1.87), after adjusting for age, sex, steroid use, ethnicity/region, and baseline SDI scores. CONCLUSION: The SLICC-FI demonstrates internal validity as a health measure in SLE and might be used to predict future mortality risk. The SLICC-FI is potentially valuable for quantifying vulnerability among patients with SLE, and adds to existing prognostic scores.

14.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 58(7): 1259-1267, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753683

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) in reproductive-age women with SLE with and without possible contraindications and to determine factors associated with their use in the presence of possible contraindications. METHODS: This observational cohort study included premenopausal women ages 18-45 years enrolled in the SLICC Registry ⩽15 months after SLE onset, with annual assessments spanning 2000-2017. World Health Organization Category 3 or 4 contraindications to CHCs (e.g. hypertension, aPL) were assessed at each study visit. High disease activity (SLEDAI score >12 or use of >0.5 mg/kg/day of prednisone) was considered a relative contraindication. RESULTS: A total of 927 SLE women contributed 6315 visits, of which 3811 (60%) occurred in the presence of one or more possible contraindication to CHCs. Women used CHCs during 512 (8%) visits, of which 281 (55%) took place in the setting of one or more possible contraindication. The most frequently observed contraindications were aPL (52%), hypertension (34%) and migraine with aura (22%). Women with one or more contraindication were slightly less likely to be taking CHCs [7% of visits (95% CI 7, 8)] than women with no contraindications [9% (95% CI 8, 10)]. CONCLUSION: CHC use was low compared with general population estimates (>35%) and more than half of CHC users had at least one possible contraindication. Many yet unmeasured factors, including patient preferences, may have contributed to these observations. Further work should also aim to clarify outcomes associated with this exposure.

15.
J Rheumatol ; 46(5): 492-500, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In cross-sectional studies, elevated osteopontin (OPN) levels have been proposed to reflect, and/or precede, progressive organ damage and disease severity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed, in a cohort of patients with recent-onset SLE, to determine whether raised serum OPN levels precede damage and/or are associated with disease activity or certain disease phenotypes. METHODS: We included 344 patients from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Inception Cohort who had 5 years of followup data available. All patients fulfilled the 1997 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. Baseline sera from patients and from age- and sex-matched population-based controls were analyzed for OPN using ELISA. Disease activity and damage were assessed at each annual followup visit using the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) and the SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI), respectively. RESULTS: Compared to controls, baseline OPN was raised 4-fold in SLE cases (p < 0.0001). After relevant adjustments in a binary logistic regression model, OPN levels failed to significantly predict global damage accrual defined as SDI ≥ 1 at 5 years. However, baseline OPN correlated with SLEDAI-2K at enrollment into the cohort (r = 0.27, p < 0.0001), and patients with high disease activity (SLEDAI-2K ≥ 5) had raised serum OPN (p < 0.0001). In addition, higher OPN levels were found in patients with persistent disease activity (p = 0.0006), in cases with renal involvement (p < 0.0001) and impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: The performance of OPN to predict development of organ damage was not impressive. However, OPN associated significantly with lupus nephritis and with raised disease activity at enrollment, as well as over time.

16.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(3): 372-379, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610066

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study (206347) compared organ damage progression in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who received belimumab in the BLISS long-term extension (LTE) study with propensity score (PS)-matched patients treated with standard of care (SoC) from the Toronto Lupus Cohort (TLC). METHODS: A systematic literature review identified 17 known predictors of organ damage to calculate a PS for each patient. Patients from the BLISS LTE and the TLC were PS matched posthoc 1:1 based on their PS (±calliper). The primary endpoint was difference in change in Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (SDI) score from baseline to 5 years. RESULTS: For the 5- year analysis, of 567 (BLISS LTE n=195; TLC n=372) patients, 99 from each cohort were 1:1 PS matched. Change in SDI score at Year 5 was significantly lower for patients treated with belimumab compared with SoC (-0.434; 95% CI -0.667 to -0.201; p<0.001). For the time to organ damage progression analysis (≥1 year follow-up), the sample included 965 (BLISS LTE n=259; TLC n=706) patients, of whom 179 from each cohort were PS-matched. Patients receiving belimumab were 61% less likely to progress to a higher SDI score over any given year compared with patients treated with SoC (HR 0.391; 95% CI 0.253 to 0.605; p<0.001). Among the SDI score increases, the proportion of increases ≥2 was greater in the SoC group compared with the belimumab group. CONCLUSIONS: PS-matched patients receiving belimumab had significantly less organ damage progression compared with patients receiving SoC.

17.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(5): 634-640, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692164

RESUMO

European League Against Rheumatism and are jointly supporting multiphase development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) classification criteria based on weighted criteria and a continuous probability scale. Prior steps included item generation, item reduction and hierarchical organisation of candidate criteria using an evidence-based approach. Our objectives were to determine relative weights using multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) and to set a provisional threshold score for SLE classification. An SLE Expert Panel (8 European, 9 North American) submitted 164 real, unique cases with a wide range of SLE probability in a standardised format. Using the candidate criteria, experts scored and rank-ordered 20 representative cases. At an in-person meeting, experts reviewed inter-rater reliability of scoring, further refined criteria definitions and participated in an MCDA exercise. Based on expert consensus decisions on pairwise comparisons of criteria, 1000minds software calculated criteria weights and rank-ordered the remaining 144 cases based on their additive scores. The score of the lowest-ranked case for which complete expert consensus was achieved defined the provisional threshold classification score. Inter-rater reliability of scoring cases with the candidate criteria was good. MCDA involved 74 pairwise decisions and was repeated for the arthritis and mucocutaneous domains when the initial ranking of some cases did not match expert opinion. After criteria weights and additive scores were recalculated once, experts reached consensus for SLE classification for all cases scoring>83. Using an iterative process, the candidate criteria definitions were refined, preliminary weights were calculated and a provisional threshold score for SLE classification was determined.

19.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430267

RESUMO

Prof. Ari Polachek on of the author of the published version of this article missed to add his second affiliation which is the Department of Rheumatology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. The new affiliation is now added and presented correctly in this article.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, low disease activity emerged as a state that is associated with improved long-term outcomes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Our aim was to review the current concepts for low disease activity in SLE in order to serve as the basis of a future consensus for standardization. METHODS: The PubMed database was searched for relevant articles from inception up to July 2018. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms) included "lupus" AND "low disease activity" OR "minimal disease activity". RESULTS: Three different definitions of low disease activity in lupus have been proposed. Minimal disease activity (MDA) is defined as a clinical SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K)≤1 on antimalarials, immunosuppressives in standard doses and prednisone ≤5 mg/day. Low disease activity (LDA) allows for a clinical SLEDAI-2K≤2 maintained on antimalarials only. Lupus Low Disease Activity State (LLDAS) accepts a SLEDAI-2K≤4 with no activity from major organ systems, a Physician's Global Assessment of ≤1 with no new activity, prednisone dose ≤7.5 mg/day and standard doses of antimalarials, immunosuppressives and biologics. Active serology (anti-dsDNA and complement C3/C4) is not included in the MDA and LDA but counts towards disease activity in the LLDAS definition. All definitions were associated with less damage-accrual and mortality in the long-term that were comparable to those of clinical remission. CONCLUSIONS: There is solid evidence that low disease activity is associated with improved outcomes in SLE and could serve as a therapeutic target in daily practice and clinical trials. Future research should focus on advancing a consensus for the best possible definition.

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