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2.
Breast Cancer Res ; 23(1): 17, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In breast cancer, immunohistochemistry (IHC) subtypes, together with grade and stage, are well-known independent predictors of breast cancer death. Given the immense changes in breast cancer treatment and survival over time, we used recent population-based data to test the combined influence of IHC subtypes, grade and stage on breast cancer death. METHODS: We identified 24,137 women with invasive breast cancer aged 20 to 74 between 2005 and 2015 in the database of the Cancer Registry of Norway. Kaplan-Meier curves, mortality rates and adjusted hazard ratios for breast cancer death were estimated by IHC subtypes, grade, tumour size and nodal status during 13 years of follow-up. RESULTS: Within all IHC subtypes, grade, tumour size and nodal status were independent predictors of breast cancer death. When combining all prognostic factors, the risk of death was 20- to 40-fold higher in the worst groups compared to the group with the smallest size, low grade and ER+PR+HER2- status. Among node-negative ER+HER2- tumours, larger size conferred a significantly increased breast cancer mortality. ER+PR-HER2- tumours of high grade and advanced stage showed particularly high breast cancer mortality similar to TNBC. When examining early versus late mortality, grade, size and nodal status explained most of the late (> 5 years) mortality among ER+ subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: There is a wide range of risks of dying from breast cancer, also across small breast tumours of low/intermediate grade, and among node-negative tumours. Thus, even with modern breast cancer treatment, stage, grade and molecular subtype (reflected by IHC subtypes) matter for prognosis.

3.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The comparative effectiveness of sigmoidoscopy and fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is unknown. METHODS: Individuals aged 50-74 years living in South-East Norway were randomly invited between 2012 and 2019 to either once-only flexible sigmoidoscopy or FIT screening every second year. Colonoscopy was recommended after sigmoidoscopy if any polyp ≥10 mm, ≥ three adenomas, any advanced adenomas, or CRC was found or subsequent to FIT > 15 µg hemoglobin/g feces. Data for this report were obtained after complete recruitment in both groups and included two full FIT rounds and part of the third round. Outcome measures were participation, neoplasia detection, and adverse events. Age-standardized detection rates and age-adjusted odds ratios (OR) were calculated. RESULTS: We included 139,291 individuals; 69,195 randomized to sigmoidoscopy and 70,096 to FIT. Participation rate was 52% for sigmoidoscopy, 58% in the first FIT round and 68% for three cumulative FIT rounds. Compared to sigmoidoscopy, detection rate for CRC was similar in the first FIT round (0.25% vs 0.27%, OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.75-1.13), but higher after three FIT rounds (0.49% vs 0.27%, OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.54-2.27). Advanced adenoma detection rate was lower in the first FIT round compared to sigmoidoscopy, 1.4% vs 2.4% (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.53-0.62), but higher after three cumulative FIT rounds, 2.7% vs 2.4% (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.05-1.23). There were 33 (0.05%) serious adverse events in the sigmoidoscopy group compared to 47 (0.07%) in the FIT group (p =.13). CONCLUSION: Participation was higher and more CRC and advanced adenomas were detected with repeated FIT compared to sigmoidoscopy. The risk of perforation and bleeding was comparable. Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01538550).

5.
Acta Oncol ; 59(11): 1275-1283, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major cancers are associated with lifestyle, and previous studies have found that the non-immigrant populations in the Nordic countries have higher incidence rates of most cancers than the immigrant populations. However, rates are changing worldwide - so these differences may disappear with time. Here we present recent cancer incidence rates among immigrant and non-immigrant men and women in Norway and investigate whether previous differences still exist. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We took advantage of a recent change in the Norwegian Cancer Registry regulations that allow for the registry to have information on country of birth. The number of person years for 2014-2018 was aggregated for every combination of sex, five-year age-group and country of birth, by summing up each year's population in these groups. The number of cancer cases was then counted for the same groups, and age-standardised incidence rates calculated by weighing the age-specific incidence rates by the Nordic and World standard populations. Further, we calculated incidence rate ratios using the non-immigrant population as a reference. RESULTS: Immigrants from Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Africa and Asia had lower incidence of total cancer compared to the non-immigrant population in Norway and immigrants born in the other Nordic or high-income countries. However, some cancers were more common in certain immigrant groups. Asian men and women had threefold the incidence of liver cancer than non-immigrant men and women. Men from the other Nordic countries and from Eastern Europe had higher lung cancer rates than non-immigrant men. CONCLUSION: National registries should continuously monitor and present cancer incidence stratified on important population subgroups such as country of birth. This can help assess population subgroup specific needs for cancer prevention and treatment, and could eventually help reduce the morbidity and mortality of cancer.

6.
Acta Oncol ; 59(11): 1343-1356, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Scandinavia, there is a strong tradition for research and quality monitoring based on registry data. In Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 63 clinical registries collect data on disease characteristics, treatment and outcome of various cancer diagnoses and groups based on process-related and outcome-related variables. AIM: We describe the cancer-related clinical registries, compare organizational structures and quality indicators and provide examples of how these registries have been used to monitor clinical performance, develop prediction models, assess outcome and provide quality benchmarks. Further, we define unmet needs such as inclusion of patient-reported outcome variables, harmonization of variables and barriers for data sharing. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The clinical registry framework provides an empirical basis for evidence-based development of high-quality and equitable cancer care. The registries can be used to follow implementation of new treatment principles and monitor patterns of care across geographical areas and patient groups. At the same time, the lessons learnt suggest that further developments and coordination are needed to utilize the full potential of the registry initiative in cancer care.

7.
Acta Oncol ; 59(11): 1300-1307, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924698

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several studies have shown an association between socioeconomic status and incidence of cancer. In this study, we have examined the association between socioeconomic factors, using income and education as proxies, and cancer incidence in Norway, a country known to be egalitarian, with universal access to health care and scoring high on the human development index. METHODS: We linked individual data for the total Norwegian population with information on all cancer patients registered in the Cancer Registry of Norway (CRN) with any cancer diagnosed between 2012 and 2016. Data on education, and individual income, were provided from Statistics Norway. We used Poisson regression to obtain incidence rate ratios (IRR) across education and income levels for 23 cancer sites. RESULTS: A total of 9 cancers among men and 13 cancers among women were observed to have significantly higher incidence rates in cases with the lowest level of education. Melanoma for both sexes, testis and prostate cancer in men, and breast cancer in women were found to have a higher incidence rate among those with the highest level of education. The largest differences in IRR were found for lung cancer, where men and women with college or university education as their highest completed education had a two- to threefold decreased risk, compared to those with primary school (IRR men; 0.40 [0.37-0.43], women 0.34 [0.31-0.37]). The results for income mirrored the results for education among men, while for women we did not observe many differences in cancer risk across income groups. CONCLUSION: Our findings were consistent with findings from other studies showing that the incidence rate of cancer differs across levels of socioeconomic status. We may need behavioral change campaigns focused on lifestyle changes that lower the risk of cancer and target perhaps to those with lower socioeconomic status.

8.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 182(2): 477-489, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495000

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The stage-specific survival of young breast cancer patients has improved, likely due to diagnostic and treatment advances. We addressed whether survival improvements have reached all socioeconomic groups in a country with universal health care and national treatment guidelines. METHODS: Using Norwegian registry data, we assessed stage-specific breast cancer survival by education and income level of 7501 patients (2317 localized, 4457 regional, 233 distant and 494 unknown stage) aged 30-48 years at diagnosis during 2000-2015. Using flexible parametric models and national life tables, we compared excess mortality up to 12 years from diagnosis and 5-year relative survival trends, by education and income as measures of socioeconomic status (SES). RESULTS: Throughout 2000-2015, regional and distant stage 5-year relative survival improved steadily for patients with high education and high income (high SES), but not for patients with low education and low income (low SES). Regional stage 5-year relative survival improved from 85 to 94% for high SES patients (9% change; 95% confidence interval: 6, 13%), but remained at 84% for low SES patients (0% change; - 12, 12%). Distant stage 5-year relative survival improved from 22 to 58% for high SES patients (36% change; 24, 49%), but remained at 11% for low SES patients (0% change; - 19, 19%). CONCLUSIONS: Regional and distant stage breast cancer survival has improved markedly for high SES patients, but there has been little survival gain for low SES patients. Socioeconomic status matters for the stage-specific survival of young breast cancer patients, even with universal health care.

10.
Acta Oncol ; 59(11): 1284-1290, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with high socioeconomic status (SES) have the highest incidence rates of breast cancer. We wanted to determine if high SES women only have higher rates of localized disease, or whether they also have higher rates of non-localized disease. To study this, we used data on a young population with universal health care, but not offered screening. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using individually linked registry data, we compared stage-specific breast cancer incidence, by education level and income quintile, in a Norwegian cohort of 1,106,863 women aged 30-48 years during 2000-2015 (N = 7531 breast cancer cases). We calculated stage-specific age-standardized rates and incidence rate ratios and rate differences using Poisson models adjusted for age, period and immigration history. RESULTS: Incidence of localized and regional disease increased significantly with increasing education and income level. Incidence of distant stage disease did not vary significantly by education level but was significantly reduced in the four highest compared to the lowest income quintile. The age-standardized rates for tertiary versus compulsory educated women were: localized 28.2 vs 19.8, regional 50.8 vs 40.4 and distant 2.3 vs 2.6 per 100,000 person-years. The adjusted incidence rate ratios (tertiary versus compulsory) were: localized 1.40 (95% CI 1.25-1.56), regional 1.25 (1.15-1.35), distant 0.90 (0.64-1.26). The age-standardized rates for women in the highest versus lowest income quintile were: localized 28.9 vs 17.7, regional 52.8 vs 41.5 and distant 2.3 vs 3.2 per 100,000 person-years. The adjusted incidence rate ratios (highest versus lowest quintile) were: localized 1.63 (1.42-1.87), regional 1.27 (1.09-1.32), distant 0.64 (0.43-0.94). CONCLUSION: Increased breast cancer rates among young high SES women is not just increased detection of small localized tumors, but also increased incidence of tumors with regional spread. The higher incidence of young high SES women is therefore real and not only because of excessive screening.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 147(5): 1306-1314, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012248

RESUMO

Early-adulthood body size is strongly inversely associated with risk of premenopausal breast cancer. It is unclear whether subsequent changes in weight affect risk. We pooled individual-level data from 17 prospective studies to investigate the association of weight change with premenopausal breast cancer risk, considering strata of initial weight, timing of weight change, other breast cancer risk factors and breast cancer subtype. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using Cox regression. Among 628,463 women, 10,886 were diagnosed with breast cancer before menopause. Models adjusted for initial weight at ages 18-24 years and other breast cancer risk factors showed that weight gain from ages 18-24 to 35-44 or to 45-54 years was inversely associated with breast cancer overall (e.g., HR per 5 kg to ages 45-54: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.95-0.98) and with oestrogen-receptor(ER)-positive breast cancer (HR per 5 kg to ages 45-54: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.98). Weight gain from ages 25-34 was inversely associated with ER-positive breast cancer only and weight gain from ages 35-44 was not associated with risk. None of these weight gains were associated with ER-negative breast cancer. Weight loss was not consistently associated with overall or ER-specific risk after adjusting for initial weight. Weight increase from early-adulthood to ages 45-54 years is associated with a reduced premenopausal breast cancer risk independently of early-adulthood weight. Biological explanations are needed to account for these two separate factors.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963577

RESUMO

There are little epidemiological data on the impact of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and endocrine disruptors on mammographic density (MD), a strong predictor of breast cancer. We assessed MD in 116 non-Hispanic white post-menopausal women for whom serum concentrations of 23 commonly detected chemicals including 3 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 8 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), and 12 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) had been measured. Linear regression analyses adjusting for potential confounders were used to examine the associations between the levels of the chemical compounds, modeled as continuous and dichotomized (above/below median) variables, and square-root-transformed MD. None of the associations were statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing. Prior to correction for multiple testing, all chemicals with un-corrected p-values < 0.05 had regression coefficients less than zero, suggesting inverse associations between increased levels and MD, if any. The smallest p-value was observed for PCB-153 (regression coefficient for above-median vs. below-median levels: -0.87, un-corrected p = 0.008). Neither parity nor body mass index modified the associations. Our results do not support an association between higher MD and serum levels of PBDEs, PCBs, or PFASs commonly detected in postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Pós-Menopausa , Idoso , California , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(2): 127-138, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916076

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Breast density is an important risk factor for breast cancer and varies substantially across racial-ethnic groups. However, determinants of breast density in Vietnamese immigrants in the United States (US) have not been studied. We investigated whether reproductive factors, immigration history, and other demographic and lifestyle factors were associated with breast density in Vietnamese Americans. METHODS: We collected information on demographics, immigration history, and other lifestyle factors and mammogram reports from a convenience sample of 380 Vietnamese American women in California aged 40 to 70 years. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast density was abstracted from mammogram reports. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association between lifestyle factors and having dense breasts (BI-RADS 3 or 4). RESULTS: All participants were born in Viet Nam and 82% had lived in the US for 10 years or longer. Younger age, lower body mass index, nulliparity/lower number of deliveries, and longer US residence (or younger age at migration) were associated with having dense breasts. Compared to women who migrated at age 40 or later, the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for having dense breasts among women who migrated between the ages of 30 and 39 and before age 30 were 1.72 (0.96-3.07) and 2.48 (1.43-4.32), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Longer US residence and younger age at migration were associated with greater breast density in Vietnamese American women. Identifying modifiable mediating factors to reduce lifestyle changes that adversely impact breast density in this traditionally low-risk population for breast cancer is warranted.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos , Densidade da Mama/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , California , Estudos Transversais , Emigração e Imigração , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Paridade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos , Saúde da Mulher
17.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 800, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of breast cancer; however, its association with subsequent risk of breast cancer death is unclear. METHODS: We followed 4523 women with complete information on relevant risk factors for mortality; these women were 35 to 64 years of age when diagnosed with incident invasive breast cancer between 1994 and 1998. During follow up (median, 8.6 years), 1055 women died; 824 died from breast cancer. The information on alcohol consumption before diagnosis was collected shortly after breast cancer diagnosis (average: 5.1 months) during an in-person interview which used a structured questionnaire. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models provided hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer-specific mortality, mortality due to causes other than breast cancer, and all-cause mortality associated with alcohol consumption from age 15 years until breast cancer diagnosis and during recent periods of time prior to breast cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: Average weekly alcohol consumption from age 15 years until breast cancer diagnosis was inversely associated with breast cancer-specific mortality (Ptrend = 0.01). Compared to non-drinkers, women in the highest average weekly alcohol consumption category (≥7 drinks/week) had 25% lower risk of breast cancer-specific mortality (HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.56-1.00). Breast cancer mortality risk was also reduced among women in the highest average weekly alcohol consumption category in two recent time periods (5-year period ending 2-years prior to breast cancer diagnosis, HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.57-0.95; 2-year period immediately prior to breast cancer diagnosis: HR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.56-0.95). Furthermore, analyses of average weekly alcohol consumption by beverage type from age 15 years until breast cancer diagnosis suggested that wine consumption was inversely associated with breast cancer-specific mortality risk (wine Ptrend = 0.06, beer Ptrend = 0.24, liquor Ptrend = 0.74). No association with any of these alcohol consumption variables was observed for mortality risk due to causes other than breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found no evidence that alcohol consumption before breast cancer diagnosis increases subsequent risk of death from breast cancer.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Vigilância da População , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
19.
Int J Public Health ; 64(6): 977-978, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197406

RESUMO

Romania has Europe's highest incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer. Participation in the national cervical cancer-screening programme is low, especially among minority Roma women.

20.
Cancer ; 125(19): 3330-3337, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A premalignant lesion in the breast is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. The aim of this article was to identify women with an increased risk of breast cancer based on prior screening results (PSRs). METHODS: This registry-based cohort study followed women who participated in the organized breast cancer screening program in Norway, BreastScreen Norway, in 1995-2016. Incidence rates and incidence rate ratios were used to estimate absolute and relative risks of breast cancer associated with PSRs. Histopathological characteristics of subsequent breast cancers were presented by PSRs. RESULTS: This study included 762,643 women with up to 21 years of follow-up. In comparison with negatively screened women, increased incidence rate ratios of 1.8, 2.0, 2.9, and 3.8 were observed after negative additional imaging, for benign biopsy, for hyperplasia with atypia, and for carcinoma in situ, respectively. Subsequent breast cancers did not differ in tumor diameter or histological grade, whereas the proportion of lymph node-positive breast cancers decreased as the presumed malignancy potential of PSRs increased. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of subsequent breast cancer increased with the presumed malignancy potential of PSRs, whereas the tumor characteristics of subsequent cancers did not differ except for the lymph node status. Women with screen-detected benign lesions or hyperplasia with atypia might benefit from more frequent screening.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Mama/patologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Biópsia , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Mamografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco
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