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1.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 49(1): 20-29, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522305

RESUMO

Direct contact between bone and implant materials is required for dental implants. Titanium is used for the implant material owing to its mechanical and biological properties. The anodisation as the surface treatment was employed to enhance osteogenesis around titanium. Moreover, carbon nanohorn (CNH), a type of nanometer-sized carbon material, was reported to promote the bone formation. Thus, it is expected that if the surface of anodised Ti (AnTi) is modified with CNHs, Ti-bone contact would be enhanced. In this study, the Ti surface was modified with CNHs by electrophoresis and obtained anodised titanium coated with CNHs (CNH/AnTi). In vitro, CNH/AnTi attracted osteoblastic cells more than AnTi, thereby the proliferation of osteoblastic cell was enhanced by CNH/AnTi more than by AnTi. In vivo, at 7 and 28 days after implantation of CNH/AnTi or AnTi into the rat femur, more aggressive bone formation was observed on the surface of CNH/AnTi than on AnTi. More importantly, the area where newly formed bone tissue directly attached to CNH/AnTi was significantly larger than that for AnTi, suggesting that "contact osteogenesis" was accelerated on CNH/AnTi during the early post-implantation period. CNH/AnTi would be advantageous especially for the early stages of bone regeneration after surgery.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295856

RESUMO

Three bacterial strains, designated Red330T, Red736T and Red745T, were isolated from forest and paddy soils in Japan. Strains Red330T, Red736T and Red745T are flagella-harbouring and strictly anaerobic bacteria forming red colonies. A 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic tree showed that all three strains were located in a cluster, including the type strains of Geomonas species, which were recently separated from the genus Geobacter within the family Geobacteraceae. Similarities of the 16S rRNA gene sequences among the three strains and Geomonas oryzae S43T, the type species of the genus Geomonas, were 96.3-98.5 %. The genome-related indexes, average nucleotide identity, digital DNA-DNA hybridization, and average amino acid identity, among the three strains and G. oryzae S43T were 74.7-86.8 %, 21.2-33.3 % and 70.4-89.8 %, respectively, which were lower than the species delineation thresholds. Regarding the phylogenetic relationships based on genome sequences, the three strains clustered with the type strains of Geomonas species, which were independent from the type strains of Geobacter species. The distinguishableness of the three isolated strains was supported by physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, with the profile of availability of electron donors and cellular fatty acids composition being particularly different among them. Based on genetic, phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, the three isolates represent three novel independent species in the genus Geomonas, for which the names Geomonas silvestris sp. nov., Geomonas paludis sp. nov. and Geomonas limicola sp. nov. are proposed. The type strains are Red330T (=NBRC 114028T=MCCC 1K03949T), Red736T (=NBRC 114029T=MCCC 1K03950T) and Red745T (=NBRC 114030T=MCCC 1K03951T), respectively.

3.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(7): 4119-4129, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539909

RESUMO

A marine strain, designated KK4T, was isolated from the surface of a starfish, Patiria pectinifera, which was collected from seawater off the coast of Hokkaido, Japan. Strain KK4T is a Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium that forms yellow-pigmented colonies. A phylogenetic relationship analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, revealed that strain KK4T was closely related to Ulvibacter marinus IMCC12008T, Ulvibacter antarcticus IMCC3101T and Ulvibacter litoralis KMM 3912T, with similarities of 96.9, 95.8 and 95.6 %, respectively, but low sequence similarities (<94 %) among other genera in the family Flavobacteriaceae. Genomic similarities between strain KK4T and the three Ulvibacter type strains based on average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values were lower than the species delineation thresholds. Moreover, phylogenetic tree based on genome sequences showed that strain KK4T was clustered with U. marinus IMCC12008T and formed a branch independent from the cluster including type species of the genera Ulvibacter, Marixanthomonas, Marinirhabdus, Aureitalea and Aequorivita. Amino acid identity values between strain KK4T/U. marinus IMCC12008T and the neighbour type species/strains were 61.9-68.2% and 61.5-67.4 %, which were lower than the genus delineation threshold, implying the novel genus status of strain KK4T. Strain KK4T growth occurred at pH 6.0-9.0, 4-30 °C and in NaCl concentrations of 0.5-5.0 %, and optimally at pH 7.0, 25 °C and 3.0 %, respectively. Unlike Ulvibacter strains, strain KK4T could assimilate glucose, mannose, galactose and acetate. The major quinone and fatty acids were menaquinone-6 and iso-C15 : 0 (27.5 %), iso-C15 : 1 G (22.5 %) and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH (12.8 %), respectively. Based on genetic, phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, strain KK4T represents a novel species of the genus Patiriisocius, for which the name Patiriisocius marinistellae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KK4T (=JCM 33344T=KCTC 72225T). In addition, based on the current data, Ulvibacter marinus should be reclassified as Patiriisocius marinus comb. nov.


Assuntos
Flavobacteriaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Estrelas-do-Mar/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Japão , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
4.
Microorganisms ; 8(5)2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349406

RESUMO

Bacteria of the family Geobacteraceae are particularly common and deeply involved in many biogeochemical processes in terrestrial and freshwater environments. As part of a study to understand biogeochemical cycling in freshwater sediments, three iron-reducing isolates, designated as Red96T, Red100T, and Red88T, were isolated from the soils of two paddy fields and pond sediment located in Japan. The cells were Gram-negative, strictly anaerobic, rod-shaped, motile, and red-pigmented on agar plates. Growth of these three strains was coupled to the reduction of Fe(III)-NTA, Fe(III) citrate, and ferrihydrite with malate, methanol, pyruvate, and various organic acids and sugars serving as alternate electron donors. Phylogenetic analysis based on the housekeeping genes (16S rRNA gene, gyrB, rpoB, nifD, fusA, and recA) and 92 concatenated core genes indicated that all the isolates constituted a coherent cluster within the family Geobacteraceae. Genomic analyses, including average nucleotide identity and DNA-DNA hybridization, clearly differentiated the strains Red96T, Red100T, and Red88T from other species in the family Geobacteraceae, with values below the thresholds for species delineation. Along with the genomic comparison, the chemotaxonomic features further helped distinguish the three isolates from each other. In addition, the lower values of average amino acid identity and percentage of conserved protein, as well as biochemical differences with their relatives, indicated that the three strains represented a novel genus in the family Geobacteraceae. Hence, we concluded that strains Red96T, Red100T, and Red88T represented three novel species of a novel genus in the family Geobacteraceae, for which the names Oryzomonas japonicum gen. nov., sp. nov., Oryzomonas sagensis sp. nov., and Oryzomonas ruber sp. nov. are proposed, with type strains Red96T (= NBRC 114286T = MCCC 1K04376T), Red100T (= NBRC 114287T = MCCC 1K04377T), and Red88T (= MCCC 1K03694T = JCM 33033T), respectively.

5.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 30: 101647, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904554

RESUMO

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (a-PDT) is a promising anti-infective technique for generation of singlet oxygen (1O2) to target dental disease. However, conventional organic photosensitizers have problems for clinical use in terms of cytotoxicity, quenching of a-PDT activity by self-dimerization, and the lack of long-term antibacterial effect. We herein propose silver nanoclusters/rose bengal nanocomposite (AgNCs/RB) as a novel photosensitizer with two primary antibacterial effects: (1) 1O2 generation by irradiated RB and (2) Ag+ ion release from AgNCs. AgNCs/RB irradiated with white light-emitting diode (LED) for a short irradiation time of 1 min significantly decreased the bacterial turbidity of Streptococcus mutans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (P < 0.05). In SEM, TEM and LIVE/DEAD staining images, photoexcited AgNCs/RB reduced S. mutans colonization, destroyed the cell membrane, and increased the number of dead cells. The antibacterial efficiency of photoexcited AgNCs/RB was greater than that of AgNCs or RB alone (P < 0.05), suggesting a synergistic effect of 1O2 and Ag+ ions from photoexcited AgNCs/RB. By contrast, photoexcited AgNCs/RB did not affect WST-8 and LDH activities and morphology of NIH3T3 mammalian cells, indicating low cytotoxicity. Interestingly, the antibacterial activity of AgNCs/RB on S. mutans was maintained even after the cessation of LED irradiation, indicating a long-term antibacterial effect due to released Ag+ ions. The present AgNCs/RB photosensitizers provide effective synergistic antibacterial effects for dental a-PDT via 1O2 and Ag+ ions coupled with low cytotoxicity.

6.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2201, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608033

RESUMO

In paddy soil, bacteria from the family Geobacteraceae have been shown to strongly contribute to the biogeochemical cycle. However, no Geobacteraceae species with validly published names have been isolated from paddy soil. In this study, we isolated and characterized four novel ferric reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae from the paddy soils of three different fields in Japan. The four strains, S43T, Red53T, S62T, and Red111T, were Gram-stain negative, strictly anaerobic, chemoheterotrophic, and motile with peritrichous flagella. Phylogenetic studies based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, five concatenated housekeeping genes (fusA, rpoB, recA, nifD, and gyrB) and 92 concatenated core genes revealed that the four strains belong to the family Geobacteraceae and are most closely related to Geobacter bemidjiensis BemT (97.4-98.2%, 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities) and Geobacter bremensis Dfr1T (97.1-98.0%). Genomic analysis with average nucleotide identity (ANI) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (GGDC) calculations clearly distinguished the four isolated strains from other species of the family Geobacteraceae and indicated that strains S43T, Red53T, S62T, and Red111T represent independent species, with values below the thresholds for species delineation. Chemotaxonomic characteristics, including major fatty acid and whole cell protein profiles, showed differences among the isolates and their closest relatives, which were consistent with the results of DNA fingerprints and physiological characterization. Additionally, each of the four isolates shared a low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (92.4%) and average amino acid identity (AAI) with the type strain of the type species Geobacter metallireducens. Overall, strains S43T, Red53T, S62T, and Red111T represent four novel species, which we propose to classify in a novel genus of the family Geobacteraceae, and the names Geomonas oryzae gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain S43T), Geomonas edaphica sp. nov. (type strain Red53T), Geomonas ferrireducens sp. nov. (type strain S62T), and Geomonas terrae sp. nov. (type strain Red111T) are proposed. Based on phylogenetic and genomic analyses, we also propose the reclassification of Geobacter bremensis as Geomonas bremensis comb. nov., Geobacter pelophilus as Geomonas pelophila comb. nov., and Geobacter bemidjiensis as Geomonas bemidjiensis comb. nov.

7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 12: 2703-2716, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28435253

RESUMO

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has beneficial effects in dental treatment. We applied captopril-protected gold (Au25(Capt)18) clusters as a novel photosensitizer for aPDT. Photoexcited Au clusters under light irradiation generated singlet oxygen (1O2). Accordingly, the antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Au25(Capt)18 clusters under dental blue light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation were evaluated. 1O2 generation of Au25(Capt)18 clusters under blue LED irradiation (420-460 nm) was detected by a methotrexate (MTX) probe. The antimicrobial effects of photoexcited Au clusters (0, 5, 50, and 500 µg/mL) on oral bacterial cells, such as Streptococcus mutans, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, were assessed by morphological observations and bacterial growth experiments. Cytotoxicity testing of Au clusters and blue LED irradiation was then performed against NIH3T3 and MC3T3-E1 cells. In addition, the biological performance of Au clusters (500 µg/mL) was compared to an organic dye photosensitizer, methylene blue (MB; 10 and 100 µg/mL). We confirmed the 1O2 generation ability of Au25(Capt)18 clusters through the fluorescence spectra of oxidized MTX. Successful application of photoexcited Au clusters to aPDT was demonstrated by dose-dependent decreases in the turbidity of oral bacterial cells. Morphological observation revealed that application of Au clusters stimulated destruction of bacterial cell walls and inhibited biofilm formation. Aggregation of Au clusters around bacterial cells was fluorescently observed. However, photoexcited Au clusters did not negatively affect the adhesion, spreading, and proliferation of mammalian cells, particularly at lower doses. In addition, application of Au clusters demonstrated significantly better cytocompatibility compared to MB. We found that a combination of Au25(Capt)18 clusters and blue LED irradiation exhibited good antimicrobial effects through 1O2 generation and biosafe characteristics, which is desirable for aPDT in dentistry.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Ouro/farmacologia , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Captopril/química , Captopril/farmacologia , Corantes , Ouro/química , Luz , Azul de Metileno/farmacologia , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxigênio Singlete/metabolismo , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Nanoscale ; 8(30): 14514-22, 2016 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27412794

RESUMO

Carbon nanohorns (CNHs), formed by a rolled graphene structure and terminating in a cone, are promising nanomaterials for the development of a variety of biological applications. Here we demonstrate that alkaline phosphatase activity is dramatically increased by coculture of human monocyte derived macrophages (hMDMs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in the presence of CNHs. CNHs were mainly localized in the lysosome of macrophages more than in hMSCs during coculturing. At the same time, the amount of Oncostatin M (OSM) in the supernatant was also increased during incubation with CNHs. Oncostatin M (OSM) from activated macrophage has been reported to induce osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization through STAT3. These results suggest that the macrophages engulfed CNHs and accelerated the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into the osteoblast via OSM release. We expect that the proof-of-concept on the osteoblast differentiation capacity by CNHs will allow future studies focused on CNHs as ideal therapeutic materials for bone regeneration.


Assuntos
Carbono , Diferenciação Celular , Ativação de Macrófagos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Nanoestruturas , Osteoblastos/citologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Humanos , Macrófagos/citologia , Oncostatina M/metabolismo , Osteogênese
9.
J Mol Histol ; 43(6): 761-6, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22918835

RESUMO

Parotid glands of experimental animals fed a liquid diet are reported to show atrophy (Hall and Schneyer 1964; Wilborn and Schneyer 1970; Hand and Ho 1981; Scott et al. 1990; Scott and Gunn 1991). To clarify whether apoptosis and proliferation of acinar cells participate in atrophy of rat parotid glands induced by liquid diet, rats were fed a liquid diet and compared to pellet-fed controls. Parotid glands were removed at 3, 7, 14 or 21 days, weighed, and examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and studied immunohistochemically for cleaved-caspase-3 (Casp-3), a marker of apoptotic cells, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), a marker for proliferating cells. Body weights of experimental rats fed liquid diets were not significantly different from controls fed pellet diets; however weights of experimental parotid glands were smaller than those of controls. In the experimental parotid glands, structures like apoptotic bodies were histologically observed in acini at each time point; more Casp-3-positive acinar cells were identified in experimental parotid glands than in the controls on days 3, 7, and 14. Experimental glands showed fewer BrdU-positive acinar cells at each time point. TEM confirmed typical apoptotic acinar cells in the atrophic glands. These findings suggest that increased acinar cell apoptosis and reduced acinar cell proliferation occur in atrophic parotid glands of rats fed a liquid diet.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Glândula Parótida/citologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Glândula Parótida/ultraestrutura , Ratos
10.
J Electron Microsc (Tokyo) ; 59(5): 447-50, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20573746

RESUMO

The cell structure and interface between cultured cells and a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-coated sponge (MWCNT-coated sponge) were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Moreover, the atomic structure of MWCNTs that entered the cells was also examined by means of high-resolution TEM (HRTEM). MWCNTs were observed in the cytoplasm, and a few MWCNTs were recognized in the cell nuclei. Those MWCNTs maintained their structure there. Subcellular organelles did not appear to be different from those on the collagen sponge despite the cellular uptake of MWCNTs.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/métodos , Nanotubos de Carbono/ultraestrutura , Poríferos/química , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Adesão Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Núcleo Celular/ultraestrutura , Colágeno , Citoplasma/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Nanotubos de Carbono/análise
11.
J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater ; 93(2): 544-50, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20186828

RESUMO

The cell adhesion in a multiwalled carbon nanotube-coated collagen sponge (MWCNT-coated sponge) was investigated. Immediately after seeding, the cells adhered to the inner surface of the MWCNT-coated sponge and a significantly larger number of cells were observed there than for a pure collagen sponge used as control. On the MWCNT-coated sponge, the cells appeared favorable adhesion and spread in the early stages in the center part of the sponge which cells rarely attached without MWCNT-coating. It was suggested that the physical structure of MWCNTs was effective for initial adhesion of cells from the result of serum-free culture. MWCNT-coating makes the material a suitable three-dimensional scaffold for cell culturing, as opposed to other scaffold systems where such an effect is not seen.


Assuntos
Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Colágeno , Nanotubos de Carbono , Tecidos Suporte , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos
12.
Arch Oral Biol ; 53(7): 652-8, 2008 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18316062

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study introduced the usefulness of LYVE-1 immunoreactivity for identification of lymphatic vessels in decalcified tissues, and demonstrated the fine distribution and organization of these vessels in mouse gingiva. DESIGN: After confirming the specificity of anti-mouse LYVE-1, frozen sections of mouse decalcified gingiva were immunostained with the antibody. RESULTS: The LYVE-1-positive lymphatic vessels were clearly found in the connective tissue under the gingival epithelium; these vessels appeared to pass through the lamina propria of the gingiva toward the alveolar crest and run along the external surface of the alveolar bone. The lymphatic vessels were sparse and apart from the oral gingival and sulcular epithelia, while they were dense adjacent to the junctional epithelium. CONCLUSIONS: The dense network of the lymphatic vessels adjacent to the junctional epithelium, which is apparently exposed to foreign antigens, may act as an efficient drainage pathway of the excessive interstitial fluid and immune cells, and play an active role in the immune defense of the gingiva. The present study also revealed the absence of lymphatic connection between gingiva and periodontal ligament.


Assuntos
Inserção Epitelial/anatomia & histologia , Gengiva/anatomia & histologia , Glicoproteínas/análise , Vasos Linfáticos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Inserção Epitelial/química , Inserção Epitelial/imunologia , Epitélio/anatomia & histologia , Epitélio/química , Epitélio/imunologia , Gengiva/química , Gengiva/imunologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Vasos Linfáticos/química , Vasos Linfáticos/imunologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Camundongos , Microscopia Confocal , Mucosa Bucal/química , Mucosa Bucal/imunologia , Ligamento Periodontal/anatomia & histologia , Ligamento Periodontal/química
13.
Cell Tissue Res ; 331(2): 423-33, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18000684

RESUMO

This study was designed to establish the apoptosis of odontoclasts during physiological root resorption of human deciduous teeth. Deciduous teeth were fixed, decalcified, and embedded in paraffin for immunohistochemical (IHC) observations and in Epon for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Apoptotic cells were identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick-end labeling (TUNEL), and then tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity was determined on the same sections. Epon-embedded specimens were sectioned serially into 0.5-microm semithin sections; some of these sections were re-embedded in Epon, sectioned into 0.1-microm ultrathin sections, and observed by TEM. IHC revealed that the nuclei of TRAP-positive odontoclasts on the dentine were generally TUNEL-negative. Around these odontoclasts, a few TRAP-positive structures were present together with TUNEL-positive structures, e.g., a TRAP-positive structure with one TUNEL-positive nucleus, a TRAP-positive structure with one TUNEL-positive nucleus plus one or two TUNEL-negative nuclei, or a TRAP-positive structure with no nucleus. By TEM, some odontoclasts showed nuclear fragments including compacted chromatin. The results suggest that, during apoptosis, odontoclasts fragment into variously sized cellular parts including three or fewer nuclei.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Osteoclastos/fisiologia , Reabsorção da Raiz , Dente Decíduo/citologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Masculino , Osteoclastos/ultraestrutura , Dente Decíduo/fisiologia
14.
Anat Sci Int ; 78(1): 53-61, 2003 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12680470

RESUMO

Scanning electron microscopy for plastic casts and confocal laser scanning microscopy for Villanueva bone-stained ground sections were used together to observe enamel tubules in red kangaroo molars. Although the tubular structures such as terminals, bends, expansions, splits, divergences and rejoinings in this species were within the variations of marsupial species, their morphological characteristics were demonstrated with extremely clear and persuasive images. Thus, the combined observations of plastic casts by scanning electron microscopy and Villanueva bone-stain sections by confocal laser scanning microscopy were found to be of value for the investigation of enamel tubules and tubular structures in other hard tissues.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esmalte Dentário/ultraestrutura , Macropodidae/anatomia & histologia , Macropodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resinas Acrílicas , Animais , Molde por Corrosão , Esmalte Dentário/fisiologia , Dentina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dentina/fisiologia , Dentina/ultraestrutura , Macropodidae/fisiologia , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
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